Bible Commentaries

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

Matthew

Book Overview - Matthew

by Daniel Whedon

COMMENTARY ON THE NEW TESTAMENT.

Intended for Popular Use

By D.D. WHEDON, LL.D.

 

VOLUME 1.

MATTHEW—MARK.

 

NEW YORK: NELSON & PHILLIPS.

CINCINNATI: HITCHCOCK & WALDEN.

1867.

 

PREFACE.

THE preparing of a Commentary on the New Testament was first suggested to the author in behalf of the Tract department of the Methodist Episcopal Church; its extent was then limited to a single volume, and its object to the Tract circulation. When, however, that volume was completed as far as the Apocalypse, it was on all hands concluded that a work of a larger extent was more desirable, so as to be brought within the requisition of a resolution of the General Conference of 1856, directing a Commentary suitable for general popular use to be prepared. The task of reconstructing was immediately commenced, and the present volume is thus far the result. The present purpose is to furnish a second volume, including the remaining historical books of the New Testament, and a third upon the epistles.

The works mostly used in preparing the volume are: of commentaries, Bloomfield’s Recensio Synoptica, Bloomfield’s and Alford’s Greek Testament, Olshausen’s Commentary, Stier’s Words of Jesus, Tholuck’s Sermon on the Mount, and the Illustrated Commentary. Of Harmonies, Robinson’s and Strong’s. Of modern travels, Olin’s, Durbin’s, Stanley’s, Hackett’s, and especially Dr. Thomson’s Land and the Book. Of miscellaneous works, Trench on Parables and on Miracles, Hengstenberg’s Christology, and Milman’s History of Christianity. The excellent Commentaries, lately published, of Hall, Prof. Owen, Alexander, Jacobus, and Morrison have been duly consulted. In the topography of the narrative of the crucifixion, the main guide has been Barclay’s City of the Great King.

Several of the most valuable of the illustrations are appropriated from Dr. Strong’s Harmony and Exposition. The author is indebted to the kindness of Harper & Brothers for the use of the valuable map of Gennesaret and its vicinity, at page 62, taken from Dr. Thomson’s work. This map embraces the latest researches made by that author in that locality. It will be found to differ in important and interesting particulars from the earlier map of Palestine at the title-page.

The matter of the work is confined mainly to commentary proper, excluding formal “practical application,” and other departments belonging to homiletics. Whatever of a practical or animating character the exposition may possess, will arise mainly from the clear presentation of the meaning and spirit of the text itself, with incidental and occasional reflections.

INTRODUCTION.

THE word Testament is a term for any document which is attested by seal or otherwise. Such documents, in law, are a Will bequeathing property, or a Covenant embodying a solemn treaty or contract. It is in this latter sense that the word is biblically used. The Old Testament embraces the covenant between God and his people, expressing the terms of service and favour under the old dispensation; the New Testament embodies a similar covenant under the later dispensation of his Son. Both Testaments constitute what (from the Greek ο βιβλος, the book) is pre-eminently styled The Bible.

The New Testament is that body of twenty-seven books, or treatises, written by eight different authors, which the Christian Church from the apostolic age has considered as providentially designed by Jesus Christ, the Great Head of the Church, as the true, and perfect, and infallible expression and record of his religion. The authenticity of these books, their historical truth, and the verity of the religion they teach, have been demonstrated with great learning and force, and at great length, by many able writers. The vast mass of proof we may very imperfectly classify as Historical, Prophetical, and Internal. Of these we briefly notice the first two.

HISTORICAL PROOF.

The Historical Proof embraces, I. The testimony of profane or pagan authors to the facts of Christianity. 1. Tacitus, the greatest of Roman historians, says, in words which show his own pagan hostility to Christianity, that the emperor Nero “inflicted the severest punishments upon a class of people held in abhorrence for their crimes, called Christians. The founder of that name was Christ, who suffered death in the reign of Tiberius under his procurator, Pontius Pilate. This destructive superstition, thus checked for a while, broke out again, and spread, not only over Judea, where the evil originated, but through Rome also.” This extract furnishes, in fact, a brief history of the origin of Christianity; of the existence, time, and death of its founder, and the early martyrdoms of his Church. 2. Suetonius, another Roman pagan historian, says, in his Life of Nero: “The Christians were punished — a set of men of a new and mischievous superstition.” 3. Pliny, one of the most elegant of pagan writers, in a letter to the emperor of Rome about thirty or forty years after the death of Christ, detailing the persecutions he was inflicting on the Christians of his province, says: “They declared that the whole of their guilt or error was that they were accustomed to meet on a stated day before it was light, and to sing in concert a hymn of praise to Christ as God, and to bind themselves by a sacred obligation, not for the perpetration of any wickedness, but that they would not commit any theft, robbery, or adultery, nor violate their words, nor refuse when called upon to restore anything committed to their trust. After this they were accustomed to separate and then to re-assemble to eat in common a harmless meal.” These passages demonstrate, by the highest possible pagan authority, the great facts of the existence, the time, and the death of Christ, as well as of the sufferings, the purity, the stated worship, the belief in Christ’s divinity, and the sacramental meal of the early Church.

II. The testimony of pagan controversial opposers. Celsus wrote against Christianity in the second century. He assumes throughout that the four Gospels were written by the authors whose names are attached to them, and that if he can overthrow them he destroys the religion. He does not so much deny the miracles of Jesus as ascribe them (like the scribes) to magic and connection with evil powers. Porphyry in the third century, and the emperor Julian in the fourth, follow the same course. The authenticity of the Gospels is by them wholly admitted.

III. Higher than all pagan admission is the testimony of the early Christian Church. That the primitive Christians were a holy Church, sifted by the terrible power of martyrdom, is attested alike by pagan statements, by Christian record, and by the wonderful and solemn disclosures of the catacombs, whose sepulchral inscriptions bear register of the immense numbers of the martyr army. Of the truth of the Christian history these were the witnesses, such witnesses as no other history ever claimed.

A whole body of Christian writers exists, extending from the present day to the time of Paul and the evangelists. A whole mass of books and records lies along from the present commentary to Matthew himself. Each successive generation quotes the books of the preceding generation entirely up to the New Testament writers. Each generation proves the existence of the writings of the previous generation by quotations; for nobody can quote books that do not exist. All these generations quote the books of the New Testament; and each generation quotes the preceding generation as quoting the New Testament. The New Testament books could not then have been forged or written at any point subsequent to the time of the writers whose name they bear. And that is the very time which the pagan Tacitus, and Suetonius, corroborated by Pliny, affirm to have been the time of Christ. In the evangelists and epistles we have, therefore, the testimony of contemporaries to the doings and sayings of Christ, and those contemporaneous holy men who died to seal the truth of their narrative.

PROPHETIC PROOF.

Prophetic fulfilments we will treat under two classes, namely, Prophecies shown to be fulfilled by pagan testimony, and Prophecies shown to be fulfilled by the New Testament.

I. Taking the Hebrew Scriptures and the Pagan testimonies above given, (without adducing the New Testament,) we could give a powerful proof from prophecy of the divine character of Christianity. We would leave out of account all prophecy that could be called obscure, (which belongs to the interior doctrines rather than to the external proofs,) and take those which are unequivocal and clear.

1. Tacitus, Suetonius, and Josephus agree that the time of Christ was the period when, according to the Sacred Books, the advent was generally expected. So clear was prophecy as to the time, that the age was looking for its fulfilment.

2. The celebrated prophecy (Genesis 49:3; Genesis 49:10) predicted that Shiloh should come before the sceptre should depart from Judah; and all the ancient Jewish writers agreed that Shiloh was Messiah, that is, Christ. The sceptre has departed, and Messiah has therefore come; and he came so early as the time at which Tacitus, etc., affirm that Jesus came; and the Jews admit he never came before.

3. Daniel (Daniel 9:25) prophesies (in Persia during the captivity, when Jerusalem was in ruins) that “from the going forth of the command” of the Persian king “to restore and build Jerusalem, unto the Messiah, the Prince, shall be” 7+60+2, equal to sixty-nine weeks. These weeks, it is on all hands admitted, are year-weeks, of which each day is a year.

Certainly no Jew can claim them to be day-weeks, for Messiah did not come in sixty-nine ordinary weeks. But the extent of the period from the time of the restoration of Jerusalem to the time assigned by Tacitus etc., to Christ, (leaving to learned men to prove the exactitude of the fit,) we may affirm, upon the face of it, to agree with the requirements of the prophecy. But Daniel goes on to say that the Messiah “shall be cut off;” of which Tacitus states, as exact fulfilment, that “Christ suffered death in the reign of Tiberius, under his procurator Pontius Pilate.”

II. In taking up prophecies whose fulfilment appears from the New Testament, we assume that the argument for the veracity of the New Testament writers is conclusive, so far as concerns the main facts they attest. Leaving out all reference to miraculous facts, if the evangelists and Paul are reliable for the historical points, like the lineage, birthplace, humble origin, peaceful doctrines, sacrificial death, and diffusion of his religion among the Gentiles, Jesus fulfils the pictures of prophecy. Here note:

1. His lineage from David, making him a hereditary temporal prince. See notes on Matthew 1:21; Matthew 1:1-17.

2. His birthplace, identical with David’s birthplace, Bethlehem. See notes on Matthew 2:1-6.

3. His humble rise, as a branch or sprout. See notes on Matthew 2:23.

4. His character as a peaceful teacher, yet his doctrines to become the religion of the Gentiles. See notes on Matthew 12:17-21.

5. The locality of his early ministry, Galilee. See notes on Matthew 4:12-16.

6. His death: At the passover. See note on Matthew 26:3. As a ransom. Isaiah 53:4-11. See note on Matthew 20:28.

Of miraculous facts we select the following:

1. Birth from a pure virgin. See notes on Matthew 1:22-23.

2. Performance of miracles. Consult Isaiah 35:4-6; Isaiah 29:18. See note on Matthew 11:4-5.

3. His resurrection from the dead. Isaiah 53:12.

4. His rule over the nations. Isaiah 11:4-10; Isaiah 2:1-4; Psalms 2:8. Finally, with the full recollection that the Old Testament claimed to be prophetic, and to foretell the future Messiah, read the passage of Isaiah 52:13 to Isaiah 53:12, and judge whether it is not a wonderful descriptive outline of the Messiah of the Gospels.

INSPIRATION OF THE SCRIPTURES.

If the New Testament writings be true, they are inspired, since they affirm their own inspiration. Romans 3:1; 2 Timothy 3:16; 2 Peter 1:21; John 14:16-26; Matthew 10:19-20, (see note.) 1. That the Scriptures are an infallible expression of the religion of Jesus is necessarily true. For how absurd would it be for Jesus to pass through the terrible labour and suffering of bringing his religion into existence, and then to leave it in no definite, certain, intelligible, and permanent shape. 2. The Scriptures were accepted as inspired by the Primitive Church in its inspired and martyr age, before the last apostle had deceased, and while miracle and the discerning of spirits were still existing in the Church. 3. Without at the present time discussing the nature of inspiration; without deciding whether it was by the divine selection of every word, and giving it to the mind and pen of the writer; or by guarding him from every error in Christian truth and doctrine, or even in historical, natural, or chronological fact; or whether it was by elevation, filling the mind with the spirit and the clear perception of Christian truth; thus much is certain: that the New Testament is accepted and sanctioned by the inspired Church; by Jesus, the Head of the Church; and by God in his providence, as the true and ultimate expression and record of religious truth and doctrine.

MATTHEW THE EVANGELIST.

Matthew the evangelist and apostle was a Galilean, and the son of Alpheus. If his father was the same with the Alpheus named as the father of James the Less, then he was cousin of the Lord Jesus.

Matthew’s residence was at (Capernaum, and he was by profession a publican. The Lake of Gennesaret, by which he lived, however deserted now, was then surrounded with an immense population; it was embosomed in the fertile Jordan valley; its fisheries supplied a source of livelihood, and its surface was alive with a busy navigation and traffic. It was the great thoroughfare for the commerce of Damascus and Babylon with Southern Palestine. A custom-house, for the collection of duties upon the commodities of this traffic, was located by the Roman government at Capernaum, and Matthew was there a tax collector. The publicans proper were usually Romans of rank and wealth, who farmed or let out the business of collecting to resident deputies, who were called portitors. It was to this last class that Matthew belonged. A competence if not wealth was likely to be gained by this office; but, as the officer thereby became an agent of the Roman government, he encountered a great unpopularity with his countrymen.

As Matthew was one day sitting at the receipt of custom by the seaside, Jesus, at an early period of his ministry, passed and pronounced the mandate “Follow me.” That Matthew already knew Jesus, if not his relative, is plain from the instant result. “He arose and followed” his Lord. When, before the sermon on the mount, our Lord inaugurated his body of apostles, Matthew was included; and in his own catalogue stands second in class and eighth in order.

About six months after this first call, Matthew gave a great feast in honour of his Lord, to which he invited many of his former publican associates. He gives a brief account of the feast; but we are indebted to Luke for the fact, which Matthew’s modesty omitted to mention, that Matthew himself was the giver. The first three evangelists (whose Gospels are called synoptical, from the fact of their marked correspondence with each other, in which John’s Gospel does not share) mention the sullen murmurs of the scribes and Pharisees at the association of Jesus with publicans and sinners, as well as our Lord’s most wise and benevolent replies.

Matthew’s name appears in the New Testament for the last time in the catalogue of the eleven in the Acts, and he was doubtless at the feast of Pentecost. The most authentic primitive tradition assures us that he preached the Gospel for some years in Palestine. Later ecclesiastical writers suppose that he preached in Ethiopia, and there suffered martyrdom. But an earlier writer, Heracleon, who lived in the second century, affirmed that Matthew was one of the apostles who did not undergo the martyr’s fate.

The authorship of this Gospel by Matthew has ever been acknowledged in the Church from the earliest antiquity. That Matthew previously wrote a Gospel narrative in the Hebrew language for his Jewish readers, is also a well authenticated opinion. Such a fact no way invalidates the genuineness of this Gospel in the Greek as a true original by Matthew.

HISTORICAL SYNOPSIS OF THE GOSPELS.

The figures with the mark § in the notes refer to the sections of this Synopsis.

PERIOD FIRST.

THE INFANCY AND CHILDHOOD.

1 Preface of St. Luke Luke 1:1-4

2 Preface of St. John John 1:1-18

3 Elizabeth’s conception Luke 1:5-25

4 Salutation of Mary Luke 1:26-28

5 Visit of Mary to Elizabeth Luke 1:39-56

6 Birth of John the Baptist Luke 1:57-59

7 An angel appears to Joseph Matthew 1:18-25

8 Jesus’s birth Luke 2:1-7

9 Genealogy of Jesus Matthew 1:1-17Luke 3:23-38

10 Appearance of an angel to the shepherds; their visit to Jesus Luke 2:8-20

11 Circumcision of Jesus Matthew 1:25Luke 2:21

12 Jesus presented in the temple Luke 2:22-38

13 The Magi. Flight of Jesus into Egypt. Cruelty of Herod. Return of Jesus from Egypt Matthew 2:1-23

14 Jesus goes to the Passover at twelve years of age Luke 2:40-52

PERIOD SECOND.

THE QUALIFICATION.

15 John the Baptist and his ministry Luke 1:80

16 Jesus is baptized Matthew 3:13-17Mark 1:9-11Luke 3:21-23

17 Jesus’s temptation Matthew 4:1-11Mark 1:12-13Luke 4:1-13

18 John the Baptist’s testimony to Jesus; its effects John 1:19-51

PERIOD THIRD.

THE PREPARATORY MINISTRY.

19 Marriage Feast at Cana, of Galilee John 2:1-12First Passover of Jesus’s Ministry

20 Jesus goes to Jerusalem at the Passover; he casts the traders out of the temple John 2:13-25

21 Jesus’s discourse with Nicodemus John 3:1-21

22 Jesus tarries and baptizes in Judea. The superior dignity of Jesus asserted by John the Baptist John 3:22-36

23 Jesus retires to Galilee after John’s imprisonment. He passes through Samaria and makes disciples Matthew 4:12Mark 1:14John 4:1-42

24 The right of public ministry exercised by Jesus in Galilee. In Cana he heals the son of an officer of King Herod, who lay sick at Capernaum John 4:43-54

25 Jesus goes to Nazareth; preserves his life by a miracle; fixes his dwelling at Capernaum Luke 4:15-31

26 Call of Simon and Andrew, also of James and John, with the miracle which preceded it Luke 5:1-11

27 Jesus heals a demoniac in the synagogue at Capernaum Mark 1:21-28Luke 4:31-37

28 Peter’s wife’s mother and others are healed. Attended by some of his disciples, Jesus teaches and works miracles in Galilee Matthew 8:14-25Mark 1:29-39Luke 4:38-44

29 Jesus heals a leper Matthew 8:2-4Mark 1:40-45Luke 5:12-16

30 Jesus heals a paralytic Mark 2:1-12Luke 5:17-26

31 Call of Matthew Mark 2:13-14Second Passover.

32 Healing of an infirm man at Bethesda, in Jerusalem John 5:1-47

33 Jesus vindicates his disciples for plucking ears of corn on the Sabbath Matthew 12:1-8Mark 2:23-28Luke 6:1-5

34 Jesus heals a man with a withered hand on the Sabbath, and withdraws himself from the Pharisees, and heals many Matthew 12:9-21Mark 3:1-12Luke 6:6-11

PERIOD FOURTH.

THE PLATFORM AND EXTENDING MINISTRY.

35 Jesus retires to a mountain, and calling his disciples to him, chooses twelve; he is followed by a great multitude, and heals many Mark 3:13-19Luke 6:12-19

36 The Sermon on the Mount Matthew 5:1-48Mark 6:20-26

37 The centurion’s servant healed Matthew 8:5-13Mark 7:1-10

38 The widow’s son is raised from the dead at Nain Luke 7:11-17

39 Jesus’s answer to the disciples sent by John the Baptist Matthew 11:2-19Luke 7:18-35

40 Jesus’s reflections in consequence of his appeal to his mighty works Matthew 11:20-30

41 A woman who had been a sinner is publicly reassured by Jesus sitting at meat with a Pharisee Luke 7:36-50

42 During Jesus’s second circuit through Galilee he heals a demoniac, and the scribes and Pharisees blaspheme the Holy Spirit Matthew 9:35Mark 6:6Luke 8:1-3

43 Jesus reproves the scribes and Pharisees for seeking a sign Matthew 12:38-45Luke 11:16; Luke 11:24-54 Who are truly blessed Luke 11:27-28

45 Jesus regards his true disciples as his nearest relations Matthew 12:46-50Mark 3:31-35Luke 8:19-21

46 Jesus, sitting at meat with a Pharisee, denounces woes against the Pharisees, scribes, and teachers of the law Luke 11:37-54

47 Jesus instructs his disciples and the people Luke 12:1-59

48 The calamities of certain Galileans a warning to the Jews Luke 13:1-9

49 Parables. The reason why he used them. One explained Matthew 13:1-52Mark 4:1-34

50 Jesus gives commandment to cross the lake. Incidents on the way. A tempest stilled Matthew 8:18-27Mark 4:35-41Luke 8:22-25

51 Two demoniacs of Gadara healed Matthew 8:28-34Mark 5:1-20Luke 8:26-39

52 Levi’s feast. Jesus’s consequent discourse. The raising of Jairus’s daughter Matthew 9:1; Matthew 9:10-25Mark 5:21Luke 8:40

53 Jesus heals two blind men Matthew 9:27-31

54 Jesus casts out a dumb spirit. The Pharisees again blaspheme Matthew 9:32-34

55 Jesus revisits Nazareth, and is again rejected there Matthew 13:54-58Mark 6:1-6

PERIOD FIFTH.

APOSTOLIC COMMISSION, AND MINISTRY AT ZENITH.

56 The occasion of sending forth the twelve apostles to preach and work miracles Matthew 9:36-38.

57 The twelve are instructed and sent forth Matthew 10:1; Matthew 10:5-42Mark 6:7-11Luke 9:1-5

58 Jesus continues his tour through Galilee Matthew 11:1

59 The twelve preach repentance and work miracles everywhere Mark 6:12-13Luke 9:6

60 The death of John the Baptist Matthew 14:6-12Mark 6:21-56 Herod hears of Jesus’s fame and desires to see him Matthew 14:1-2Mark 6:14-16Luke 9:7-9

62 Return of the twelve Mark 6:30-31Luke 9:10

63 Five thousand are fed on five loaves and two fishes Matthew 14:13-21Mark 6:32-44Luke 9:10-17John 6:1-14

64 Jesus walks on the sea Matthew 14:22-36Mark 6:45-56

65 Jesus discourses with the multitude in Capernaum, in the synagogue of that city, and with his disciples. Peter’s confession John 6:22-71; John 7:1

66 Jesus’s discourse with the Pharisees and scribes, and with his disciples, about eating with unwashen hands Matthew 15:1-20Mark 7:1-23

67 Jesus heals the daughter of a Syrophenician woman Matthew 15:21-28Mark 7:24-30

68 Jesus restores to a person hearing and speech Matthew 15:29-31Mark 7:31-37

69 Jesus feeds more than four thousand with seven loaves and a few small fishes Matthew 15:32-39Mark 8:1-10

70 The Pharisees and Sadducees again ask a sign Matthew 16:1-4Mark 8:11-12

71 The disciples are cautioned against the leaven of the Pharisees, of the Sadducees, and of Herod Matthew 16:4-12Mark 8:13-21

72 Jesus restores a blind man to sight near Bethsaida Mark 8:22-26

73 Peter repeats his confession that Jesus was the Messiah Matthew 16:13-20Mark 8:27-30Luke 9:18-21

PERIOD SIXTH.

TRANSFIGURATION, AND MINISTRY OF SORROW AND STRUGGLE.

74 Jesus plainly foretells his sufferings and resurrection; rebukes Peter, exhorts all to self-denial Matthew 16:21-28Mark 8:31-38Luke 9:22-27

75 Jesus’s transfiguration; his discourse with the three disciples as they were descending from the mountain Matthew 17:1-13Mark 9:2-13Luke 9:28-36

76 Jesus casts out a dumb and deaf spirit Matthew 17:14-21Mark 9:14-29Luke 9:37-43

77 Jesus again foretells his suffering and resurrection Matthew 17:22-23Mark 9:30-32Luke 9:43-45

78 Jesus works a miracle to pay the tribute money Matthew 17:24-27Mark 9:33

79 The disciples contend who should be the greatest, Jesus’s conduct and discourse on that occasion Matthew 18:1-35Mark 9:33-50Luke 9:46-50

80 Seventy disciples are instructed and sent out Luke 10:1-16

81 Jesus goes to Jerusalem at the feast of tabernacles. His conduct and discourses during the feast John 7:2-53; John 8:1

82 A woman taken in adultery is brought before Jesus John 8:2-11

83 Jesus discourses with the scribes and Pharisees, with those who believed in him, and with the unbelieving Jews John 8:12-59

84 Jesus restores sight to one blind from his birth. The consequence of this miracle John 9:1-41; John 10:1-21

85 Return of the seventy Luke 10:17-24

86 Jesus instructs a teacher of the law how to attain eternal life Luke 10:25-37

87 The disciples are again taught how to pray Luke 11:1-13

88 Jesus restores a woman who had been bowed down for eighteen years Luke 13:10-21

89 Jesus replies to the question, Are there few that be saved? Luke 13:22-35

90 The transactions when our Lord ate bread with a chief Pharisee on the Sabbath Luke 14:1-24

91 Jesus states to the multitude the difficulties attending a profession of his religion Luke 14:25-35

92 Jesus defends himself against the Pharisees and scribes for instructing publicans and sinners Luke 15:1-32

93 Jesus instructs his disciples by the parable of the unjust steward. The Pharisees are reproved Luke 16:1-31

94 Jesus further instructs his disciples Luke 17:1-10

95 The Samaritans will not receive Jesus. James and John reproved for their zeal against them Luke 9:51-56

96 Jesus cleanses ten lepers Luke 17:12-19

97 The Pharisees ask when the kingdom of God should come. Jesus answer Luke 17:20-37

98 Jesus speaks a parable to his disciples, and another to certain who trusted in themselves that they were righteous Luke 18:1-14

99 Jesus received into Martha’s house Luke 10:38-42

100 Jesus keeps the feast of dedication at Jerusalem John 10:22-39

101 Jesus goes again to Bethabara after the feast of dedication and remains there till a fit occasion calls him into Judea John 10:40-42

PERIOD SEVENTH.

THE FINAL JOURNEY TO JERUSALEM, AND CONTEST THERE.

102 Lazarus raised from the dead. The consequences of this miracle John 11:1-54

103 Jesus enters Judea. The Pharisees question him about divorces Matthew 19:1-12Mark 10:1-12

104 Jesus lays his hand on young children and blesses them Matthew 19:13-15Mark 10:13-16Luke 18:15-17

105 Jesus’s discourse in consequence of being asked by a rich man how he should attain eternal life Matthew 19:16; Matthew 20:16Mark 10:17-31Luke 18:18-30

106 Jesus as he is going up to Jerusalem, foretells his sufferings to the twelve apart Matthew 20:17-19Mark 10:32-34Luke 18:31-34

107 The ambitious request of James and John Matthew 20:20-28Mark 10:35-45

108 Jesus restores sight to two blind men near Jericho Matthew 20:29-34Mark 10:46-52Luke 18:35-43

109 Jesus visits Zaccheus, a chief of the publicans Luke 19:2-28

110 Jesus arrives at Bethany six days before the passover John 11:55-57; John 12:1; John 12:9-11

111 Jesus proceeds to Jerusalem amid the acclamations of the disciples and of the multitude. The transactions there Matthew 21:1-17Mark 11:1-11Luke 19:29-44

112 The barren fig-tree. The temple cleansed Matthew 21:12; Mark 11:12-19John 13:18-19

113 The disciples observe the fig tree withered away Matthew 21:20-22Mark 11:20-26

114 Jesus’s discourse with the chief priests, scribes, and elders in the temple Matthew 21:23; Matthew 22:14Mark 11:27; Mark 12:12Luke 20:1-19

115 The Pharisees and Herodians. The Sadducees and one of the Pharisees, who was a scribe, question Jesus. Jesus questions the Pharisees Matthew 22:15-46Mark 12:12-37Luke 20:20-40

116 Jesus, in the hearing of his disciples and of the multitude, reproves the scribes and Pharisees to their face with a divine eloquence Matthew 23:1-39Mark 12:38-40

117 Jesus prefers the widow’s offering to the gifts of the rich Mark 12:41-44Luke 21:1-4

118 Jesus foretells the destruction of Jerusalem, and distinguishes it from the final judgment Matthew 24:1; Matthew 25:30Mark 13:1-37Luke 21:5-36

119 Picture of the final judgment. How Jesus employed himself during the week Matthew 25:31-46

120 The remaining transactions of the Tuesday preceding the crucifixion Matthew 26:1-16Mark 14:1-11Luke 22:1-6

PERIOD EIGHTH.

THE SUFFERING.

121 Jesus prepares to keep the passover Matthew 26:17-19Mark 14:12-16Luke 22:7-13

122 Jesus sits down with the twelve. There is an ambitious contention among the twelve Matthew 26:20Mark 14:17Luke 22:14-18

123 Jesus washes the feet of his disciples John 13:1-20

124 Jesus foretells that Judas would betray him. The conduct of the disciples and of Judas Matthew 26:21-35Mark 14:18-21Luke 22:21-23John 13:21-35

125 Jesus foretells to the apostles the fall of Peter, and their common danger John 13:36-38

126 Jesus institutes the breaking of bread in remembrance of his body broken Matthew 26:26Mark 14:22Luke 22:191 Corinthians 11:23-24

127 Jesus comforts his disciples John 14:1-31

128 Jesus institutes the drinking of wine in remembrance of his blood shed Matthew 26:27-29Mark 14:23-25Luke 22:201 Corinthians 11:25

129 Jesus resumes his discourse to his disciples John 14:31; John 16:33

130 Jesus’s prayer John 17:1-26

131 The agony of Jesus in Gethsemane Matthew 26:30; Matthew 26:36-46Mark 14:26; Mark 14:32-42Luke 22:39-46John 18:1

132 The betrayal of Jesus John John 18:2-12

133 Jesus is brought before Annas and Caiaphas. Peter denies him thrice John 18:13-18.

134 Jesus stands before Caiaphas, and then before the whole Jewish council. He confesses himself to be the Christ and is pronounced guilty of death John 18:19-23

135 Jesus is taken before Pilate Matthew 27:1-14Mark 15:1-5Luke 23:1-5John 18:28-38.

136 Jesus is sent to Herod by Pilate; he is sent back by Herod Luke 18:6-12

137 Pilate seeks to release Jesus Matthew 27:15-23Mark 15:6-14Luke 23:13-23John 18:39-40

138 Pilate, having scourged Jesus, and having repeated his attempts to release him, delivered him to the clamors of the Jews to be crucified Matthew 27:24-31Mark 15:15-20John 19:1-16

139 Repentance and death of Judas Matthew 27:3-10

140 Leading forth and crucifixion of Jesus Matthew 27:32-34Mark 15:21-23Luke 23:21-23John 19:17

141 Transactions while Jesus was on the cross till he expired Matthew 27:35-50Mark 15:24-37Luke 23:33-46John 19:18-30

142 Transactions at Jesus’s death. Who were present during the crucifixion. The remaining transactions of the day Matthew 27:51-61Mark 15:38-47Luke 23:45; Luke 23:47-56

143 The transactions on the day after the crucifixion Matthew 27:62-66

PERIOD NINTH.

RESURRECTION AND ASCENSION.

144 The transactions on the day of the resurrection before the women visit the sepulchre Mark 16:1

145 The women visit the sepulchre the first time Matthew 28:1; Matthew 28:5-8Mark 16:2-8Luke 24:1-11John 20:1-2

146 Peter and John visit the sepulchre John 20:3-10

147 Jesus appears first to Mary Magdalene John 20:11-17

148 Second appearance of Jesus Matthew 28:9-10Mark 16:10-11John 20:18

149 The watch report, and are bribed to silence Matthew 28:11-15

150 Jesus, having been seen byPeter, appears to the two disciples who went to Emmaus 1 Corinthians 15:5Mark 16:12-13Luke 24:13-35

151 Jesus appears to the apostles in the absence of Thomas 1 Corinthians 15:5Mark 16:14-18John 20:19-23

152 Jesus again appears to the apostles while Thomas is present John 20:24-29

153 The apostles go into Galilee. Jesus appears at the sea of Tiberias Matthew 28:16John 21:1-24

154 The appearance of Jesus to his disciples in Galilee Matthew 28:16-20

155 Other appearances of Jesus 1 Corinthians 15:6-7

156 Ascension of Jesus Luke 24:50-53

157 St. John’s conclusion John 20:30-31.