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Bible Commentaries

Sutcliffe's Commentary on the Old and New TestamentsSutcliffe's Commentary

- Genesis

by Joseph Sutcliffe


CHRISTIAN READER, GOD, who at sundry times and in divers manners spake in time past to the fathers by the prophets, hath in these last days spoken to us by his Son. The whole mythology of the gentile world is built upon the tradition, that God has spoken to men. The wide diffusion of science, and the discoveries made by universal travel, have established the common sentiment, that the Egyptians, the Brahmins, the Chinese, all expected a Messiah, and expected him from heaven. Hence he is denominated LIGHT by the Egyptians, and VISHNOO by the Hindoos.

God is a being supreme in power, infinite in wisdom, goodness and love; and how much soever he may hide things not essential for mortals to know, yet he cannot see a world of intelligent beings, grovelling in darkness, groaning in anguish, guilt and death, without extending the compassion essential to his nature. He who has taught all parents to give the best advice in their power to their children, could not assuredly send Adam, his first-born son, into a world of woes, of pains and deaths, without a covenant, without his promised presence, without the hopes and earnests of a future world.

And if so, to whom should he give that revelation, but to the great fathers of the human race, who could not but have paternal regards for the happiness of posterity. At what time should he give it, but in the early ages, that it might be conveyed by the wandering families to every part of the earth, and be everywhere attested, by traditions, by altars, and by monuments of piety and devotion.

All those altars are demonstrations of a divine revelation. They exhibit a satisfaction for sin, to propitiate an offended Deity; for man, burdened with guilt, could never think of burning a lamb, or of slaying a son for his sin, if some notions had not been given him by revelation, that propitiatory sacrifices must be offered, and his soul purified by the washing of water, and the sprinkling of atoning blood. Nay more: however dark and degenerate the wicked might be, devout men have understood from the beginning, that “the ritual law was a shadow of good things to come.” Creation is the grand mirror which reflects the perfections of the invisible God. His wisdom shines in all his works; his overflowing goodness and love are seen in providing food for every creature, and in clothing adapted to every clime. Yet, strange to tell, while he is blessing all, men are cursing one another; while, as a divine parent he is preserving all, the nations are destroying one another, by revengeful wars and with ingenious malice far beyond that of the wild beasts. The great theatre of universal history exhibits a world in full revolt against the laws of heaven, and in every possible form of crime.

Is it then contrary to the laws of nature, which attach appropriate pains to intemperance; to the operations of providence, which reveal the anger of God against sin; to the laws of criminal justice, which have ever claimed divine authority, that God should require a satisfaction for the sin of the world, a satisfaction which becomes the grandeur of his perfections, and which manifests his infinite abhorrence of moral evil.

And what scheme of satisfaction was ever presented to the world like that arising out of the Mediatorial glory of Christ? The Redeemer clothed with our flesh, and suffering for man! The divinity dwelling in him to give dignity to his person, and merit to his passion! If our ruin was by one, our recovery is by another. If our fall was without our fault, our redemption is without our help. He bore the curse he died the death he burst the tomb he ascended in triumph to heaven he inspired the apostles to preach to the gentiles he formed churches to nourish the converts he has opened a fountain for the ablution of crimes he regenerates the heart he prepares a heaven for the weary pilgrims. Could the poor fishermen of Galilee reason out so fine a scheme, and justify the ways of God to man?

St. Paul remarks, and remarks with emphasis, that when the fulness of time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman. There was no other age but that of the Roman power, in which the Saviour could have come with equal advantage. The nations were lost in ignorance, abandoned to superstition and crime; their governments were tyranny, their habits revenge and war.

Was it then by chance, that heaven prepared the way of the Messiah by the Roman conquests, which levelled the mountains and exalted the vallies? Was it by chance, that those conquerors were the most tolerant of all nations to temples of every description? Was it by chance, that the Hebrew prophets spake of the Messiah’s sufferings, and represented him in more than forty tragic characters; and against the prejudices of the priests, who contended that their expected King must reign in Jerusalem? Was it by chance, that they spake of the conversion of the gentiles, and all the glory of the latter day? Was it by chance, that the Romans burned Jerusalem, and dispersed the surviving Jews? Was it by chance, that God sent the christian law out of Zion, and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem; that the gospel was like the sun, enlightening the world at once, and that no imperial persecutions could suppress it? Was it by chance, that providence thus gave the comment on prophecy, commanding all men everywhere to repent and embrace the Saviour? If any man want clearer evidence, let him subdue his passions, and devoutly ask it in prayer; for “he that believeth on the Son of God hath the witness in himself.”

The holy Scriptures being the fountain of life, flowing from the throne of God and the Lamb, and the divine wisdom contained in them a treasure above the wealth of worlds, their preservation has been a subject of divine care, which providence has ever associated with the preservation of the church.

Moses engrossed the Pentateuch, containing the five first books, with his own hand. To this was added by some holy man a postscript, stating the circumstances of his death. Copies of the pentateuch were made for the kings of Israel, for reading in the temple, and in all the synagogues. And when the book of the law had been concealed in the temple, to preserve it from the sacrilegious hands of idolatrous princes, and was found again in the reign of king Josiah, it afforded unspeakable joy to all good men.

The like care of providence in the preservation of the sacred volume has appeared in all the dispersions of the Jews; for though the law and all the sacred books in the temple were burned by the Chaldeans, yet Tobit had a copy in Nineveh, and in his peregrinations among the Medes; for he reminds the Jews of the words of Amos, who says, “Your feasts shall be turned into mourning, and all your songs into lamentation; for I will send a famine in the land, not a famine of bread, nor a thirst for water, but of hearing the words of the Lord and they shall run to and fro to seek the word of the Lord, and shall not find it.” Amos 8:10-12.

The Samaritan Pentateuch holds a rank of coëqual authority with the copy preserved by the Jews. The variations are few; and in some places the LXX have followed the Samaritan in preference to the Hebrew. The characters of the Samaritan Pentateuch are very splendid, and are said to be those used by the hand of God in writing the awful sentence against the Babylonian empire over against king Belshazzar, as in the fifth chapter of Daniel, which accounts for the inability of the wise men to read the inscription.

The Psalms, chiefly composed by David, but some of them the production of holy men from the time of Moses till the return of the Jews from captivity, contain the finest copies of the human heart, and the happiest language of faith and piety. Many of them are martial odes, praying for victory, while others excite the church to forget her troubles, in the sublimest effusions of sacred song.

The holy Prophets composed their own books, in a style of loose, easy, flowing poësy; but many parts are purely prosaic. Assuredly, when we consider the holiness of their lives, the grandeur and dignity of their ministry, their unwearied labours to save their country, and their divine wisdom and learning, they were the most illustrious order of men that ever adorned human nature. They were stoned and martyred by the idolaters; but when providence had accomplished their predictions, posterity built them monuments of marble.

It could not however be expected, that treasures so great as those in the Hebrew scriptures, respecting the creation of the world, the order of patriarchal society, the deluge of Noah, and the glorious beams of divine revelation, should remain concealed in the Hebrew tongue. They were designed to illuminate the darkness of a benighted world, and to shew us the path of life.

The Greek version of the LXX has at all times ranked in authority next to the Hebrew text, being a version authorised by the great Sanhedrim in Jerusalem. Of this version, Eusebius in his Preparation of the Gospel, a work now before me, ( ed. à Paris, 1528) gives the following abridged account in a letter from Areteas to his brother Philocrates. He there reports, that Demetrius Phalereus, librarian to Ptolemy Philadelphus, being charged to enrich the king’s library at Alexandria with every book in the world, had apprised the king that the Hebrew laws merited a place in his collection; to which Ptolemy replied, that he should hold him alone responsible to see it executed. Demetrius said he must first translate them, those laws being written in a character and in a language unknown to the Egyptians. On hearing this, the king wrote to the high priest, accompanied with a suite of valuable presents, and presents connected with the liberation of all the Hebrew slaves then in Egypt, for whose emancipation the king paid ten drachms each.

The question, whether the LXX translated only the law, as stated in the letter of Areteas, or whether they translated the whole of the Old Testament, remains in doubt. The general opinion is, that they did not translate the whole. Be that as it might, 170 years before the birth of Christ, the whole Greek version was read in the synagogues of the Hellenistic Jews, and under the name of the Seventy.

The sacred books which rank among the Jews next to the holy scriptures are the Targums, or Chaldaic paraphrases. When the people returned from Babylon, having been widely dispersed in the provinces of that empire, they had very much forgotten their own language; and even before their captivity, the language of the law of Moses was become less colloquial. When the law therefore was read, an interpreter stood by the reader, and gave the sense in the vulgar tongue.

The most approved of these oral interpretations or paraphrases were gradually noted down, and collections of them were made from time to time. Much diversity of opinion prevails as to the dates which ought to be assigned to the several Targums. Of the ten paraphrases now extant on different parts of the Old Testament, eight of them at the least have been compiled since the christian era. The date of the Compilation, however, does not necessarily affect the antiquity of the Readings or Exposition; all the Targums containing many glosses and interpretations of high antiquity, and which had long been in use in the Synagogues.

The Targum of ONKELOS, on the pentateuch, is the most ancient, classical and pure. It renders the Hebrew text word for word; and in style closely resembles that of Daniel and Ezra, in the Aramæan dialect. On these accounts Onkelos is supposed by some to have flourished near the time of the Babylonish Captivity; by others he is asserted to have been a proselyte to the Jewish Religion, about 50 years before Christ.

The next we shall notice is the Targum of JONATHAN ben UZZIEL on the prophets; that is (according to the Jewish classification of the sacred writings) on Joshua, Judges , 1 and 2 Samuel , 1 and 2 Kings, called the former prophets, and on Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and the 12 minor prophets, styled the later prophets. He is thought to have been a distinguished rabbi in the school of Hillel, and to have flourished a little before our Saviour’s time. But on these subjects, learned men load us with volumes of opinions and conjectures, which oftener embarrass than relieve research. His style, though not so pure as that of Onkelos, is free from the numerous foreign and barbarous words which disfigure the later Targums. He writes as a man of sense, and repudiates legendary tales.

The Targum on the Pentateuch, falsely ascribed to Jonathan ben Uzziel, and usually called the PSEUDO-JONATHAN, abounds with idle Jewish legends. Although many of the interpretations have doubtless some claim to antiquity, the style is very impure, and it bears evident marks of having been compiled not earlier than the 7th century.

The Targum of JERUSALEM derives its name from the vulgar tongue in which it was composed. It is a paraphrase on select portions of the pentateuch, in very corrupt Chaldee, containing numerous Greek, Latin, and Persian words. It is thought to be a compilation by several authors, in the 7th or 8th century, and follows the Pseudo-Jonathan in fabulous and legendary tales.

The other Jewish Targums are not entitled to notice here, for want of antiquity. But the Targums written before the christian era are to the unbelieving Jews, like the letters of Bellerophon, letters of their own condemnation; for all those paraphrases speak of the Messiah, and of his kingdom, in the true sense and spirit of the prophets.

Aquila, of Synopè in Pontus, of Hebrew descent, about the year of grace 128, after the labour of twelve years, translated the Hebrew scriptures into Greek. His version is very literal, and often relieves the readings of the LXX, from Hebrew manuscripts, to which he had access. It was allowed to be read in the synagogues; but much of it is now lost.

Symmachus, a Samaritan, ran the career of religious opinions, being successively a Jew, a Christian, an Ebionite. He made a Greek version of the old Testament, less servile than that of Aquila.

Theodotion, a native of Ephesus, and contemporary with Symmachus, made a Greek version with great exactness and purity. His work has been called a version of the LXX. Origen in his Hexapla, or Polyglot Bible, containing six perfect copies, made use of Theodotion to correct the Septuagint. Theodotion’s version was allowed to be read in the churches, the language being more modern than that of the LXX, and also of Symmachus. From a copy in my possession, I find the English version, as indeed most others, is verbatim from Theodotion. It is a matter of regret that so little of it now remains.

With a view to correct and guard against numerous errors, arising partly from the negligence of transcribers and partly from marginal readings and glosses being suffered to creep into the sacred text, the indefatigable Origen compiled his Hexapla, so called from the six principal versions therein collated. After completing this great work, however, and before its publication, he put forth his Tetrapla, or four copies in parallel columns, containing the Hebrew text, the version of Aquila, of Symmachus, and of Theodotion. Those works demonstrate the divine repute which the sacred volume has sustained in every age. The following is the order of his columns.


Colossians 1:0. Hebrew text written in Hebrew characters. Colossians 7. The fifth version found at Jericho. Colossians 9. A few books of the seventh version. Colossians 6. The Version of Theodotion. Colossians 2:0. Hebrew text written in Greek characters. Colossians 3:0. The Version of Aquila. Colossians 4:0. The Version of Symmachus. Colossians 5. The Version of the Seventy. Colossians 8. Some books of the sixth version found at Nicople.


Colossians 4:0. The Version of Theodotion. Colossians 1:0. The Version of Aquila. Colossians 3:0. The Version of the Seventy. Colossians 2:0. The Version of Symmachus.

The Hexapla, so far as it has escaped the ravages of time, has been printed by Count Montfaucon. It is a work of inconceivable labour, and of incomparable merit. It became the standard work from which all christians took their copies, and made their translations.

But from the first age of christianity, the scriptures were translated into the Syriac, the Egyptian, the Persic, the Armenian, and the Latin languages. It was Papal Rome alone that denied the Bible in the vulgar tongue. The Copts of Egypt had the scriptures in their tongue, which is said to be a compound of the Greek and the old Egyptian languages.

Of the numerous Latin versions Jerome says, every one translated according to his pleasure, adding or subtracting as he pleased. When he entered on the great work of the Vulgate, or authorised latin version, his first care was to correct the errors of former copies, which had slipped in, either by ignorance or by negligence. In the Hebrew language he had been instructed by learned Jews, and he made the Hexapla of Origen the basis of his work. The variations of many readings in the versions, prompted him to give the latin church a well-collated version in purity of style.

His extensive learning, his unwearied application, his superior judgment, and the advantages he enjoyed, then a resident at Rome, of consulting learned jews and christians, gave his translation a character which ultimately commanded universal approbation. Yet in his preface he complains of the enemies which rose up against him. Some were jealous of his reputation, some accused him of corrupting the sacred text, others said he had preferred the acceptations of the jews in certain texts to those of the apostles. Under these circumstances, it was some time before prepossessions yielded to merit, and allowed the Vulgate to be generally read in the churches.

Since the invention of printing, the Bible has found its way into all christian languages; and now the British and Foreign Bible Society, the most illustrious of all christian societies, has almost completed its grand scheme of causing the sunbeams of divine revelation to shine in all the dialects of the heathen world. The Bible restores to those poor benighted isles and nations, and the wanderers on earth, the religion of their patriarchal fathers made perfect in Christ. it supersedes moral evil by a divine code of injunctions, to love their neighbour, to abstain from revenge, and to overcome evil with good. It uplifts the veil of futurity, and chases afar the gloom of death by demonstrations of life and immortality. It reveals a God in all his moral grandeur, a Mediator in all his glory, and shews the human kind their pristine excellence, their present misery, and the way to regain more than they have lost. In a word, the Bible presents us with a religion every way worthy of God to reveal, and of man to embrace. Reader, says Jerome, love the holy scriptures, and wisdom will love thee. After the infinite cares of Origen in the east, of Jerome at Rome, and Montanus in Spain, to give us correct and purified copies of the holy scriptures, all objections about the various readings of the sacred text can have but small weight. They are very much superseded by those great and standard editions to which the church can with confidence appeal. It is a fact, if all the various readings of either verbs or nouns were expunged from the sacred volume, the suppression would not affect a single doctrine of revelation.

The Author begs to close this address by stating, that the present work is the result of his study and labour for about forty years. Favoured with health, and a biblical library, he has spent his mornings in reading the original scriptures, with versions and comments. His favourite authors have been Jerome, Chrysostom, and Theophylact of Bulgaria. Of the reformers and catholics, he has studied Munster, Valla, Lyranus, Vatablus, Drusius, Castellio, Clarius, Calvin, Beza, Scaliger, Casaubon, Cameron, Cappelus, Grotius, Gagæus, Estius, Sa, Menochius, Tirinus, Heinsius, Gorannus, Lightfoot, Marlorat, &c. &c. &c. From these, the first and best of authors, he professes to have culled honey, like the bee, leaving the particular flowers less distinguished; but all their names appear as authorities of criticism.

To English commentators his references are few, lest he should be a plagiarist from others, which real industry has no need to be. He conceives it to be the duty of a commentator, treading a beaten path, to give ancient truths the drapery of living language, like the renovated verdure of the year.

Regarding revelation as the healing remedy for the evils under which we groan, his first aim has been to aid the devout christian in the duties of the closet, and to assist his progress in divine attainments.

But as the labouring class of men are now supplied with bibles without either note or comment, the biblical reader is exposed to painful darkness with regard to ancient geography, manners and customs of the east, primitive names, and historic events. Not having a local knowledge of Judea, of its adjacent deserts and climate, he loses much of the fine apostrophes of the prophets, and the sublime and beautiful in their descriptions. A commentary to such a man is like the star of Bethlehem, which guides him to the Saviour, and enriches his mind with the collective wisdom of past ages. It is a treasure of covenant grace, which he gives in charge to his children.

Another devout aim of the author has been to assist the candidate for the sanctuary to the utmost of his power; for the conscious mind, called to save souls, and defend the truth, is worthy of all the aid that science can afford.

A copious index is added, which may serve as a biblical dictionary, and supply places where comments were not thought essential.

JOS. SUTCLIFFE. BRIGHTON, January 1 st, 1834.


I have now in my seventy fourth year, and amidst a multitude of other avocations and duties, completed this Commentary on the Holy Scriptures. If I may confide in the numerous testimonials which the work has received in the course of publication, from learned and judicious friends, it will prove neither a superfluous offering to the christian public, nor an unwelcome guest in pious families.

Standing now on the verge of a protracted life, when the opinions of men fade away as the declining shadow on the dial, the truths of this blessed book constitute my only hope and confidence. I do more than believe these truths. I have long tested and proved them a sufficient support, under all the vicissitudes of life, and often in the more searching light of an approaching eternity. The recondite studies of the critic and the commentator are nothing in comparison of that eternal life which the scriptures reveal; and which the Holy Spirit, ever answering to the word of God, opens as a fountain of living water in the soul of the believer.

In discussing these subjects I have often poured forth the fulness of my heart; and happy will the reader be, if in the perusal he shall find his heart to glow with corresponding sentiments. Then shall HE who put it into my heart thus to labour, supersede all my defects, and supply all my lack of service, by the illuminations of his own Spirit on the mind of the reader.

Having now been favoured with life and health to close this work, what more can I ask or desire on earth, but to follow the blessed who have died in the Lord. I now see the ministry, in which I have laboured for fifty years, crowded with younger men, the strength and rising hope of the church; and all that my heart can suggest, of blessing, thanksgiving and prayer, is poured out for them. But in the enfeebled efforts of age, and when gleanings become scanty in the hand, the heart holds a trembling balance between the church on earth and the church in heaven.

I often pause to recollect names which appear new to me here; but I never forget the names of WESLEY, VALTON, CROSSE, and a cloud of others; some of whom were fathers to me in my early ministry, and others the companions and friends of more mature and manly labours in the vineyard of the Lord. These are still my dearest friends. I recount their names with strong emotion. Our love was too holy, too heavenly and divine, to admit of separation. Neither life nor death can dissolve the union. They have crossed the flood before me, and I faintly hear their shouts of victory and songs of triumph. But if they triumph, I shall triumph also. Of one heart and one soul, our sorrows and our joys are the same; our hope, our confidence, and our conflicts the same. We laboured often in the same field, and fought under the same standard. It cannot be but that we shall be crowned together in the day of the Lord. Reader! this is the faith that shall qualify thee also to join that general assembly and church of the firstborn, whose names are written in heaven.

I cannot conclude without acknowledging the high obligation I feel to the Rev. J. W. Morris of Bungay, for kindly undertaking to edit the work, and for his judicious attentions in the revision of the manuscript. Without his valuable assistance in superintending the press, the Commentary could not have been presented to the public in the form which it now assumes.

ROCHESTER, January 14 th 1836.



(Synchronisms of the Antediluvian Patriarchs are given at the end of Genesis.)


Before Christ

1992 Abram born, son of Terah, Genesis 11:27

1982 Sarai born, afterwards wife of Abram

1917 Abram called out of Ur of the Chaldeans

Terah dies at Haran, aged 205 years

Abram called from Haran, & settles at Sechem

1916 Abram goes into Egypt, & Sarai is ensnared

1908 Lot is taken captive by the invasion of Sodom Abram delivers Lot & vanquishes the invaders Melchizedek blesses Abram on his success

The Lord enters into covenant with Abram

1907 Hagar becomes a second wife to Abram

1906 Ishmael born, son of Abram and Hagar

1893 Circumcision instituted, Genesis 17:10

Abram entertains three angels unaware

Sodom & Gomorrah burnt by fire from heaven

1892 Abram leaves Mamre & retires to Beersheba

Isaac born, the son of Abraham and Sarah

1885 Abraham dismisses Hagar & her son Ishmael

1867 Abraham about to offer up his son Isaac

1856 Kingdom of Argo rounded by Inachus

1852 Abraham sends for a wife for Isaac

1850 Abraham marries Keturah

1842 Shem dies, the son of Noah, Genesis 11:10-11

1833 Rebekah continues barren for nineteen years

1832 Jacob & Esau born, Isaac being 60 years old

1822 Memnon the Egyptian, the inventor of letters

1817 Abraham dies, aged 175 years, Genesis 25:7

1813 Heber dies at the age of 464 years, Genesis 11:0.

1800 Covenant of Abraham renewed to Isaac

1792 Deluge of Ogyges, which desolated Attica

1769 Ishmael dies, aged 137 years, Genesis 25:17

1755 Jacob marries Leah and Rachel

1754 Reuben born, son of Jacob and Leah

1753 Simeon born, son of Leah, Genesis 29:0.

1752 Levi born, son of Leah

1751 Judah born, son of Leah

1741 Joseph born, son of Jacob and Rachel

1735 Jacob leaves Laban and returns to Canaan

1727 Dinah, Jacob’s daughter, defiled by Shechem

Benjamin born, son of Rachel, Genesis 35:0.

1724 Joseph sold into Egypt, aged seventeen

1714 Joseph falsely accused and sent to prison

Shepherds expelled from Egypt

1713 Joseph interprets dreams in prison

1712 Isaac dies, aged 180 years, Genesis 35:0.

1711 Joseph made governor of Egypt

Beginning of the seven years of plenty

1710 Manasseh born, son of Joseph

1709 Ephraim born, second son of Joseph

1704 Beginning of the seven years of scarcity

1703 Joseph’s ten brethren go to Egypt to buy corn

1702 Joseph reveals himself to his brethren

Jacob goes down to Egypt at the age of 130

1698 End of the seven years of famine

1695 Jacob dies in Egypt, aged 147 years

1573 New king in Egypt who knew not Joseph

Job lived about this time, in Arabia

1570 Aaron born, afterwards the highpriest

1567 Moses born, the brother of Aaron

1556 Cecrops founded the kingdom of Athens

1527 Moses kills an Egyptian & flees into Midian

1503 Deluge of Deucalion in Thessaly

1493 Cadmus builds the citadel of Thebes

1487 The Lord appears to Moses in a burning bush

Moses returns to Egypt and meets Aaron

1487 Moses & Aaron demand the liberation of Israel

Pharaoh refuses to let the people go

Miracles fail to convince Pharaoh

Ten plagues inflicted on Pharaoh & his people First, water changed into blood, Exodus 7:0. Second, frogs sent over all the land

Third, a plague of gnats or lice, Exodus 8:0. Fourth, of all sorts of flies

Fifth, a murrain upon the cattle

Sixth, boils and sores, Exodus 9:0.

Seventh, hail, thunder, and fire from heaven Eighth, locusts to devour all the verdure Ninth, a darkness that might be felt

Tenth, death of all the firstborn of Egypt The passover instituted the same night Israel departs from Rameses to Succoth From Succoth to Etham, Numbers 13:0. Pharaoh overtakes Israel at the Red sea The waters divide and Israel pass over

Pharaoh and his army are drowned in the sea Moses sweetens the bitter waters of Marah Manna sent in the desert of Sin, Exodus 16:0.

Moses smites the rock at Rephidim

The Amalekites slay the feeble among them Joshua goes forth against the Amalekites Moses meanwhile lifts up his hands in prayer In the third month they arrive at mount Sinai They encamp at mount Sinai above a year Moses ascends the mount to receive the law The people not suffered to approach

Moses continues in the mount forty days Descends with the law writ on two tables Finds the people worshipping a golden calf He destroys the calf & slays 23,000 people God writes his law again on tables of stone

Moses again descends the mount, Exodus xxxiv

His face shines with a divine radiance Moses proposes to erect a tabernacle The people numbered, to 603,550 men

Each taxed half a shekel for the tabernacle

1487 Tabernacle erected first day of the second year Levites consecrated to serve the tabernacle Jethro comes to the camp before it leaves Sinai Israel departs from Sinai & comes to Taberah From thence to Kibroth, three days’ journey Eldad and Medad prophesy in the camp

Quails sent in great abundance, Exodus 16:13

Aaron and Miriam murmur against Moses

Israel enters the wilderness of Paran

Twelve men sent to examine the promised land

After forty days they bring an evil report They perish in the desert for their unbelief Israel repelled by the Amalekites & Canaanites From Kadesh-barnea they come to the red sea Sedition of Korah, Dathan, and Abiram

Israel wanders in the deserts of Arabia 37 yrs Return to Kadesh 39 yrs. after leaving Egypt King of Edom refuses a passage thro’ his land Miriam dies at Kadesh, aged 130 years

Moses smites the rock to procure water

He and Aaron forbidden the promised land

Moses raises the brazen serpent at Zalmonah

1447 Sihon refuses a passage to the Israelites

Moses conquers him and the Amorites Og king of Bashan opposes, and is slain Israel encamps in the plains of Moab

Balak king of Moab consults with Balaam

Israel seduced to idolatry at Baal-peor

War against the Midianites, Deuteronomy 4:0. The covenant with Israel renewed by Moses Five books of Moses written in land of Moab Moses dies at the age of 120 years

Joshua succeeds him, & sends spies to Jericho Israel pass the Jordan on 10th of the 1st month Circumcision and the passover restored

The cloudy pillar and the manna cease

Jericho taken, after sounding with rams’ horns Altar erected at mount Ebal by Moses’ order Gibeonites make a league with Joshua

1447 Joshua commands sun & moon to stand still

1446 War with the kings of Canaan for six years

Joshua divides their country among the tribes

1441 Gives Caleb the portion the Lord promised

1440 The ark and the tabernacle fixed at Shiloh

Cadmus took 16 letters to Greece, built Thebes

1439 Joshua renews the covenant of God with Israel

Joshua dies at the age of a hundred and ten After him the elders governed nearly 20 years Micah set up a domestic idol and priest

The twelve tribes war against Benjamin

1420 Odin introduces letters into Scandinavia

1409 Israel enslaved 8 yrs. by king of Mesopotamia

1401 Othniel delivers them, & judges them 40 yrs

1339 Israel in servitude to Eglon king of Moab

Third servitude of Israel, under the Philistines

Shamgar effects their deliverance

1281 Fourth servitude, under the king of Hazor

Deborah and Baruch deliver them

1248 Fifth servitude, under the Midianites

1241 Gideon delivers & governs them for 9 years

1232 Abimelech, son of Gideon, slain at Shechem

1228 Tola governs Israel twenty three years

1205 Jair governs Israel twenty two years

1201 Sixth servitude, under Philistia & Ammon

1184 Troy taken, after a siege of ten years

1183 Jephtha delivers the Israelites beyond Jordan

1177 Jephtha dies, and is succeeded by Ibzan

1170 Ibzan dies, Elon succeeds him

1160 Elon dies, Abdon succeeds him

1152 Eli the high priest becomes judge of Israel

Forty years servitude under the Philistines

1151 Samuel the prophet born, 1 Samuel 1:0.

1139 The Lord begins to manifest himself to Samson

1132 Samson resists the Philistines

He defend the Israelites twenty years

1113 Perishes in the ruin of the temple of Dagon

1112 Ark of the Lord taken by the Philistines

Eli the highpriest falls from his seat & dies

1104 Beginning of the kingdom of Lacedæmon Philistines send back the ark with presents Samuel governs Israel nearly forty years

1091 Saul anointed king over Israel, Acts 13:21

1089 War of the Philistines against Saul

Jonathan obtains a victory over them

1081 Birth of David, the son of Jesse, 1 Samuel 14:0.

1070 Saul at war with the Amalekites

Kingdom of Athens ends with death of Codrus

1059 Samuel anoints David at Bethlehem

1058 David encounters Goliath the Philistine

1057 Saul from envy seeks to destroy David

1056 David retires into the land of Moab

Saul slays Abimelech and other priests

1055 David flees into the wilderness of Ziph

1054 David spares Saul when he entered the cave

1053 Samuel dies, aged 98 years, 1 Samuel 25:0.

David retires into the wilderness of Paran

Marries Abigail the wife of Nabal

1051 Saul consults witch of Endor in his distress Defeated by the Philistines and kills himself David recovers the captives of Ziklag

David proclaimed king in Hebron

1044 The Ionians emigrate & settle in Asia minor

1043 Jerusalem taken from the Jebusites

1041 David brings the ark to Jerusalem

1040 Desires to build a temple to the Lord

War with the Philistines for about six years

1033 War with the Syrians and the Ammonites

1031 David’s misconduct in the matter of Uriah

1030 Nathan’s reproof brings him to repentance

1029 Solomon born, son of David and Bathsheba

1026 Absalom kills Amnon in revenge for Tamar

1019 Absalom’s rebellion, he is killed by Joab

1017 Destruction of Gibeonites avenged by famine

1013 David numbers the people & displeases God

Pestilence sent as a punishment for his sin

1012 David prepares for building the temple

Rehoboam born, son of Solomon

1011 Adonijah aspires to the kingdom

1011 Solomon proclaimed king by all Israel

1010 David dies, aged 70, having reigned 40 years Abiathar superseded by Zadok the highpriest Joab slain in the temple for treachery

1009 Solomon marries a daughter of king of Egypt

The Lord gives him extraordinary wisdom

1008 Hiram king of Tyre helps to build the temple

Solomon lays the foundation on May 2nd

1004 Tyre rebuilt, Isaiah 23:0. Joshua 19:0.

1000 Dedication of Solomon’s temple, 2 Chronicles 8:0.

988 Solomon visited by the queen of Sheba

974 Jeroboam rebels and flees into Egypt

971 Solomon dies, aged fifty eight years

Rehoboam succeeds him, 1 Kings 11:43

He insults the people, & the ten tribes revolt


Before Christ

971 Rehoboam reigns in Jerusalem seventeen years

970 The pious priests flock to him from Samaria

968 Rehoboam and the people forsake the Lord

967 Shishak king of Egypt plunders Jerusalem

954 Rehoboam dies, and is succeeded by Abijam

953 Abijam defeats Jeroboam with great loss

951 Abijam dies, and Asa succeeds him

947 Asa suppresses idolatry in Judah

945 Jehoshaphat born, son of Asa, 2 Chronicles 22:0.

937 Asa defeats Zerah king of Ethiopia

936 Asa engages Benhadad to invade Israel

920 Jehoram born, son of Jehoshaphat

910 Asa dies, having reigned forty one years

907 Homer and Hesiod, the Greek poets, flourish

906 Jehoshaphat abolishes the idolatry of Asa

903 Ahaziah born, grandson of Jehoshaphat

892 Jehoshaphat goes with Ahab to Ramoth Jehoshaphat narrowly escaped in battle He equips a fleet for Ophir, with Ahaziah

Jehoshaphat is invaded by the Ammonites

Elijah translated in a fiery chariot

885 Jehoshaphat dies, and Jehoram succeeds

884 Jehoram introduces the worship of Baal

Lycurgus becomes the lawgiver of Lacedæmon

883 Jehoram smitten of God with a mortal disease

882 Jehoram dies, having reigned four years

881 Ahaziah succeeds, and reigns only one year

880 Athaliah kills all the royal family but one

Jehoash is secretly preserved in the temple

874 Jehoash placed on the throne by Jehoiada

869 Carthage in Africa is built by Dido

853 Jehoash repairs the temple of the Lord

836 Zechariah, son of Jehoiada, killed by Jehoash

835 Hazael makes war upon Jehoash

Jehoash dies, and is succeeded by Amaziah

823 Amaziah wars against Idumea

822 Amaziah is defeated by Joash king of Israel

Uzziah born, the son of Amaziah

814 Kingdom of Macedonia commences

806 Amaziah king of Judah dies

797 Kingdom of Lydia rounded by Lydus

779 Jotham born, son of Uzziah

754 Isaiah begins to prophesy, Isaiah 6:0.

Uzziah dies, and his son Jotham succeeds


Before Christ

971 Jeroboam, son of Nebat, first king of Israel

970 Jeroboam sets up the golden calves

953 He loses 500,000 men in war with Abijam

950 Jeroboam dies, his son Nadab succeeds him

946 Nadab dies, and is succeeded by Baasha

936 Baasha builds Ramah, a fortified town

Benhadad of Damascus invades Samaria

926 Elah succeeds his father Baasha

925 Zimri kills Elah, and takes the kingdom

Omri besieges Zimri in Tirzah

921 Omri reigns alone in the 31st year of Asa

920 Omri builds Samaria, the capital of Israel

914 Omri dies, and is succeeded by Ahab

904 Elijah destroys the prophets of Baal

897 Benhadad king of Syria besieges Samaria

896 Returns to the siege and is defeated at Aphek

895 Ahab unjustly seizes Naboth’s vineyard

893 Ahab killed in battle at Ramoth-gilead

892 Ahaziah succeeds, and dies in two years

890 Jehoram succeeds, makes war upon Moab

881 Samaria besieged by Benhadad of Syria

880 Seized with a panic they fled in the night Elisha foretels the death of Benhadad Predicts that Hazael shall be king of Syria Jehoram dangerously wounded in battle

Jehu rebels, and kills Jehoram

Jehu reigns 28 years over Israel

852 Jehu dies, his son Jehoahaz succeeds him

835 Jehoahaz dies, and Joash succeeds him

Elisha the prophet dies about this time

832 Hazael dies, Benhadad succeeds him

822 Joash defeats Amaziah king of Judah

819 Joash dies, after a reign of 41 years

Jonah, Hosea, & Amos prophesied at this time

778 Zachariah succeeds to the throne

768 Shallum kills Zachariah and takes the throne

767 Shallum is killed and succeeded by Menahem

Pul, king of Assyria, invades Israel

757 Menahem dies, his son Pekaiah succeeds

755 Pekaiah is assassinated by Pekah

746 Nineveh besieged by Arbaces and Belesus

743 After a siege of three years Nineveh is taken Sardanapalus burns himself in his palace Arbaces is acknowledged king of Media


Before Christ

754 Isaiah and Hosea continue to prophesy

753 Rome built on the twentieth of April

748 Hezekiah born, son of Jotham

739 Kings of Israel and Syria invade Judah

738 Jotham dies, Ahaz succeeds him

Rezin and Pekah still at war with Judah

Isaiah foretels to Ahaz the birth of Christ

737 The two kings return and spoil the country

736 Idumeans and Philistines invade Judah

Ahaz offers a subsidy to Tiglath-pilezer

732 Syracuse built by a Corinthian colony

722 Ahaz, king of Judah, dies

Hezekiah restores the temple worship

721 Tithes again collected for the priests

First eclipse of the moon on record, Mark 1:0 9th

718 Gyges succeeds to the throne of Lydia


Before Christ

743 Belesus becomes king of Babylonia Belesus is called Baladan or Nabonassar Babylonian empire is founded by Belesus Ninus succeeds Sardanapalus in Nineveh Ninus is in scripture called Tiglath-pileser Assyrian empire much reduced under Ninus

736 Tiglath-pileser defeats Rezin king of Damascus

Tiglath invades Israel and makes captives

735 Hoshea slays Pekah, and takes the kingdom

724 Salmanezer succeeds Tiglath in Nineveh

721 Hoshea forms alliance with the king of Egypt

720 Salmanezer besieges Samaria

717 Possesses Samaria, after three years’ siege Carries the remaining tribes into captivity Transports them beyond the Euphrates Tobit is carried away to Nineveh, Tobit 1. Kingdom of Israel continued 254 years


Before Christ

710 Hezekiah revolts from the Assyrians

710 Leagues with Egypt against Sennacherib

709 Sennacherib takes several cities of Judah Hezekiah’s memorable sickness, Isaiah 38:0. Isaiah foretels and prescribes his cure

The sun’s shadow reclines on the dial of Ahaz

Sennacherib besieges Lachish

Sends Rabshakeh to insult Hezekiah Thousands of his army smitten by an angel Sennacherib retires in disgrace to Nineveh He is put to death by his own sons

708 Esar-haddon succeeds Sennacherib

King of Babylon congratulates Hezekiah Sends also to enquire about the miracle Micah and Nahum begin to prophesy

707 Esar-haddon goes to war with Egypt & Philistia

694 Hezekiah dies, and Manasseh succeeds him

677 Esar-haddon becomes master of Babylon

He unites Assyria and Chaldea into one empire

661 Manasseh is taken and carried to Babylon

658 Byzantium built by a colony of Athenians

653 Holofernes is slain in Judea by Judith

639 Manasseh returns and dies in Jerusalem

Ammon succeeds him, and reigns two years

637 Ammon dies, and is succeeded by Josiah

Zephaniah prophesies during his reign

630 Josiah restores the temple worship

624 Jeremiah begins to prophesy

The Scythians invade Asia minor

623 Draco establishes his laws at Athens

620 Hilkiah finds the book of the law in the temple Josiah collects money for repairing the temple Huldah foretels the calamities of Judah

619 Josiah’s magnificent passover

606 Joel prophesies in the reign of Josiah

Josiah opposes the expedition of Necho

Josiah wounded in battle, and dies in Jerusalem

606 Jeremiah wrote Lamentations on his death

Nineveh is taken by Cyaxares

607 Jehoahaz is set on the throne by the people

Is dethroned by Necho king of Egypt

Necho appoints Jehoiakim, son of Josiah

605 Habakkuk prophesies under Jehoiakim

602 Nebuchadnezzar takes Carchemish Invades Palestine and takes Jerusalem Compels Jehoiakim to pay a large tribute Daniel and his friends led into captivity

601 Jeremiah begins to write his prophecies

598 Daniel interprets Nebuchadnezzar’s dream

596 History of Susannah at Babylon, apocryphal Jehoiakim revolts against Nebuchadnezzar Nebuchadnezzar ravages Judea with an army Carries away more jews to Babylon

Cyaxares expels the Scythians from Asia

595 Cyrus born, son of Cambyses

Jehoiakim revolts a second time

Is taken, killed, and cast to the fowls of the air

594 Jeconiah succeeds Jehoiakim Nebuchadnezzar besieges him in Jerusalem He is taken and carried away to Babylon Mordecai is among the captives now taken

Zedekiah, Jeconiah’s uncle, is left at Jerusalem

Zedekiah reigns eleven years

He sends ambassadors to Babylon

Jeremiah writes to the captives there

591 Zedekiah sends Seraiah and Baruch to Babylon

590 Ezekiel begins to prophesy in Chaldea He foretels the retaking of Jerusalem Zedekiah meditates a revolt against

Chaldea He negociates an alliance with Egypt

589 Solon and Æsop contemporary with Ezekiel

586 Nebuchadnezzar marches against Jerusalem Quits the siege to repel the king of Egypt Returns to the siege against Zedekiah Jeremiah prophesies during the siege

The siege is continued nearly three years

Ezekiel describes the same siege in Chaldea

584 Jerusalem taken on the ninth of June In the eleventh year of Zedekiah Zedekiah makes his escape by night

Taken and brought before Nebuchadnezzar

His eyes are put out, and he carried to Babylon Jerusalem and the temple are both destroyed More of the jews are carried into captivity

Many of them transported beyond the Euphrates

The poorer classes only left in the land

Thus ends the kingdom of Judah.

584 Seventy years foretold by Jeremiah: 25.

Gedaliah slain, governor of Jerusalem

583 Jeremiah carried into Egypt by the jews

Jeremiah prophesies while in Egypt

Ezekiel in Chaldea prophesies against Judah

581 The siege of Tyre by Nebuchadnezzar Nebuchadnezzar wars with Ammon & Idumea Obadiah prophesies against Idumea

577 Jeremiah the prophet dies about this time

568 Tyre taken by Nebuchadnezzar

567 Nebuchadnezzar returns to Babylon

566 Nebuchadnezzar dreams of a great tree

565 He is changed into the appearance of an ox

557 His return to his former condition, Daniel 4:0.

556 He sets up a golden statue for worship Three Hebrews cast into the fiery furnace Nebuchadnezzar dies in the 43rd of his reign He was the son of Nabonassar

Evilmerodach succeeds Nebuchadnezzar

555 Belshazzar his son succeeds Evilmerodach

Daniel’s vision of the four animals, chap. 7.

554 Cyrus begins to liberate the Persians

Cyrus soon takes the title of king

552 Belshazzar’s impious feast and tragic death

551 Darius the Mede succeeds Belshazzar

Daniel’s prophecy of the seventy weeks, chap. 9.

550 Darius himself affects to be a god

550 Forbids any prayer to be made but to himself

Daniel is cast into the lion’s den

Cyrus meditates the acquisition of empire He overcomes Astyages, king of the Medes Gives Astyages the province of Hyrcania

545 Cyrus marches against Darius the Mede

Makes war on Crœsus, king of Lydia

544 Attacks Babylon, and takes it

543 Permits the jewish captives to leave Babylon

First year of his reign over all the east

The history of Bel and the Dragon

542 The jews return to build the temple

They renew the sacrifices in Jerusalem

539 The age of Pythagoras and Anacreon

525 Cyrus dies, aged seventy years Cambyses 2. succeeds him in Babylon Cambyses forbids the building of Jerusalem Samaritans are sent with this prohibition

522 Cambyses conquers Egypt after five years

Confucius flourished about this time

520 Cambyses assassinates his brother Smerdis

517 Cambyses dies, and a usurpation follows Artaxerxes forbids the building of the temple Darius, son of Hystaspes, is called Ahasuerus Ahasuerus becomes king of Persia

He marries Artossa, daughter of Cyrus

516 Haggai begins to prophesy at Jerusalem

He reproves the jews for not building the temple

515 The jews soon afterwards begin to build

Zechariah begins to prophesy about this time

513 Feast of Ahasuerus, Esther 1:0.

512 He divorces Vashti and espouses Esther

511 Second temple of Jerusalem dedicated

509 Consular government of Rome commence

505 Haman vows destruction to the jews

Procures an order from Ahasuerus for it

504 Esther obtains a revocation of the decree

Haman hanged instead of Mordecai

The jews punish their enemies at Shushan

490 The battle of Marathon

481 Ahasuerus dies, and is succeeded by Xerxes

Themistocles accused, flees to Xerxes

469 Xerxes dies, Artaxerxes succeeds him

463 He sends Ezra and others to Jerusalem

462 Ezra effects an extensive reformation

450 Nehemiah permitted to visit Jerusalem

He rebuilds the walls and the gates

Induces several families to dwell in the city

Renews the national covenant with Israel

445 Herodotus reads his history at Athens

437 Nehemiah returns to the Persian court

435 Comes a second time to Judea to reform abuses

Zechariah and Malachi prophesy at this time

431 Peloponnesian war begins, May 7th

War continued about twenty seven years

430 History of the old testament concludes

420 Nehemiah dies, governor of Judea

Eliashib the highpriest is succeeded by Joiada

Joiada is succeeded by Jonathan

Jonathan is slain in the temple by a brother

Jaddua next becomes the highpriest

414 Egypt revolts against the Persians

404 Age of Euclid, Lysias, Cebes and others

End of the Peloponnesian war

Athens conquered and ruled by thirty tyrants

401 Cyrus the younger killed at Cunaxa

The tyrants expelled from Athens

400 Socrates put to death for his religion

396 Age of Aristippus, Evagoras, and Xenophon

390 Rome is taken by the Gauls

388 Plato and other philosophers flourished

387 Greek cities of Asia tributary to Persia

377 Age of Isocrates and Diogenes

374 Artaxerxes invades Egypt with 20,000 Greeks

371 The Lacedæmonians defeated by Epamonidas

362 Governors of Asia minor revolt from Persia

360 Philip of Macedon defeats the Athenians

350 Artaxerxes Ochus conquers Egypt

340 Age of Aristotle, Xenocrates, Demosthenes

336 Philip of Macedon killed by Pausanias

332 Tyre and Egypt conquered by Macedonia

Alexandria built

329 Alexander the great enters Asia

328 He besieges Tyre in his way to Judea

Meets the highpriest coming from Jerusalem

Shows him respect, and favour to the jews

The Samaritans permitted to build their temple

327 Alexander conquers Egypt

Samaritans kill the governor Andromachus

Alexander gives part of Samaria to the jews

326 Codomanus dies, the last king of Persia

323 Reign of the Ptolemies in Egypt

319 Alexander dies on the 21st of April

His empire is divided into four kingdoms

316 Ptolemy, son of Lagus, conquers Syria

312 Seleucus takes Babylon

310 Antigonus retakes Judea from Ptolemy

308 Ptolemy, son of Lagua, reconquers Judea

307 Democracy is established at Athens

Judea becomes subject to the kings of Syria

301 Antigonus defeated and killed by Ptolemy

293 The first sundial erected at Rome

Time divided into hours by P. Cursor

291 Seleucus builds forty cities in Asia

Age of Euclid the mathematician

278 Gauls slaughtered near the temple of Delphi

Dionysius the astronomer flourished

269 Silver first coined at Rome

273 Septuagint version made about this time

257 Theos, king of Syria, begins to reign

Jaddua the highpriest dies, succeeded by Onias

Onias is succeeded by Simon the Just

235 Temple of Janus shut at Rome

229 Onias 2. succeeds to the priesthood

217 Ptolemy Philopater becomes king of Egypt

215 Onias dies, Simon 2. becomes highpriest

214 Antiochus wars against Ptolemy Philopater

213 Ptolemy gains a victory in Syria

Ptolemy tries to enter the temple at Jerusalem

His profanity prevented by the priests

213 Punishes the jews on his return to Egypt Orders them to be trod to death by elephants Singular interposition of heaven in their favour

212 The Egyptians rebel against king Ptolemy

200 Ptolemy Philopater dies

Ptolemy Epiphanes succeeds him

198 Antiochus the great conquers Judea

195 Onias 3. becomes the highpriest

194 Epiphanes retakes Judea from Antiochus

193 Antiochus is welcomed at Jerusalem

188 Ptolemy Epiphanes marries Cleopatra

185 Antiochus declares war with the Romans

Is defeated, and preserves only Syria and Judea

183 Antiochus dies, Seleucus is his successor Seleucus demands the treasure in the temple An angel prevents the sacrilege

172 Seleucus is assassinated by Heliodorus Heliodorus wishes to usurp the kingdom Antiochus junior returns from Rome

The Syrians receive him as a titular deity

He is distinguished by the name of Epiphanes

171 Jason buys the pontificate of Epiphanes

Several jews renounce judaism and turn greeks

169 Antiochus Epiphanes is popular at Jerusalem

He makes war against the king of Egypt

166 Menelaus wants to buy the pontificate

Offers Antiochus more than Jason gave for it

He obtains the grant from Antiochus

Menelaus not advancing the money is deprived He causes Onias the highpriest to be killed Antiochus prepares for war in Egypt

Prodigies seen in the air over Jerusalem

Antiochus is reported to have died in Egypt He kills 80,000 jews for circulating the report Plunders the city of Jerusalem

164 Apollonius sent into Judea by Antiochus

Breaks down the city walls, & oppress the people

Builds a citadel near the temple

Judas Maccabeus retires into the wilderness

163 Antiochus publishes a persecuting edict

163 Compels all to adopt the religion of the greeks

Temple sacrifices are interrupted Statue of Jupiter placed upon the altar Eleazer suffers martyrdom at Antioch

Seven brethren and their mother put to death

Mattathias retires into the mountains

Seven of his sons and others join him

162 Mattathias dies

He is succeeded by Judas Maccabeus

161 Antiochus goes to Persia for money for his army

His territories invaded during his absence

Judas Maccabeus repels the invader in Judea

160 Lysias is also beaten, and returns to Antioch Judas purifies the temple, entered by the gentiles Judas defeats the Syrian army

Antiochus Epiphanes dies in Persia

Is succeeded by his son Antiochus Eupator

Judas carries the war into Idumea

159 Conspiracy against the jews in Galilee Antiochus Eupator offers favour to the jews The Roman legates also promise their support Judas defeats a division of the Syrians

Attacks and defeats Georgias in Idumea Golden plunder found among the slain Antiochus Eupator invades Judea in person He takes Bethshur, and besieges Jerusalem

Wall of the city is demolished before the temple

158 Menelaus the priest succeeded by an intruder Demetrius is acknowledged king of Syria Alcimus negociates with him for the pontificate

157 Alcimus enters Jerusalem and is repulsed Judas kills 5000 men, and gains the victory Judas Maccabeus is at last slain in battle

He perishes on a heap of enemies he had slain

Jonathan Maccabeus is chosen in his stead He is both the governor and the highpriest Jonathan is attacked, and swims across Jordan He collects an army and defeats his enemies

155 Jonathan judges the people at Michmash

Removes afterwards to Jerusalem

146 Alexander Balas becomes king of Syria

Jews and Samaritans dispute about their temples Apollonius wars with Jonathan Maccabeus Apollonius is put to flight

146 Ptolemy king of Egypt invades Syria

He dies in Syria, and Cleopatra is on the throne

140 Jonathan is treacherously taken by Tryphon

Tryphon afterwards put him to death

139 Simon Maccabeus succeeds Jonathan

Tryphon usurps the government of Syria

138 Syrian troops evacuate Jerusalem

Simon is owned highpriest and chief of the jews

King of Syria concedes to the jews their rights

134 He at length quarrels with and invades them

131 Simon Maccabeus is killed by treachery

Two of his sons perish with him

130 Hyrcanus succeeds his father Simon Antiochus of Syria besieges Jerusalem Hyrcanus finds money in David’s tomb

127 Antiochus goes to war against the Persians

He is conquered and slain in battle

126 Hyrcanus is independent of the kings of Syria

Takes possession of several of their cities

125 Compels the Idumeans to be circumcised

123 Two kings of Syria at war with each other

106 Hyrcanus besieges and takes Samaria

105 Hyrcanus dies, after reigning 29 years

102 Three principal sects formed about this time

The Pharisees, Sadducees, and Essenes

Judas Aristobulus succeeds Hyrcanus

He seizes the diadem and reigns one year

Leaves his mother & brethren to starve in prison

101 Alexander Jannæus succeeds Aristobulus

He attacks Ptolemaïs, but fails

100 He raises the siege and wastes the country

99 Cleopatra, queen of Egypt, takes Ptolemaïs

98 Alexander forms an alliance with Cleopatra

Takes some places in Palestine

93 The jews revolt, but he subdues them

He sustains six years of civil war

93 Invites the aid of the king of Syria

Alexander is defeated by his own subjects

81 Antiochus Dionysius is king of Syria

He invades Judea but is beaten and slain

74 Alexander Jannæus dies at the age of forty six

Alexandra, his queen, succeeds him

She gains the pharisees to her party

67 Aristobulus 2. dislikes his mother’s reign

66 Takes the principal places in Judea

Reigns one year till the queen’s death

65 Hyrcanus her eldest son then takes the throne Battle between Hyrcanus and Aristobulus Hyrcanus is defeated at Jericho

Is afterwards highpriest for nineteen years

Survived his father Alexander 48 years

63 Catiline’s conspiracy detected by Cicero

62 Peace concluded between the brothers Hyrcanus lives in retirement on his estate Aristobulus 2. keeps the throne for three years

61 King of Arabia tries to reinstate Hyrcanus

Aristobulus takes refuge in the temple

The temple besieged by Aretas king of Arabia Aristobulus implores the aid of the Romans They threaten to overwhelm Aretas

Aretas is compelled to raise the siege and flee

Aristobulus pursues and overcomes him

60 Pompey advises the two brothers to live in peace

58 Cicero is banished from Rome

59 Aristobulus entrenches himself in Jerusalem Pompey besieges and takes both city & temple Aristobulus is taken prisoner

Hyrcanus is made both prince and pontiff Judea compelled to pay tribute to the Romans Alexander, son of Aristobulus, makes his escape He returns to Judea, and raises soldiers

Here ends the kingdom of Syria.

Before Christ

59 The emperor Augustus born

55 Cæsar passes the Rhine and invades Britain

53 Alexander is defeated by the Roman commander

He surrenders, with all his strong places

52 Aristobulus escapes from Rome to Judea

52 He tries to fortify himself in Judea

Is defeated, and sent a second time to Rome

51 Alexander, son of Aristobulus, ravages Judea

Defeated by the Romans at mount Tabor

50 Civil war between Cæsar and Pompey

Crassus assumes the government of Syria

49 Comes to Jerusalem and robs the temple

Marches against the Parthians, slain in battle

48 Cassius brings Roman army over the Euphrates

Takes thirty thousand jewish captives Prevents the ravages of Alexander Civil war between Cæsar and Pompey

47 Alexandria is taken by Cæsar

46 This is called the year of confusion

Great alterations are made in the calendar

45 Julius Cæsar makes himself master of Rome

Restores Aristobulus to liberty

Sends with him two legions into Syria

The adherents of Pompey poison Aristobulus Scipio slays Alexander, son of Aristobulus Antipater is governor of Judea

The library of Alexandria is burnt

44 Cæsar is assassinated

43 Antipater is allied to the Roman army Assists in reducing Egypt to Cæsar Cicero is put to death

Age of Diodorus Ciculus and Nepos

Cæsar ends the war in Egypt and enters Syria He confirms Hyrcanus in the pontificate Vitruvius the architect flourishes at this time Antipater makes Phazael governor of Jerusalem Herod is made governor of Galilee

42 Herod is called to account for his conduct

42 To avoid conviction he retires

Hillel and Sameas flourish about this time Jonathan Uziel, author of Chaldee paraphrase He was the disciple of rabbi Hillel

Cæsar passes into Africa

Cato commits suicide at Utica

41 Hyrcanus renews alliance with Cæsar

The alliance is very advantageous to the jews

40 Jews of Asia are confirmed in their privileges

39 Cassius demands a large tribute from Judea

Antipater is killed by poison

Herod puts Malichus to death

38 Felix makes an attack on Phazael

Phazael shuts him up in a tower

Spain is now subdued to king Augustus

Herod and Phazael made tetrarchs of Judea

37 Antigonus 2. invades Judea with an army

Herod gives him a complete defeat

Mark Antony enters Bithynia

Herod forms an alliance with Antony

Antony gives liberty to the jews at Ephesus

36 The Parthians make Antigonus king of Judea Deliver Hyrcanus and Phazael into his hands Pompey the younger defeated in Sicily Phazael beats out his own brains

Antigonus cuts off the ears of Hyrcanus Then transports him beyond the Euphrates Herod flies to Rome for assistance

The senate confirms his appointment

35 Herod takes Joppa, then goes to Massada Slays some concealed bandit in Galilee Marches against Jerusalem

Season too far advanced for a siege Herod goes with troops to Samosata Assists Antony in the siege of the place

34 Herod’s brother meanwhile attacks Antigonus

Roman forces join in a descent upon Judea

33 After several battles Jerusalem is taken Antigonus surrenders himself to the Romans Is carried prisoner to Antioch

33 Antony orders him to be beheaded

End of the reign of the Asmoneans.

32 Hyrcanus permitted to return to Judea

Herod makes Ananel the highpriest

31 Bestows that honour also on Aristobulus

Æra of the Roman emperors begins here

30 Egypt reduced to a Roman province Herod orders Aristobulus to be drowned Ananel is made highpriest a second time

Herod called to account for death of Aristobulus

War between Augustus and Mark Antony

27 Herod goes to war with the Arabians Title of Augustus given to Octavius A great earthquake felt in Judea Augustus defeats Antony in battle

Herod seizes Hyrcanus and puts him to death

26 Herod appears at court before Augustus Is confirmed in the government of Judea Antony and Cleopatra kill themselves

End of the kings of Alexandria.

25 Emperor Augustus visits Palestine

Herod receives him with great magnificence

Egyptians adopt the Julian period

Age of Virgil, Horace, Ovid, Livy, Strabo

24 Herod puts to death his wife Mariamne

22 Salome, his sister, separates from her husband

21 Augustus visits Greece and Asia

Plague and famine rage in Judea

18 Herod opposes the religion of the jews

17 Visits Agrippa, Augustus’s favourite

Secular games celebrated at Rome

16 Lollius defeated by the Germans

15 Herod rebuilds the temple of Jerusalem

12 Visits Rome to commend himself to Augustus

12 The Pannonians conquered by Tiberius

10 Herod invites Agrippa to visit Jerusalem

9 Discord prevails in Herod’s family

8 Cæsar Augustus corrects the calendar

7 Herod impeaches two sons before Augustus

Cæsarea built and dedicated to Augustus

6 Tiberius retires to Rhodes for seven years

5 Augustus favours the jews of Alexandria

Herod searches David’s sepulchre for treasure

New disturbances in Herod’s family

3 Herod makes war in Arabia

Is accused of killing several Arabs

2 An angel appears to Zachariah the priest

A son promised to Elizabeth his wife

1 The angel appears to the virgin Mary Incarnation of Christ announced to her Herod condemns and slays two of his sons Antipater, son of Herod, aims at the throne Herod sends Antipater to Rome

His stratagems are discovered

John the baptist born, son of Zachariah

JESUS born at Bethlehem, 6 months afterwards


1 Jesus born in Bethlehem-Judea Circumcision on the eighth day Antipater returns from Rome convicted Having attempted to poison Herod

Wise men come from the east to worship Jesus

Jesus presented in the temple

Joy of Simeon and Anna on the occasion Flight into Egypt, with the child Jesus Massacre of the infants at Bethlehem Antipater put to death by order of Herod Herod dies five days after Antipater Herod appoints Archelaus his successor Joseph and Mary return from Egypt

They go with Jesus to dwell at Nazareth

Archelaus visits Augustus at Rome

Is confirmed in the government of Judea

An impostor assumes to be the son of Herod

2 Archelaus gives the pontificate to Eleazar

9 Archelaus is banished to Vienne in Gaul

10 Second enrolment by Cerenius in Syria

Revolt of the chief of the Herodians

12 Jesus visits the temple in his twelfth year

Continues three days unknown to his parents

13 Marcus Ambivius is governor of Judea

17 Cæsar Augustus dies in the 58th yr of his reign

Tiberius succeeds, and reigns near 23 years

23 Tiberius expels all jews from Italy

31 Pilate is made governor of Judea

Attempts to bring Roman eagles into Jerusalem

He is strongly opposed by the jews

32 John the baptist begins to preach

33 Jesus is baptized of John in Jordan

Jesus immediately retires into the desert

After forty days Jesus returns to John

33 He calls four disciples to follow him Performs his first miracle at Cana in Galilee Jesus comes to Capernaum

Attends the first passover at Jerusalem Nicodemus comes to Jesus by night Jesus retires to the banks of Jordan Herod Antipas marries Herodias

She is the wife of his brother Philip

John baptist reproves the conduct of Herod

Herod shuts up John in prison

Jesus withdraws into Galilee

Talks with the woman of Samaria at the well Preaches in the synagogue at Nazareth Leaves Nazareth to dwell in Capernaum

While there he calls four more to follow him

Several miracles wrought in Capernaum

34 Second passover at Jerusalem

Our Lord’s sermon on the mount

John in prison sends a message to Jesus

35 Apostles commissioned to preach in Judea John beheaded in prison by order of Herod This happened in the 17th year of Tiberius Our Lord feeds five thousand by miracle The third passover at Jerusalem

Christ preaches through Judea and Galilee Heals all manner of sickness and disease The transfiguration on the mount

Mission of the seventy disciples Jesus attends the feast of pentecost Attends also the feast of tabernacles

36 Lazarus is taken ill and dies

Jesus comes from beyond Jordan to Bethany

He raises Lazarus from the grave Retires to avoid the malice of the jews Attends his last passover at Jerusalem Lord’s day, Mar. 29, he arrives at Bethany Sups there with Simon the leper

Monday, Mar. 30, enters into Jerusalem

Is hailed by the multitude with joy

36 Tuesday, Mar. 31, comes again to Jerusalem Curses the barren figtree on his way Wednesday, Apr. 1, the jews hold a council They arrange means to apprehend him Thursday, Apr. 2, Jesus goes to mount Olivet Sends to the city to prepare the passover

In the evening eats it with his disciples

Institutes the Lord’s supper

After supper he retires to Gethsemane

Judas betrays him, and the soldiers seize him

He is conducted to Annas in the night Friday, Apr. 3, brought before Pilate Condemned, and crucified on Calvary

Towards evening is taken down from the cross

He is laid in a new sepulchre

The sepulchre is sealed and guarded

He continues in the tomb all Friday night

All Saturday also and Saturday night

Rises from the dead on Lord’s day morning Pious women watch near the sepulchre Jesus appears first to Mary Magdalene

She mistook him for the gardener

The Lord next appears to Peter

Then to two disciples going to Emmaus

Then to the disciples met together at Jerusalem

All this on the day of his resurrection Eight days after he again visits them Thomas is present this time and convinced The apostles return into Galilee

Jesus appears to them on several occasions

They return to Jerusalem after 28 days

Jesus appears to them in Jerusalem, May 14

Leads them to the mount of Olives

Ascends to heaven in their presence

Feast of Pentecost is ten days afterwards

The Holy Ghost descends on the apostles

37 Seven deacons chosen by the church Stephen, one of them, suffers martyrdom Conversion of Saul of Tarsus

37 Pilate informs Tiberius of the death of Christ

James the less presides at Jerusalem Philip baptizes the eunuch of Candace General dispersion of the first believers

38 Agrippa leaves Judea in debt

39 Arrives at Rome and is attached to Caius

40 Displeases Tiberius and is sent to prison

Pilate is ordered into Italy

Tiberius dies, and Caius Caligula succeeds

Agrippa enlarged, and promoted to honour

The apostle Peter visits Antioch

Disciples first called christians at Antioch

41 Paul escapes from Damascus by a basket

He then comes to Jerusalem

Barnabas introduces him to the brethren Paul goes to Tarsus his native city Caligula makes Agrippa tetrarch of Judea The miserable Pilate commits suicide

42 Flaccus is banished by order of Caligula

43 Caligula wants to have his statue in the temple

Agrippa diverts him from his purpose

The jews at Alexandria appeal to Caligula

44 Philo, their leader, obtains an audience Tumults arise in Alexandria and Chaldea Queen Helena and her son embrace judaism Caligula assassinated by Chæreas

Claudius succeeds to the empire

He enlarges Agrippa’s dominions in Judea Agrippa makes Simon Cantharus pontiff Transfers the dignity from Simon to Matthias

46 Agrippa deposes Matthias from the priesthood

Claudius makes a descent upon Britain

47 Agrippa orders St. James to be beheaded

Peter is imprisoned at his command The apostle is liberated by an angel Agrippa smitten to death by an angel Paul and Barnabas visit Antioch

The church at Antioch send them out to preach

48 A great famine prevail in Judea

Paul and Barnabas travel as missionaries

48 At Lystra they are offered divine honours

49 Mark’s gospel written about this time

Tiberius Alexander is procurator of Judea

51 Cumanus succeeds Alexander in Judea

52 Troubles arise under his presidency

54 Judaizing teachers begin to corrupt the gospel Converted gentiles not bound by jewish law Peter is reproved by Paul at Antioch Separation between Paul and Barnabas

Luke and Timothy itinerate with Paul

55 Paul passes out of Asia into Macedonia

56 Paul visits Athens and Corinth Claudius expels the jews from Rome Felix procurator of Judea

57 Paul leaves Corinth after eighteen months Visits Ephesus on his way to Jerusalem Apollo preaches Christ at Ephesus

Paul goes from Jerusalem to Antioch

Passes into Galatia and Phrygia

Returns to Ephesus and stays three years Emperor Claudius poisoned by Agrippina Claudius is succeeded by Nero

Nero puts to death his mother Agrippina

58 Paul’s epistle to the Galatians

59 First epistle to the Corinthians

60 Uproar at Ephesus occasioned by Demetrius

Paul compelled to leave Ephesus

Paul goes into Macedonia

Second epistle to the Corinthians

61 Paul writes his epistle to the Romans

Carries contributions into Judea

Paul is seized in the temple at Jerusalem

62 Sent a prisoner to Cæsarea

Ishmael made highpriest instead of Ananias

Disturbances excited in Cæsarea

63 Porcius Festus procurator of Judea

Paul appeals to the emperor

Put on shipboard and sent to Rome

Paul is shipwrecked at Malta

64 Arrives at Rome, a prisoner for two years

64 Agrippa wishes to overlook the temple The jews build a wall to prevent it Ishmael the highpriest deposed

First persecution against the christians

65 Epistles to the Phillippians and Colossians Martyrdom of James the less of Jerusalem Seneca, Lucan and others put to death

66 Epistle of Paul to the Hebrews Albinus succeeds Festus in Judea Jewish priests divided about tithes A strange cry heard in Jerusalem Woe to the city Woe to the city

The cry continues till the city is besieged

Age of the British queen Boadicea

Of Pliny the elder, and Josephus

67 Paul comes from Italy into Judea

Writes his epistle to Timothy and Titus Agrippa gives the priesthood to Matthias Florus succeeds Albinus in Judea

Nero sets fire to the city of Rome Falsely accuses christians of the fact Several of them are cruelly put to death

68 Peter writes his second general epistle

Several prodigies appear at Jerusalem

Seen especially at the time of the passover

Paul is imprisoned at Rome

Writes his epistle to the Ephesians

Also his second epistle to Timothy

69 Peter and Paul suffer martyrdom

Clement is pastor of the church at Rome Mark becomes a martyr at Alexandria Cestius, of Syria, comes to Jerusalem

He enumerates the jews at the passover Disturbances at Cæsarea and Jerusalem Florus puts several jews to death

The jews join in a general revolt

Kill the Roman garrison at Jerusalem

The jews are massacred at Cæsarea

All the jews of Scythopolis slain in one night

Cestius, governor of Syria, comes to Judea

69 Besieges the temple at Jerusalem

Is defeated by the jews

Christ’s followers foresee the approaching war Leave Jerusalem and flee beyond Jordan Vespasian appointed by Nero to conduct the war Josephus made governor of Galilee

Vespasian sends his son Titus to Alexandria

Prepares meanwhile a numerous army

70 Vespasian enters Judea, subdues Galilee

Josephus besieged in Iotapata

Josephus surrenders to Vespasian

Tiberius and Tarichea submit to Vespasian

Troubles and divisions in Jerusalem

Zealots commit violence in the city & temple Theophilus is deposed from the priesthood Phannias is ordained in his stead

Three contending parties in Jerusalem The zealots send for succour to Idumea The Idumeans retire from Jerusalem

71 Nero the emperor dies, Galba succeeds Vespasian invades Judea and Idumea All the strong places are invested

72 Galba dies, Otho is declared emperor Otho dies, and Vitellius succeeds Vespasian is elected emperor by the army He is acknowledged as such in all the east Josephus the jew is set at liberty

73 Titus marches against the city of Jerusalem

Arrives a few days before the passover

The factions unite against the Romans

The army besiege and reduce the outer wall

Conquest of the lower city

They surround Jerusalem with a wall

The city distressed and reduced by famine

Conquest of the tower of Antonia

An assault on the temple

The daily sacrifice ceases, July 17

Conquest of the outer court of the temple

The Romans set fire to the galleries

Titus wished to preserve the temple

73 A Roman soldier dares to set it on fire

Burning of the lower city

Conquest of the upper city

Romans become masters of the place

They offer sacrifice to their gods

74 Titus totally destroys the temple

He also demolishes the city of Jerusalem

Titus returns in triumph to Rome


GENESIS, Γενεσις , generation, so called by the LXX, because it recites the Generation or Creation of the Heavens and the Earth; of Man, and of the animal and vegetable kingdom. The Hebrews give no distinctive title to their sacred Books, but distinguish them, as we do psalms and hymns, by the first word, phrase or sentence. The Genesis they call בראשׁית BERESHITH, In the Beginning; this being the initial word of the book. In the Arabic it is called “The Book of God.” In addition to the account of the creation, it details the fall of man, the promise of redemption, the depravity and destruction of the antediluvians, the preservation of Noah, the introduction of idolatry, the call of Abraham; and brings down the history of the world to the death of Joseph; comprising the whole of the Patriarchal dispensation, which extended to the year of the world 2369 and before Christ 1635 years. It comes down to us undisputed as the most ancient of all records. The Egyptians, the Chinese, the Siamese, the Hindoos, have nothing that can rival its antiquity.

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