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EXODUS CHAPTER 29
The manner of consecrating priests, Exodus 29:1-3.
Of consecrating Aaron and his sons, Exodus 29:4-7.
The priests’ vesture, Exodus 29:8,Exodus 29:9.
How the bullock of the sin-offering was to be offered, Exodus 29:10-14.
One ram for a burnt-offering, and the manner of offering, Exodus 29:15-18.
A ram for hallowing the priests, Exodus 29:19-31.
Aaron and his sons eat of the ram wherewith they where consecrated, Exodus 29:32,Exodus 29:33.
The altar sanctified for seven days, Exodus 29:36,Exodus 29:37.
Two lambs offered daily, Exodus 29:38.
The time, Exodus 29:39.
The manner of offering, Exodus 29:40-43.
God’s promise to hallow the tabernacle, Aaron, and his sons, Exodus 29:44, and to dwell with them, Exodus 29:45,Exodus 29:46.
The unleavened bread was to show that the priests should be, and that Christ really was, free from all malice and hypocrisy, both which are compared to leaven, Luke 12:1; 1 Corinthians 5:8, and that all the services offered to God by the priests were to be pure and unmixed.
To the door of the tabernacle, as it follows, Exodus 29:4.
Taken out of that laver, Exodus 30:18. This signified the universal pollution of all men, and the absolute need they have of washing, especially when they are to draw nigh to God. And this outward washing was only typical of their spiritual washing by the blood and Spirit of Christ in order to their acceptance with God.
Not about the loins, but about the paps, or breast, as Christ and his ministers are represented, Revelation 1:13. The linen breeches are here omitted, because they were put on privately before they came to the door of the tabernacle, where the other things were put on.
The holy crown, i.e. the plate of gold, Exodus 28:36, as appears by comparing Leviticus 8:9.
Which signified the gifts and graces of the Holy Ghost, wherewith Christ; as, and the priests ought to be, replenished. See Isaiah 61:1. 1 John 2:27. But here ariseth a difficulty; for this anointing is sometimes spoken of as peculiar to the high priest, as Leviticus 21:10, sometimes as common to all the priests, Exodus 30:30; Exodus 40:14,Exodus 40:15, which may be thus reconciled: the oil, was sprinkled upon all the priests, and their right ears, thumbs, and toes, and their garments, Exodus 29:20,Exodus 29:21;Leviticus 8:30, but it was poured out upon the head only of the high priest, Psalms 133:2, who herein was a type of Christ, who was
anointed above his fellows, Psalms 45:7; Hebrews 1:9.
A perpetual statute; so long as the Jewish pedagogy and policy lasts.
To signify that they offered it for themselves and for their own sins, which the offerer performing this rite was to confess, Leviticus 16:21, that they acknowledged themselves to deserve that death which was inflicted upon this innocent creature for their sakes, and to testify their faith in the future sacrifice of Christ, upon whom their sins were to be laid, and by whose blood they were expiated, and that they humbly begged God’s mercy in pardoning their sins, and accepting them to and in their holy office.
Moses, who though no priest, yet for this time and occasion was called by God to this work.
Upon the horns of the altar; not of incense, as some would have it, but of the burnt-offerings, as may appear,
1. Because it was that altar at the bottom whereof the blood was to be poured, as it is here expressed; but that was not done at the altar of incense, as is evident and confessed. Compare Leviticus 16:18, &c.
2. It was that altar upon which the parts of the sacrifices were burnt, as it here follows, Exodus 29:13, for there is no distinction here between the two altars. It is true, in the following sin-offerings of the priests the blood was put upon the horns of the altar of incense, Leviticus 4:7. But it must be considered,
1. That the blood was not poured out at the bottom of that altar.
2. Because Aaron and his sons were not yet complete priests, but private persons, and therefore did this at the same altar which the people used in their sin-offerings, Leviticus 4:25,Leviticus 4:30.
The parts which in all sacrifices were burned unto God, Leviticus 3:3; Leviticus 4:19, to signify either the mortification of their inward and most beloved lusts, or the dedication of the best of all sacrifices, and of their inward and best parts, to God and his service.
To wit, for the high priest, as is plain from the whole context, and therefore ought to be burnt by that law, Leviticus 4:0. There was indeed a law, that that sin-offering whose blood was not carried into the tabernacle, which was the case here, should not be burnt, but eaten, Leviticus 6:30; Leviticus 10:18. But that concerned the people, not the priests, who did not eat, but burn their own sin-offerings, Leviticus 4:3,Leviticus 4:12.
Which signifies, that not only our persons, but our very altars and sacrifices, and best services, need the sprinkling of Christ’s blood upon them to render them acceptable to God.
A sweet savour, Heb. a savour of rest, wherewith God will be well pleased, and for which, as representing Christ who offered up himself, he will graciously accept of the offerings of the priests for themselves, and for the people.
This was for a peace-offering. So here were all the three sorts of sacrifices, which were afterwards to be offered by them for the people.
These parts are consecrated in the name and stead of all the rest; the ear, as the instrument of hearing and receiving the mind and will of God in all their sacred administrations, and in their whole conversation; the hand and foot, as the instruments of action and execution of that which they hear and understand to be the mind of God; and the right parts are chosen rather than the left, as being usually more vigorous and expeditious. And all these parts are sprinkled with this blood, to show the absolute necessity of Christ’s blood to qualify them for an acceptable and successful discharge of their office.
Of the priests in their office. Therefore the right shoulder was burnt, which in other sacrifices was given to the priest.
Either toss them from one hand to another, as giving all from themselves to God; or shake them to and fro, towards the several parts of the world, to note God’s dominion over all places and people, and the extent of that true and great sacrifice, represented in these types to all.
To wit, the breast alone, whereas both shoulder and breast were given to Aaron afterwards; the reason whereof might be, either because Moses was not a proper and complete priest, as Aaron afterward was, but only appointed by God for this time to do that work; or because now there were in a manner two priests, the one consecrating, to wit, Moses; the other consecrated, to wit, Aaron; therefore these parts were divided, the breast went to the former to be eaten, the shoulder offered unto God for the latter, Exodus 29:22; he being not yet a perfect priest, and therefore not in a capacity of eating it.
Heaved up: this was done by throwing the parts upward, and catching them again.
Even of that which is for Aaron, and of that which is for his sons: the words may be rendered thus, of which breast and shoulder of the ram shall be Aaron’s portion, and of which shall be the portion of his sons; so there is only an ellipsis of the verb substantive, which is most common, and the Hebrew prefix lamed designs a thing belonging to the person to whom that is prefixed, as it is in other like cases, as Genesis 40:8; Deuteronomy 1:17; Psalms 47:9.
It is an heave-offering; under which is comprehended also the wave-offering; as plainly appears both from the context, and from the parity of reason, these offerings being of the same nature, and designed for the same purpose.
His sons, i. e. his eldest sons successively. To be consecrated by some other priest, there being no other higher person who could do it, and therefore the necessity of it made it warrantable.
For so long the solemnity of the consecration lasted, Exodus 29:35.
In the holy place; both that strictly so called, and in the most holy place; for as none could go into the most holy place except the high priest, so there were some things to be done in the holy place which none but he could do. See Leviticus 4:7,Leviticus 4:8.
In the court-yard at the door of the tabernacle, where it was both boiled and eaten, as appears from this and the next verse, and from Leviticus 8:31. And part of this was eaten by the person or persons that brought the offering, though they were of the people, who were not admitted into any other holy place but this.
Those things, i.e. the remainders of the oblations mentioned Exodus 29:32.
A stranger, i.e. one who is not of the priestly race, whereas in other peace-offerings the offerer did eat a part.
Thou shalt burn the remainder, according to the law of all peace-offerings, except those which were vows or voluntary offerings, Leviticus 7:16,Leviticus 7:17, which these were not: compare Exodus 12:10.
For atonement, as well for the priests as for the altar; both which, as they were or might be polluted, so they needed the sprinkling of this blood to sanctify them, to show that all persons and things were fitted for God’s service, and accepted by him only for and through the blood of Christ.
It shall be an altar most holy, as appears from the following reason, because it was not only holy in itself, but by its touch communicated a legal holiness to other things.
Whatsoever toucheth the altar shall be holy: this may be understood either,
1. Of persons, as a caution that none should touch the altar but holy and consecrated persons. Or rather,
2. Of things, yet not of all things, for polluted things were not made holy by the touch of holy things, which is affirmed, Haggai 2:12; but of things belonging to the altar Of offerings, which by God’s appointment were to be offered, which were sanctified by being laid upon this altar, and therefore the altar was greater and more holy than the gift, as our blessed Saviour notes, Matthew 23:19.
This is that which thou shalt offer: this is the chief end and use of this altar, though it served also for other sacrifices.
Day by day continually; to show, partly, that men do daily contract new defilement, and daily need new pardons; and partly, that God is not only to be worshipped upon rite sabbath days, and other set and solemn times, but every day.
Which two seasons were selected as most commodious, that men might both begin and end their worldly actions said businesses with God, and might see their need of God’s assistance and blessing in all their concerns, and the justness of giving him the praise and glory of all.
A tenth deal; the tenth part of an ephah, as is evident from Numbers 28:5, which is an omer, Exodus 16:36.
An hin was a measure for liquid things, as the ephah was for dry things, containing six pints of our measure.
1. At which door, for there the Lord stood and talked with Moses, Exodus 33:9,Exodus 33:10. Or rather,
2. In which tabernacle, to wit, in the innermost part of it, because that was the principal place where God did ordinarily reside and meet with his people, Exodus 30:6; Leviticus 16:2; whereas God met but once at the door of the tabernacle, and that with Moses only, not with the people, with whom he is said to meet in this place, Exodus 29:43. Add to this, that the place where God meets them is the same place which is sanctified by his glory, and that was the tabernacle, Exodus 29:43, as it is expressed in our translation, and sufficiently implied in the Hebrew, by a common ellipsis of the pronoun it, i. e. that place where I meet with you, to wit, the tabernacle, shall be, &c.
i.e. By my glorious presence and appearance, of which see Exodus 40:34,Exodus 40:35; Leviticus 9:24.
I will dwell, by my special grace, and favour, and blessing; for by his essence he fills all places.
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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Exodus 29". Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/
the Week of Proper 8 / Ordinary 13