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by Gary H. Everett
STUDY NOTES ON THE HOLY SCRIPTURES
Using a Theme-based Approach
to Identify Literary Structures
By Gary H. Everett
THE BOOK OF JUDGES
January 2013 Edition
All Scripture quotations in English are taken from the King James Version unless otherwise noted. Some words have been emphasized by the author of this commentary using bold or italics.
All Old Testament Scripture quotations in the Hebrew text are taken from Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia: With Westminster Hebrew Morphology, electronic ed., Stuttgart; Glenside PA: German Bible Society, Westminster Seminary, 1996, c1925, morphology c1991, in Libronix Digital Library System, v. 2.1c [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp., 2000-2004.
All New Testament Scripture quotations in the Greek text are taken from Greek New Testament, Fourth Revised Edition (with Morphology), eds. Kurt Aland, Matthew Black, Carlo M. Martini, Bruce M. Metzger, M. Robinson, and Allen Wikgren, Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft (United Bible Societies), c1966, 1993, 2006, in Libronix Digital Library System, v. 2.1c [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp., 2000-2004.
All Hebrew and Greek text for word studies are taken from James Strong in The New Strong's Dictionary of Hebrew and Greek Words, Nashville: Thomas Nelson, c1996, 1997, in Libronix Digital Library System, v. 2.1c [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp., 2000-2004.
The Crucifixion image on the book cover was created by the author’s daughter Victoria Everett in 2012.
© Gary H. Everett, 1981-2013
All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced, stored, or transmitted in any form without prior permission of the author.
Foundational Theme How to Serve the Lord with All Our Strength
Hear, O Israel: The LORD our God is one LORD:
And thou shalt love the LORD thy God with all thine heart,
and with all thy soul, and with all thy might.
Structural Theme The Decline of Israel’s Theocracy
And also all that generation were gathered unto their fathers:
and there arose another generation after them,
which knew not the LORD, nor yet the works which he had done for Israel.
INTRODUCTION TO THE BOOK OF JUDGES
Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures supports the view of the verbal, plenary inspiration of the biblical text of the Holy Scriptures, meaning that every word originally written down by the authors in the sixty-six books of the Holy Canon were God-breathed when recorded by men, and that the Scriptures are therefore inerrant and infallible. Any view less than this contradicts the testimony of the Holy Scriptures themselves. For this reason, the Holy Scriptures contain both divine attributes and human attributes. While textual criticism engages with the variant readings of the biblical text, acknowledging its human attributes, faith in His Word acknowledges its divine attributes. These views demand the adherence of mankind to the supreme authority of the Holy Scriptures above all else. The Holy Scriptures can only be properly interpreted by the guidance of the Holy Spirit, an aspect of biblical scholarship that is denied by liberal views, causing much misunderstanding and misinterpretation of the Holy Scriptures.
The Message of the Book of Judges - The book of Judges clearly demonstrates how easily man forgets, but how faithful God is to remember His promises to mankind.
Introductory Material - The introduction to the book of Judges will deal with its historical setting, literary style, and theological framework.  These three aspects of introductory material will serve as an important foundation for understanding God’s message to us today from this divinely inspired book of the Holy Scriptures.
 Someone may associate these three categories with Hermann Gunkel’s well-known three-fold approach to form criticism when categorizing the genre found within the book of Psalms: (1) “a common setting in life,” (2) “thoughts and mood,” (3) “literary forms.” In addition, the Word Biblical Commentary uses “Form/Structure/Setting” preceding each commentary section. Although such similarities were not intentional, but rather coincidental, the author was aware of them and found encouragement from them when assigning the three-fold scheme of historical setting, literary style, and theological framework to his introductory material. See Hermann Gunkel, The Psalms: A Form-Critical Introduction, trans. Thomas M. Horner, in Biblical Series, vol. 19, ed. John Reumann (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Fortress Press, 1967), 10; see also Word Biblical Commentary, eds. Bruce M. Metzger, David A. Hubbard, and Glenn W. Barker (Dallas, Texas: Word Incorporated, 1989-2007).
“We dare not divorce our study from understanding the historical setting of every passage of Scripture
if we are going to come to grips with the truth and message of the Bible.”
(J. Hampton Keathley) 
 J. Hampton Keathley, III, “Introduction and Historical Setting for Elijah,” (Bible.org) [on-line]; accessed 23 May 2012; available from http://bible.org/seriespage/introduction-and-historical-setting-elijah; Internet.
Each book of the Holy Scriptures is cloaked within a unique historical setting. An examination of this setting is useful in the interpretation of the book because it provides the context of the passage of Scripture under examination. The section on the historical setting of the book of Joshua will provide a discussion on its title, historical background, authorship, date and place of writing, recipients, and occasion. This discussion supports the Jewish tradition that Samuel the prophet was the most likely author of the book of Judges.
I. The Title
The ancient Hebrews entitled the book of Judges ( שפטים ) “Shophetim,” which means, “judges.” This title is derived from the Hebrew word ( שָׁפַט ), meaning, “to judge,” or “to rule, govern.” ( Gesenius) The LXX provides the Greek equivalent “ Κριταί,” meaning “judges,” from κριτής, “a judge.”  ( BDAG) Philo (20 B.C A.D. 50) called it by the unique name “ ἡ τῶν κριμάτων βίβλος,” meaning “the book of judgments.”  The Greek title was known by Melito, bishop of Sardis (d. c. 190).  Origen (c. 185 c. 254) testifies to the use of this title by the Jews in his day.  Jerome (A.D. 342 to 420) was familiar with both the Hebrew and Greek titles as well.  The Vulgate uses the Latin title “Liber Judicum,”  from which the English title “Judges” is derived. The ancient Hebrew title ( שפטים ) has remained essentially unchanged, and can be found in the standard work Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia.  This title reflects the contents of the book, which records the historical period of Israel during the time it was ruled by men whom God raised up to judge the nation’s enemies.
 Henry Swete believes the Greek title “Κριταί” is “of Alexandrian and pre-Christian origin.” See Henry B. Swete, An Introduction to Old Testament in Greek (Cambridge: University Press, 1902), 215.
 Henry B. Swete, An Introduction to Old Testament in Greek (Cambridge: University Press, 1902), 215; Herbert E. Ryle, Philo and Holy Scripture (London: Macmillan and Company, 1895), xxii-xxiii.
 Eusebius writes, “‘I learned accurately the books of the Old Testament, and send them to thee as written below. Their names are as follows: Of Moses, five books: Genesis, Exodus, Numbers, Leviticus, Deuteronomy; Jesus Nave, Judges, Ruth; of Kings, four books; of Chronicles, two; the Psalms of David; the Proverbs of Solomon, Wisdom also, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, Job; of Prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah; of the twelve prophets, one book; Daniel, Ezekiel, Esdras. From which also I have made the extracts, dividing them into six books.’ Such are the words of Melito.” Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History 4.26.14 , trans. Arthur C. McGiffert under the title The Church History of Eusebius, in A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, A New Series, vol 1, eds. Henry Wace and Philip Schaff, (Oxford: Parker and Company, c1890, 1905), 206.
 Eusebius writes, “Judges and Ruth, among them in one book,” Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History 6.25.1-2 , trans. Arthur C. McGiffert under the title The Church History of Eusebius, in A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, A New Series, vol 1, eds. Henry Wace and Philip Schaff (Oxford: Parker and Company, c1890, 1905), 272-3.
 Jerome says, “Next in the series is Sophtim, that is the book of Judges; and in the same book they include Ruth, because the events narrated occurred in the days of the Judges.” See Jerome, “Prefaces to the Books of the Vulgate Version of the Old Testament: The Books of Samuel and Kings,” trans. W. H. Freemantle, in A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, Second Series, vol. 6, eds. Henry Wace and Philip Schaff (New York: The Christian Literature Company, 1893), 489-90.
 Biblia Sacra Juxta Vulgatam Clementinam, ed. electronica (Bellingham, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc., 2005), in Libronix Digital Library System, v. 2.1c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp., 2000-2004).
 Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia, eds. A. Alt, O. Eißfelt, P. Kahle, and R. Kittle (Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelstiftung, c1967-77).
II. Historical Background
A. The Prophetic and Historical Times of the Ministry of the Judges - The book of Judges provides a historical account of Israel’s history during the period between Joshua’s conquest of Canaan (1380 B.C.) until the time approaching the prophet Samuel (1050 B.C.), a period of approximately three hundred. It was a time when God raised up twelve “judges” to deliver His disobedient people from the hands of their oppressors as a commitment to His covenant with Abraham. (The names of the twelve judges are Othniel, Ehud, Shamgar, Deborah, Gideon, Tola, Jair, Jephthah, Ibzan, Elon, Abdon, and Samson) The office of the Hebrew “judge” goes back to the time of Moses. The office and anointing to fulfil this office originated with Moses (Exodus 18:1-27, Numbers 11:16-30, Deuteronomy 16:18; Deuteronomy 17:9; Deuteronomy 17:12; Deuteronomy 25:1). The role of the judges was to be a shepherd to God's people (1 Chronicles 17:6). When God established Israel in the Promised Land during the time of the judges, the nation was without a king. God was the supreme ruling, and access to His counsel came through the High Priest, as he ministered in the tabernacle and before the ark of the covenant. The elders of each tribe stood in the position as political leaders (Judges 21:16). The governing structure in Israel during the time of the judges is similar to the governing elders seen in the New Testament church and the twenty-four elders seated before God’s throne in the book of Revelation. Perhaps the judges who delivered Israel during this period in history were a type and figure of the office and ministry of Jesus Christ. For example, they were anointed with the Holy Ghost to deliver God’s people just as Jesus Christ was anointed to deliver us from the dominion of Satan.
Exodus 18:1-27 - Jethro advises Moses to appoint judges.
Numbers 11:16-30 - God anoints seventy elders.
Deuteronomy 16:18, “Judges and officers shalt thou make thee in all thy gates, which the LORD thy God giveth thee, throughout thy tribes: and they shall judge the people with just judgment.”
Deuteronomy 17:9, “And thou shalt come unto the priests the Levites, and unto the judge that shall be in those days, and enquire; and they shall shew thee the sentence of judgment:”
Deuteronomy 17:12, “And the man that will do presumptuously, and will not hearken unto the priest that standeth to minister there before the LORD thy God, or unto the judge, even that man shall die: and thou shalt put away the evil from Israel.”
Deuteronomy 25:1, “If there be a controversy between men, and they come unto judgment, that the judges may judge them; then they shall justify the righteous, and condemn the wicked.”
1 Chronicles 17:6, “Wheresoever I have walked with all Israel, spake I a word to any of the judges of Israel, whom I commanded to feed my people, saying, Why have ye not built me an house of cedars?”
Judges 21:16, “Then the elders of the congregation said, How shall we do for wives for them that remain, seeing the women are destroyed out of Benjamin?”
Internal and external evidence suggests the book of Judges was most likely authored by Samuel the prophet and received its final editing during the time of Ezra the scribe after the Babylonian Captivity.
A. Internal Evidence - The book of Judges does not identify its authorship. Similarities to the book of Joshua suggest these two books went through the hands of the same editor in its final composition.
1. The first verse in the book of Judges suggests that the same person edited both the book of Joshua and the book of Judges into their final forms. Both books open with a reference to the main character in the previous work.
Joshua 1:1, “ Now after the death of Moses the servant of the LORD it came to pass, that the LORD spake unto Joshua the son of Nun, Moses' minister, saying,”
Judges 1:1, “ Now after the death of Joshua it came to pass, that the children of Israel asked the LORD, saying, Who shall go up for us against the Canaanites first, to fight against them?”
2. The book of Joshua and Judges contain a number of parallel passages.
a. The death of Joshua is referred to in Joshua 24:29-32 and Judges 1:1.
a. Joshua 24:31 and Judges 2:7 are almost the same words.
Joshua 24:31, “And Israel served the LORD all the days of Joshua, and all the days of the elders that overlived Joshua, and which had known all the works of the LORD, that he had done for Israel.”
Judges 2:7, “And the people served the LORD all the days of Joshua, and all the days of the elders that outlived Joshua, who had seen all the great works of the LORD, that he did for Israel.”
b. Caleb's conquest of Hebron, which took place after Joshua's death, is recorded in Joshua 14:6-15 and Judges 1:10-16.
c. Othniel’s conquest of Debir is found in Joshua 15:15-20 and Judges 1:11-15, which event took place after the death of Joshua according to the book of Judges.
d) The Danite migration is recorded in Joshua 19:47 and Judges 18:1-31, which took place after Joshua's death
It is probable that the same editor composed both the books of Joshua and Judges in its final form, most likely during the time of Ezra the scribe. A person like Samuel would be a likely candidate, since the Scriptures tell us that he authored the book of Samuel (1 Chronicles 29:29). He also wrote a book about the manner of the kingdom (1 Samuel 10:25), which may be a reference to the book of Judges and Ruth.
1 Chronicles 29:29, “Now the acts of David the king, first and last, behold, they are written in the book of Samuel the seer , and in the book of Nathan the prophet, and in the book of Gad the seer,”
1 Samuel 10:25, “Then Samuel told the people the manner of the kingdom, and wrote it in a book, and laid it up before the LORD . And Samuel sent all the people away, every man to his house.”
B. External Evidence - If we look outside of biblical literature for clues to authorship and into other ancient Jewish literature from which much Jewish tradition is found, the Babylonian Talmud says that Samuel wrote his own book as well as the books of Judges and Ruth.
“And who wrote all the books? Moses wrote his book and a portion of Bil’am [Numbers, xxii.], and Job. Jehoshua wrote his book and the last eight verses of the Pentateuch beginning: “And Moses, the servant of the Lord, died.” Samuel wrote his book, Judges, and Ruth. David wrote Psalms, with the assistance of ten elders, viz.: Adam the First, Malachi Zedek, Abraham, Moses, Hyman, Jeduthun, Asaph, and the three sons of Korach. Jeremiah wrote his book, Kings, and Lamentations. King Hezekiah and his company wrote Isaiah, Proverbs, Songs, and Ecclesiastes. The men of the great assembly wrote Ezekiel, the Twelve Prophets, Daniel, and the Book of Esther. Ezra wrote his book, and Chronicles the order of all generations down to himself. [This may be a support to Rabh’s theory, as to which, R. Jehudah said in his name, that Ezra had not ascended from Babylon to Palestine until he wrote his genealogy.] And who finished Ezra’s book? Nehemiah ben Chachalyah.” ( Babylonian Talmud, Tract Baba Bathra (Last Gate), 1.Mishna 5) 
 Michael L. Rodkinson, New Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, vol. 13 (New York: New Talmud Publishing Company, 1902), 45.
The book of Judges covers the events in the history of Israel from the death of Joshua, around 1380 B.C., to the period just prior to the rising of the monarchy, around 1050 B.C. Thus, the book covers a period of over 300 years of Israel's history (Judges 11:26). Internal evidence seems to indicate that it was written during the early part of Israel's monarchy, because Judges 17:6 was penned when Israel did have a king, and it was written before David's conquest of Jerusalem (Judges 1:21). It was also written before Pharaoh gave the city of Gezer as a gift to Solomon (Judges 1:29). A likely date of the writing of the book of Judges would be from 1050 to 1000 B.C., during the days of Samuel the prophet, the traditional author of this book.
Judges 11:26, “While Israel dwelt in Heshbon and her towns, and in Aroer and her towns, and in all the cities that be along by the coasts of Arnon, three hundred years ? why therefore did ye not recover them within that time?”
Judges 17:6, “ In those days there was no king in Israel , but every man did that which was right in his own eyes.”
Judges 18:1, “ In those days there was no king in Israel : and in those days the tribe of the Danites sought them an inheritance to dwell in; for unto that day all their inheritance had not fallen unto them among the tribes of Israel.”
Judges 19:1, “And it came to pass in those days, when there was no king in Israel , that there was a certain Levite sojourning on the side of mount Ephraim, who took to him a concubine out of Bethlehemjudah.”
Judges 21:25, “ In those days there was no king in Israel : every man did that which was right in his own eyes.”
Judges 1:21, “And the children of Benjamin did not drive out the Jebusites that inhabited Jerusalem; but the Jebusites dwell with the children of Benjamin in Jerusalem unto this day .”
2 Samuel 5:7, “Nevertheless David took the strong hold of Zion: the same is the city of David.”
Judges 1:29, “Neither did Ephraim drive out the Canaanites that dwelt in Gezer; but the Canaanites dwelt in Gezer among them .”
1 Kings 9:16-17, “For Pharaoh king of Egypt had gone up, and taken Gezer , and burnt it with fire, and slain the Canaanites that dwelt in the city, and given it for a present unto his daughter, Solomon's wife. And Solomon built Gezer, and Bethhoron the nether,”
The epilogue to the book of Judges consists of two stories: (1) the idolatry of Micah and the migration of the Danites (Judges 17:1 to Judges 18:31), (2) and the atrocity at Gibeah and the Benjamite War (Judges 19:1 to Judges 21:25). We see Phinehas, the grandson of Aaron, alive during the time of the war with the Benjamites (Judges 20:28), meaning that this story is not in chronological order, as the first sixteen books of the book of Judges appear to be. This may be evidence for a later writing of the epilogue.
Judges 20:28, “And Phinehas, the son of Eleazar, the son of Aaron, stood before it in those days,) saying, Shall I yet again go out to battle against the children of Benjamin my brother, or shall I cease? And the LORD said, Go up; for to morrow I will deliver them into thine hand.”
If the epilogue was written later than the rest of the book, then this would account for the statement that refers to the “captivity of the land” (Judges 18:20), which took place about three hundred years later in Israel’s history. This is a reference to the Assyrian captivity of Israel in 722 B.C., or perhaps the campaign of Tiglath-Pileser III in 734-732 B.C. (ISBE),  since the verse is referring to Dan and Manasseh, parts of the northern kingdom. Therefore, the book of Judges was composed and edited centuries after it was originally written, most likely during the time of Ezra the scribe.
 T. Nicol, “Tiglath-Pileser,” in International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, ed. James Orr (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., c1915, 1939), in The Sword Project, v. 1.5.11 [CD-ROM] (Temple, AZ: CrossWire Bible Society, 1990-2008).
Judges 18:30, “And the children of Dan set up the graven image: and Jonathan, the son of Gershom, the son of Manasseh, he and his sons were priests to the tribe of Dan until the day of the captivity of the land .”
We can also see from Judges 18:31 that the author of the book of Judges presupposes that the house of God is no longer at Shiloh. From Scripture, we know that this took place during the time of King Saul or King David.
Judges 18:31, “And they set them up Micah's graven image, which he made, all the time that the house of God was in Shiloh .”
It appears that Judges 1:1 to Judges 16:31 was written during Israel's early monarchy, and the epilogue (Judges 17:1 to Judges 21:25) was edited in later after the fall of the northern kingdom.
Just like a division of authorship appears in the book of 1 Samuel at the death of the prophet Samuel (1 Samuel 25:1), so does a division of authorship and date appear in the book of Judges. It may be that the book was composed and edited at a later date than the original authorship, just as 1 Samuel follows this same pattern.
Note the passages with the phrase, “unto this day,” which suggest the book of Judges was written before David's conquest of Jerusalem.
Judges 1:21, “And the children of Benjamin did not drive out the Jebusites that inhabited Jerusalem; but the Jebusites dwell with the children of Benjamin in Jerusalem unto this day .”
2 Samuel 5:7, “Nevertheless David took the strong hold of Zion: the same is the city of David.”
Judges 1:26, “And the man went into the land of the Hittites, and built a city, and called the name thereof Luz: which is the name thereof unto this day .”
Judges 6:24, “Then Gideon built an altar there unto the LORD, and called it Jehovahshalom: unto this day it is yet in Ophrah of the Abiezrites.”
Judges 10:4, “And he had thirty sons that rode on thirty ass colts, and they had thirty cities, which are called Havothjair unto this day , which are in the land of Gilead.”
Judges 15:19, “But God clave an hollow place that was in the jaw, and there came water thereout; and when he had drunk, his spirit came again, and he revived: wherefore he called the name thereof Enhakkore, which is in Lehi unto this day .”
Judges 18:12, “And they went up, and pitched in Kirjathjearim, in Judah: wherefore they called that place Mahanehdan unto this day : behold, it is behind Kirjathjearim.”
LITERARY STYLE (GENRE)
“Perhaps the most important issue in interpretation is the issue of genre.
If we misunderstand the genre of a text, the rest of our analysis will be askew.”
(Thomas Schreiner) 
 Thomas R. Schreiner, Interpreting the Pauline Epistles, second edition (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Academic, c1990, 2011), 11.
Within the historical setting of the Israel prior to its kingdom, the author of the book of Judges chose to write using the literary style of the historical narrative. Thus, the book of Judges is assigned to the literary genre called “historical narrative literature.”
“Scholarly excellence requires a proper theological framework.”
(Andreas Kösenberger) 
 Andreas J. Kösenberger, Excellence: The Character of God and the Pursuit of Scholarly Virtue (Wheaton, Illinois: Crossway, 2011), 161.
Based upon the historical setting and literary style of the book of Judges, an examination of the purpose, thematic scheme, and literary structure to this book of the Holy Scriptures will reveal its theological framework. This introductory section will sum up its theological framework in the form of an outline, which is then used to identify smaller units or pericopes within the book of Judges for preaching and teaching passages of Scripture while following the overriding message of the book. Following this outline allows the minister of the Gospel of Jesus Christ to take his followers on a spiritual journey that brings them to the same destination that the author intended his readers to reach.
VIII. Thematic Scheme
IX. Literary Structure
X. Outline of Book
Here is a proposed brief outline of the book of Judges:
I. Prologue: Conditions in Canaan after the death of Joshua Judges 1:1 to Judges 3:6
A. Continuing conquests by Israelite tribes Judges 1:1-26
B. Incomplete conquests of the land Judges 1:27-36
C. Covenant of he Lord broken Judges 2:1-5
D. Introduction to the period of the judges Judges 2:6 to Judges 3:6
II. History of oppressions and deliverances during period of judges Judges 3:7 to Judges 16:31
A. Mesopotamian oppression and deliverance by Othniel Judges 3:7-11
B. Moabite oppression and deliverance by Ehud Judges 3:12-30
C. Philistine oppression and deliverance by Shamgar Judges 3:31
D. Canaanite oppression and deliverance by Deborah and Barak Judges 4:1 to Judges 5:31
E. Midianite oppression and deliverance by Gideon Judges 6:1 to Judges 8:35
F. Brief reign of Abimelech Judges 9:1-57
G. Tola's judgeship Judges 10:1-2
H. Jair's judgeship Judges 10:3-5
I. Ammonite oppression and deliverance by Jephthah Judges 10:6 to Judges 12:7
J. Ibzan's judgeship Judges 12:8-10
K. Elon's judgeship Judges 12:11-12
L. Abdon's judgeship Judges 12:13-15
M. Philistine oppression and the exploitations of Samson Judges 13:1 to Judges 16:31
III. Epilogue: Conditions illustrating the period of the judges Judges 17:1 to Judges 21:25
A. Apostasy: Idolatry of Micah & migration of the Danites Judges 17:1 to Judges 18:31
B. Immorality: The atrocity at Gibeah and the Benjamite War Judges 19:1 to Judges 21:25
Henry, Matthew. Job. In Matthew Henry's Commentary on the Whole Bible, New Modern Edition, Electronic Database. Seattle, WA: Hendrickson Publishers, Inc., 1991. In P.C. Study Bible, v. 3.1 [CD-ROM] Seattle, WA: Biblesoft Inc., 1993-2000.
Metzger, Bruce M., David A. Hubbard, and Glenn W. Barker, eds. Word Biblical Commentary. Dallas, Texas: Word Incorporated, 1989-2007.
Moore, George Foot. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on Judges. In The International Critical Commentary on the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments. Eds. Charles A. Briggs, Samuel R. Driver, and Alfred Plummer. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1910.
Stuart, Douglas. Hosea-Jonah. In Word Biblical Commentary: 58 Volumes on CD-Rom, vol. 31. Eds. Bruce M. Metzger, David A. Hubbard and Glenn W. Barker. Dallas: Word Inc., 2002. In Libronix Digital Library System, v. 3.0b [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp., 2004.
Watson, Robert A. Judges and Ruth. In The Expositor’s Bible. Ed. W. Robertson Nicoll. New York: Funk and Wagnalls Company, 1900.
Bruce, F. F. The Books and the Parchments. Old Tappan, New Jersey: Fleming H. Revell Company, 1963.
Eusebius. Ecclesiastical History. Trans. Arthur C. McGiffert under the title The Church History of Eusebius. In A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, A New Series, vol. 1. Eds. Henry Wace and Philip Schaff. Oxford: Parker and Company, c1890, 1905.
Ginsburg, Christian D. Introduction to the Massoretico-Critical Edition of the Hebrew Bible. London: The Trinitarian Bible Society, 1897.
Gunkel, Hermann. The Psalms: A Form-Critical Introduction. Trans. Thomas M. Horner. In Biblical Series, vol. 19. Ed. John Reumann. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Fortress Press, 1967.
Hovey, George Rice. “Hadad.” In International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. Ed. James Orr. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., c1915, 1939. In The Sword Project, v. 1.5.11 [CD-ROM] Temple, AZ: CrossWire Bible Society, 1990-2008.
Keathley, III, J. Hampton. “Introduction and Historical Setting for Elijah.” (Bible.org) [on-line]. Accessed 23 May 2012. Available from http://bible.org/seriespage/introduction-and-historical-setting-elijah; Internet.
“Kitron.” In International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. Ed. James Orr. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., c1915, 1939. In The Sword Project, v. 1.5.11 [CD-ROM] Temple, AZ: CrossWire Bible Society, 1990-2008.
Kösenberger, Andreas J. Excellence: The Character of God and the Pursuit of Scholarly Virtue. Wheaton, Illinois: Crossway, 2011.
Margolis, Max L. “Dagon.” In International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. Ed. James Orr. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., c1915, 1939. In The Sword Project, v. 1.5.11 [CD-ROM] Temple, AZ: CrossWire Bible Society, 1990-2008.
Nicol, T. “Tiglath-Pileser.” In International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. Ed. James Orr. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., c1915, 1939. In The Sword Project, v. 1.5.11 [CD-ROM] Temple, AZ: CrossWire Bible Society, 1990-2008.
Packer, James I., Merrill C. Tenney, and William White, Jr. Nelson's Illustrated Manners and Customs of the Bible. Thomas Nelson: Nashville , 1997, c1995. In Libronix Digital Library System, v. 2.1c [CD-ROM]. Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp., 2000-2004.
Ravenhill, Leonard. Sermon. SouthCliff Baptist Church, Fort Worth, Texas. Sunday night service, April 17, 1983.
Roberts, Frances J. Come Away My Beloved. Ojai, California: King’s Farspan, Inc., 1973.
Robinson, Haddon W. “The Story of Jephthah: Judges 11:0.” Expository Homiletical Conference. Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary. Hamilton, Massachusetts, 14 October 2011.
Rodkinson, Michael L. New Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, vol. 13. New York: New Talmud Publishing Company, 1902.
Schreiner, Thomas R. Interpreting the Pauline Epistles, second edition. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Academic, c1990, 2011.
Warren, C. “Mizpah and Mizpeh. ” In A Dictionary of the Bible with its Language, Literature, and Content Including the Bib lical Theology, vol. 3. Ed. James Hastings. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1901.
EXEGESIS AND COMMENTS
the Week of Proper 13 / Ordinary 18