by Robert Jamieson; A. R. Fausset; David Brown
The Book of Zechariah
Commentary by A.R. Faussett
The name Zechariah means one whom Jehovah remembers: a common name, four others of the same name occurring in the Old Testament. Like Jeremiah and Ezekiel, he was a priest as well as a prophet, which adapts him for the sacerdotal character of some of his prophecies (Zechariah 6:13). He is called “the son of Berechiah the son of Iddo” (Zechariah 1:1); but simply “the son of Iddo” in Ezra 5:1; Ezra 6:14. Probably his father died when he was young; and hence, as sometimes occurs in Jewish genealogies, he is called “the son of Iddo,” his grandfather. Iddo was one of the priests who returned to Zerubbabel and Joshua from Babylon (Nehemiah 12:4).
Zechariah entered early on his prophetic functions (Zechariah 2:4); only two months later than Haggai, in the second year of Darius‘ reign, 520 b.c. The design of both prophets was to encourage the people and their religious and civil leaders, Joshua and Zerubbabel, in their work of rebuilding the temple, after the interruption caused by the Samaritans (see on Introduction to Haggai). Zechariah does so especially by unfolding in detail the glorious future in connection with the present depressed appearance of the theocracy, and its visible symbol, the temple. He must have been very young in leaving Babylonia, where he was born. The Zechariah, son of Barachias, mentioned by our Lord (Matthew 23:35) as slain between the porch and the altar, must have been the one called the son of Jehoiada in 2 Chronicles 24:21, who so perished: the same person often had two names; and our Lord, in referring to the Hebrew Bible, of which Second Chronicles is the last book, would naturally mention the last martyr in the Hebrew order of the canon, as He had instanced Abel as the first. Owing to Matthew 27:9 quoting Zechariah 11:12, Zechariah 11:13 as the words of Jeremiah, Mede doubts the authenticity of the ninth through the fourteenth chapters, and ascribes them to Jeremiah: he thinks that these chapters were not found till after the return from the captivity, and being approved by Zechariah, were added to his prophecies, as Agur‘s Proverbs were added to those of Solomon. All the oldest authorities, except two manuscripts of the old Italian or Pre-Vulgate version, read Jeremiah in Matthew 27:9. The quotation there is not to the letter copied from Zechariah, Jeremiah 18:1, Jeremiah 18:2; Jeremiah 32:6-12, may also have been in the mind of Matthew, and perhaps in the mind of Zechariah, whence the former mentions Jeremiah. Hengstenberg similarly thinks that Matthew names Jeremiah, rather than Zechariah, to turn attention to the fact that Zechariah‘s prophecy is but a reiteration of the fearful oracle in Jeremiah 18:1-19:15, to be fulfilled in the destruction of the Jewish nation. Jeremiah had already, by the image of a potter‘s vessel, portrayed their ruin in Nebuchadnezzar‘s invasion; and as Zechariah virtually repeats this threat, to be inflicted again under Messiah for the nation‘s rejection of Him, Matthew, virtually, by mentioning Jeremiah, implies that the “field of blood” [Matthew 27:8, Matthew 27:9 ], now bought by “the reward of iniquity” [Acts 1:18 ] in the valley of Hinnom, was long ago a scene of prophetic doom in which awful disaster had been symbolically predicted: that the present purchase of that field with the traitor‘s price renewed the prophecy and revived the curse - a curse pronounced of old by Jeremiah, and once fulfilled in the Babylonian siege - a curse reiterated by Zechariah, and again to be verified in the Roman desolation. Lightfoot (referring to B. Bathra and Kimchi) less probably thinks the third division of Scripture, the prophets, began with Jeremiah, and that the whole body of prophets is thus quoted by the name “Jeremiah.” The mention of “Ephraim” and “Israel” in these chapters as distinct from Judah, does not prove that the prophecy was written while the ten tribes existed as a separate kingdom. It rather implies that hereafter not only Judah, but the ten tribes also, shall be restored, the earnest of which was given in the numbers out of the ten tribes who returned with their brethren the Jews from captivity under Cyrus. There is nothing in these characters to imply that a king reigned in Judah at that time. The editor of the Hebrew canon joined these chapters to Zechariah, not to Jeremiah; the Septuagint, three hundred years b.c., confirms this.
The prophecy consists of four parts:
(1)Introductory, Zechariah 1:1-6.
(2)Symbolical, Zechariah 1:7, to the end of the sixth chapter, containing nine visions; all these were vouchsafed in one night, and are of a symbolical character.
(3)Didactic, the seventh and eighth chapters containing an answer to a query of the Beth-elites concerning a certain feast. And
(4)Prophetic, the ninth chapter to the end. These six last chapters predict Alexander‘s expedition along the west coast of Palestine to Egypt; God‘s protection of the Jews, both at that time and under the Maccabees; the advent, sufferings, and reign of Messiah; the destruction of Jerusalem by Rome, and dissolution of the Jews‘ polity; their conversion and restoration; the overthrow of the wicked confederacy which assailed them in Canaan; and the Gentiles‘ joining in their holy worship [Henderson].
The difference in style between the former and the latter chapters is due to the difference of subject; the first six chapters being of a symbolical and peculiar character, while the poetical style of the concluding chapters is adapted admirably to the subjects treated. The titles (Zechariah 9:1; Zechariah 12:1) accord with the prophetic matter which follows; nor is it necessary for unity of authorship that the introductory formulas occurring in the first eight chapters should occur in the last six. The non-reference in the last six chapters to the completion of the temple and the Jews‘ restoration after the captivity is just what we should expect, if, as seems likely, these chapters were written long after the completion of the temple and the restoration of the Jews‘ polity after the captivity, in circumstances different from those which engaged the prophet when he wrote the earlier chapters.
The style varies with the subject: at one time conversational, at another poetical. His symbols are enigmatical and are therefore accompanied with explanations. His prose is like that of Ezekiel - diffuse, uniform, and repetitious. The rhythm is somewhat unequal, and the parallelisms are not altogether symmetrical. Still, there is found often much of the elevation met with in the earlier prophets, and a general congruity between the style and the subjects. Graphic vividness is his peculiar merit. Chaldaeisms occur occasionally. Another special characteristic of Zechariah is his introduction of spiritual beings into his prophetic scenes.
the Second Week after Easter