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Bible Commentaries

Gary H. Everett's Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures
Amos

Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4
Chapter 5 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9

Book Overview - Amos

by Gary H. Everett

STUDY NOTES ON THE HOLY SCRIPTURES

Using a Theme-based Approach

to Identify Literary Structures

By Gary H. Everett

THE BOOK OF AMOS

January 2013Edition

All Scripture quotations in English are taken from the King James Version unless otherwise noted. Some words have been emphasized by the author of this commentary using bold or italics.

All Old Testament Scripture quotations in the Hebrew text are taken from Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia: With Westminster Hebrew Morphology, electronic ed, Stuttgart; Glenside PA: German Bible Society, Westminster Seminary, 1996, c 1925, morphology c 1991, in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004.

All New Testament Scripture quotations in the Greek text are taken from Greek New Testament, Fourth Revised Edition (with Morphology), eds. Kurt Aland, Matthew Black, Carlo M. Martini, Bruce M. Metzger, M. Robinson, and Allen Wikgren, Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft (United Bible Societies), c 1966, 1993, 2006, in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004.

All Hebrew and Greek text for word studies are taken from James Strong in The New Strong"s Dictionary of Hebrew and Greek Words, Nashville: Thomas Nelson, c 1996, 1997, in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004.

The Crucifixion image on the book cover was created by the author's daughter Victoria Everett in 2012.

Gary H. Everett, 1981-2013

All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced, stored, or transmitted in any form without prior permission of the author.

Foundational Theme - How to Serve the Lord with All Our Mind

Hear, O Israel: The LORD our God is one LORD:

And thou shalt love the LORD thy God with all thine heart,

and with all thy soul, and with all thy might.

Deuteronomy 6:4-5

INTRODUCTION TO THE BOOK OF AMOS

Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures supports the view of the verbal, plenary inspiration of the biblical text of the Holy Scriptures, meaning that every word originally written down by the authors in the sixty-six books of the Holy Canon were God-breathed when recorded by men, and that the Scriptures are therefore inerrant and infallible. Any view less than this contradicts the testimony of the Holy Scriptures themselves. For this reason, the Holy Scriptures contain both divine attributes and human attributes. While textual criticism engages with the variant readings of the biblical text, acknowledging its human attributes, faith in His Word acknowledges its divine attributes. These views demand the adherence of mankind to the supreme authority of the Holy Scriptures above all else. The Holy Scriptures can only be properly interpreted by the guidance of the Holy Spirit, an aspect of biblical scholarship that is denied by liberal views, causing much misunderstanding and misinterpretation of the Holy Scriptures.

Introductory Material- The introduction to the book of Amos will deal with its historical setting, literary style, and theological framework. 1] These three aspects of introductory material will serve as an important foundation for understanding God's message to us today from this divinely inspired book of the Holy Scriptures.

1] Someone may associate these three categories with Hermann Gunkel's well-known three-fold approach to form criticism when categorizing the genre found within the book of Psalm: (1) "a common setting in life," (2) "thoughts and mood," (3) "literary forms." In addition, the Word Biblical Commentary uses "Form/Structure/Setting" preceding each commentary section. Although such similarities were not intentional, but rather coincidental, the author was aware of them and found encouragement from them when assigning the three-fold scheme of historical setting, literary style, and theological framework to his introductory material. See Hermann Gunkel, The Psalm: A Form-Critical Introduction, trans. Thomas M. Horner, in Biblical Series, vol 19, ed. John Reumann (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Fortress Press, 1967), 10; see also Word Biblical Commentary, eds. Bruce M. Metzger, David A. Hubbard, and Glenn W. Barker (Dallas, Texas: Word Incorporated, 1989-2007).

HISTORICAL SETTING

"We dare not divorce our study from understanding the historical setting of every passage of Scripture

if we are going to come to grips with the truth and message of the Bible."

(J. Hampton Keathley) 2]

2] J. Hampton Keathley, III, "Introduction and Historical Setting for Elijah," (Bible.org) [on-line]; accessed 23May 2012; available from http://bible.org/seriespage/introduction-and-historical-setting-elijah; Internet.

Each book of the Holy Scriptures is cloaked within a unique historical setting. An examination of this setting is useful in the interpretation of the book because it provides the context of the passage of Scripture under examination. The section on the historical setting of the book of Amos will provide a discussion on its title, historical background, authorship, date and place of writing, recipients, and occasion. This discussion supports the Jewish tradition that Amos was the author of the book of Amos , with him and others recording his prophecies during his public ministry.

I. The Title

II. Historical Background

A. The Prophetic and Historical Times of Amos the Prophet- Amos and Hosea began their ministry during an era of renewed prosperity for the northern kingdom of Israel. King Jeroboam (793to 753) has delivered the northern kingdom from the oppression of neighbouring countries, restoring much of its ancient boundaries ( 2 Kings 14:23-27).

2 Kings 14:23-27, "In the fifteenth year of Amaziah the son of Joash king of Judah Jeroboam the son of Joash king of Israel began to reign in Samaria, and reigned forty and one years. And he did that which was evil in the sight of the LORD: he departed not from all the sins of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, who made Israel to sin. He restored the coast of Israel from the entering of Hamath unto the sea of the plain, according to the word of the LORD God of Israel, which he spake by the hand of his servant Jonah , the son of Amittai, the prophet, which was of Gathhepher. For the LORD saw the affliction of Israel, that it was very bitter: for there was not any shut up, nor any left, nor any helper for Israel. And the LORD said not that he would blot out the name of Israel from under heaven: but he saved them by the hand of Jeroboam the son of Joash."

At the same time King Uzziah (791-740) was restoring the southern kingdom of Judah ( 2 Chronicles 26:1-15).

2 Chronicles 26:1-2, "Then all the people of Judah took Uzziah, who was sixteen years old, and made him king in the room of his father Amaziah. He built Eloth, and restored it to Judah, after that the king slept with his fathers."

Judah and Israel was at ease and prosperity during this time of two strong kings.

Amos 6:1, "Woe to them that are at ease in Zion, and trust in the mountain of Samaria, which are named chief of the nations, to whom the house of Israel came!"

Amos 6:4, "That lie upon beds of ivory, and stretch themselves upon their couches, and eat the lambs out of the flock, and the calves out of the midst of the stall;"

In the midst of rising prosperity and security under these two Jewish kings, idolatry marred the land of Israel with sin ( Hosea 10:1), corrupting the northern kingdom ( Hosea 4:1-2).

Hosea 10:1, "Israel is an empty vine, he bringeth forth fruit unto himself: according to the multitude of his fruit he hath increased the altars; according to the goodness of his land they have made goodly images."

Hosea 4:1-2, "Hear the word of the LORD, ye children of Israel: for the LORD hath a controversy with the inhabitants of the land, because there is no truth, nor mercy, nor knowledge of God in the land. By swearing, and lying, and killing, and stealing, and committing adultery, they break out, and blood toucheth blood."

Shrines and festivals became activities of immorality:

Hosea 2:11, "I will also cause all her mirth to cease, her feast days, her new moons, and her sabbaths, and all her solemn feasts."

Jeroboam I had established calves and shrines during his earlier reign over Israel, of which Israel now indulged in:

Hosea 2:8, "For she did not know that I gave her corn, and wine, and oil, and multiplied her silver and gold, which they prepared for Baal."

Hosea 2:13, "And I will visit upon her the days of Baalim, wherein she burned incense to them, and she decked herself with her earrings and her jewels, and she went after her lovers, and forgat me, saith the LORD."

Hosea 4:13, "They sacrifice upon the tops of the mountains, and burn incense upon the hills, under oaks and poplars and elms, because the shadow thereof is good: therefore your daughters shall commit whoredom, and your spouses shall commit adultery."

Hosea 8:5-6, "Thy calf, O Samaria, hath cast thee off; mine anger is kindled against them: how long will it be ere they attain to innocency? For from Israel was it also: the workman made it; therefore it is not God: but the calf of Samaria shall be broken in pieces."

Hosea 8:11, "Because Ephraim hath made many altars to sin, altars shall be unto him to sin."

Hosea 13:2, "And now they sin more and more, and have made them molten images of their silver, and idols according to their own understanding, all of it the work of the craftsmen: they say of them, Let the men that sacrifice kiss the calves."

As a result, this became a nation lifted up with pride and arrogance:

Hosea 5:5, "And the pride of Israel doth testify to his face: therefore shall Israel and Ephraim fall in their iniquity; Judah also shall fall with them."

Hosea 7:10, "And the pride of Israel testifieth to his face: and they do not return to the LORD their God, nor seek him for all this."

Hosea 13:6, "According to their pasture, so were they filled; they were filled, and their heart was exalted; therefore have they forgotten me."

Amos 6:13, "Ye which rejoice in a thing of nought, which say, Have we not taken to us horns by our own strength?"

Although the Assyrian empire was not a dominating force in the first half of the eighty century B.C, this rising empire would soon become a threatening force to Israel under Tiglath-Pileser III (745 -727 B.C.) as its shadow fell upon the northern kingdom, where Amos' voice of prophecy had recently echoed through the land.

III. Authorship

A. Internal Evidence- The authorship of the book of Amos is uncontested. His name is mentioned seven times in the book ( Amos 1:1; Amos 7:8; Amos 7:10-12; Amos 7:14; Amos 8:2), and is not found outside his book. No other individual has this name in the Old Testament Scriptures.

Amos 1:1, "The words of Amos , who was among the herdmen of Tekoa, which he saw concerning Israel in the days of Uzziah king of Judah, and in the days of Jeroboam the son of Joash king of Israel, two years before the earthquake."

Amos 7:8, "And the LORD said unto me, Amos , what seest thou? And I said, A plumbline. Then said the Lord, Behold, I will set a plumbline in the midst of my people Israel: I will not again pass by them any more:"

Amos 7:10, "Then Amaziah the priest of Bethel sent to Jeroboam king of Israel, saying, Amos hath conspired against thee in the midst of the house of Israel: the land is not able to bear all his words."

Amos 7:11, "For thus Amos saith, Jeroboam shall die by the sword, and Israel shall surely be led away captive out of their own land."

Amos 7:12, "Also Amaziah said unto Amos , O thou seer, go, flee thee away into the land of Judah, and there eat bread, and prophesy there:"

Amos 7:14, "Then answered Amos , and said to Amaziah, I was no prophet, neither was I a prophet"s son; but I was an herdman, and a gatherer of sycomore fruit:"

Amos 8:2, "And he said, Amos , what seest thou? And I said, A basket of summer fruit. Then said the LORD unto me, The end is come upon my people of Israel; I will not again pass by them any more."

B. External Evidence- If we look outside of biblical literature for clues to authorship and into other ancient Jewish literature from which much Jewish tradition is found, the Babylonian Talmud says that the men of the great assembly wrote Ezekiel , the Twelve Prophets, Daniel , and the Book of Esther.

"And who wrote all the books? Moses wrote his book and a portion of Bil'am , xxii.], and Job. Jehoshua wrote his book and the last eight verses of the Pentateuch beginning: "And Moses, the servant of the Lord, died." Samuel wrote his book, Judges , and Ruth. David wrote Psalm , with the assistance of ten elders, viz.: Adam the First, Malachi Zedek, Abraham, Moses, Hyman, Jeduthun, Asaph, and the three sons of Korach. Jeremiah wrote his book, Kings, and Lamentations. King Hezekiah and his company wrote Isaiah ,, Proverbs ,, Song of Solomon , and Ecclesiastes. The men of the great assembly wrote Ezekiel , the Twelve Prophets, Daniel , and the Book of Esther. Ezra wrote his book, and Chronicles the order of all generations down to himself. [This may be a support to Rabh's theory, as to which, R. Jehudah said in his name, that Ezra had not ascended from Babylon to Palestine until he wrote his genealogy.] And who finished Ezra's book? Nehemiah ben Chachalyah." (Babylonian Talmud, Tract Baba Bathra (Last Gate), 1.Mishna 5) 3]

3] Michael L. Rodkinson, New Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, vol 13 (New York: New Talmud Publishing Company, 1902), 45.

IV. Date

The prophetic ministry of Amos took place in the first half of the eighth century B.C, perhaps as late as 760 to 750 B.C. Because his name is not mentioned elsewhere in the Holy Scriptures, very little is known about this prophet's background, other than what is mentioned in his book. He was a herdsman from the city of Tekoa ( Amos 7:14), who also tended the fruit of the sycamore trees. Thus, he was not of the lineage of prophets that dwelt in the land of Israel. His native city Tekoa was located about five miles south of Bethlehem in Judah (ISBE), 4] which served as one of Rehoboam's fortified cities during his earlier reign ( 2 Chronicles 11:6). At some point in his life God called him forth to travel to northern Israel and prophesy to these people ( Amos 7:15). He unexpectedly steps into the spotlight of redemption's recorded history, speaks the oracles of God, and quickly disappears into its shadows never to be heard from again.

4] James Robertson, " Amos ," in International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, ed. James Orr (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co, c 1915, 1939), in The Sword Project, v 1511 [CD-ROM] (Temple, AZ: CrossWire Bible Society, 1990-2008).

According to Amos 1:1 this prophet travelled to Israel and delivered his oracles during the reigns of Uzziah (791-740 B.C.), king of Judah, and Jeroboam II (793-753 B.C.), king of Israel. 5] The length of his prophetic ministry is not known, but it appears that he ministered at the same time of Hosea the prophet, who also prophesied during the reign of Uzziah ( Hosea 1:1), although neither prophet mentions the other by name. Stuart notes that Amos very likely delivered his oracles repeatedly to various locations over the period of his prophetic ministry. 6] George Smith places Amos' ministry later in Jeroboam's reign towards the middle of the eighth century in order to give this king time to expand Israel's borders and see some measure of prosperity develop ( 2 Kings 14:28), which he believes is suggested in the book of Amos. 7] For example, God restored Israel's northern border during the reign of Jeroboam, "He restored the coast of Israel from the entering of Hamath unto the sea of the plain" ( 2 Kings 14:25), which border Amos prophesied would become a place of renewed affliction against Israel ( Amos 6:14). Smith notes that the expansion and aggression of the Assyrian empire did not reach into Israel until the second half of the eighth century, suggesting that Amos spoke before this world power became a looming threat over the people of Israel.

5] Douglas Stuart, Hosea -Jonah, in Word Biblical Commentary: 58 Volumes on CD- Romans , vol 31, eds. Bruce M. Metzger, David A. Hubbard and Glenn W. Barker (Dallas: Word Inc, 2002), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004), comments in Introduction: Amos' Era.

6] Douglas Stuart, Hosea -Jonah, in Word Biblical Commentary: 58 Volumes on CD- Romans , vol 31, eds. Bruce M. Metzger, David A. Hubbard and Glenn W. Barker (Dallas: Word Inc, 2002), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004), comments in Introduction: Amos' Era.

7] George A. Smith, Amos , in The Books of the Twelve Prophets Commonly Called Minor, vol 1, in The Expositor's Bible, ed. William R. Nicoll and Oscar L. Joseph (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1956), in Ages Digital Library, v 10 [CD-ROM] (Rio, WI: Ages Software, Inc, 2001), notes on "Introduction."

2 Kings 14:25, "He restored the coast of Israel from the entering of Hamath unto the sea of the plain, according to the word of the LORD God of Israel, which he spake by the hand of his servant Jonah , the son of Amittai, the prophet, which was of Gathhepher."

Amos 6:14, "But, behold, I will raise up against you a nation, O house of Israel, saith the LORD the God of hosts; and they shall afflict you from the entering in of Hemath unto the river of the wilderness."

V. Recipients

VI. Occasion

LITERARY STYLE (GENRE)

"Perhaps the most important issue in interpretation is the issue of genre.

If we misunderstand the genre of a text, the rest of our analysis will be askew."

(Thomas Schreiner) 8]

8] Thomas R. Schreiner, Interpreting the Pauline Epistles, second edition (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Academic, c 1990, 2011), 11.

Within the historical setting of the kingdom of Israel, the author of the book of Amos chose to write using the literary style of the ancient prophetic literature. Thus, the book of Amos is assigned to the literary genre called "prophecy." Included in the genre of prophecy are the three books of the Old Testament major prophets and twelve minor prophets.

A. Numerical Collections- In first two chapters of the book of Amos , we have a group of numerical collections similar to that found in other wisdom literature of the Scriptures ( Job 5:19; Job 33:14, Proverbs 6:16; Proverbs 30:1-33, Ecclesiastes 11:2). A numerical statement goes, "For three transgressions, and for four…" Scholars believe this phrase simply means that although the verse gives three or four items in a list, this is not an exhaustive list.

B. Grammar and Syntax: The Most Frequently Used Words - There are a number of frequently used words that help identify the central message of the book of Amos.

1. "transgressions" (10 times) - Gesenius says the Hebrew word "pesha`" ( פֶּשַׁע) (H 6588) means, "defection, rebellion," or "a fault, a trespass." Strong says it means, "a revolt, rebellion, sin." Vine defines this word as "willful deviation from, and therefore rebellion against, the path of godly living". The Enhanced Strong says it is found in the Old Testament 93times, being translated in the KJV as "transgression 84, trespass 5, sin 3, rebellion 1." It is used ten times in the book of Amos ( Amos 1:3; Amos 1:6; Amos 1:9; Amos 1:11; Amos 1:13; Amos 2:1; Amos 2:4; Amos 2:6; Amos 3:14; Amos 5:12). Strong says it comes from the primitive root "pasha`" ( פָּשַׁע) (H 6586), which means "to break away, trespass, apostatize." This Hebrew word is used to describe the six nations bordering Israel and Judah, as well as God's people themselves. It implies rebellion and willing sinfulness against the truth that has been made known to a people. David Allen says it means a "deliberate doing of wrong when the doing is known to be wrong." 9]

9] David Allen, "Calling Church Members ‘Fat Cows': The Art of Velvet Brick Preaching from Amos ," in "Preaching Through Amos ," in Advance Expository Workshop, Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, Fort Worth, Texas, 5 October 2007.

THEOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK

"Scholarly excellence requires a proper theological framework."

(Andreas Ksenberger) 10]

10] Andreas J. Ksenberger, Excellence: The Character of God and the Pursuit of Scholarly Virtue (Wheaton, Illinois: Crossway, 2011), 161.

Based upon the historical setting and literary style of the book of Amos , an examination of the purpose, thematic scheme, and literary structure to this book of the Holy Scriptures will reveal its theological framework. This introductory section will sum up its theological framework in the form of an outline, which is then used to identify smaller units or pericopes within the book of Amos for preaching and teaching passages of Scripture while following the overriding message of the book. Following this outline allows the minister of the Gospel of Jesus Christ to take his followers on a spiritual journey that brings them to the same destination that the author intended his readers to reach.

VII. Purpose

VIII. Thematic Scheme

God judges the nations, for they are all under His sovereign rule. The book of Amos reveals man's basic human depravity against God and his fellow man. God holds every nation responsible for their deeds, both domestic and abroad.

God judges His people when they continue in rebellion against His Word. Israel's religion during the time of Amos was worthless in God's eyes. The rich lived in comfort, but oppressed the poor. Amos was calling for repentance and a revival of social righteousness. In modern times, we must understand that morality does not exist outside of genuine Judeo-Christian ethics.

God sends warnings before He judges in order to give man time to repent. God judged northern Israel in 722 B.C. when the Assyrian Empire came and destroyed northern Israel. It wrought havoc and destruction during the last half of the eighth century among Israel's neighbors for their sins.

IX. Literary Structure

X. Outline of Book

The book of Amos is generally understood to be made up of three groups of oracles.

I. Prologue— Amos 1:1-2

II. 1st Group of Oracles (Prophecies Against Eight Nations)— Amos 1:3 to Amos 2:16

A. Oracle against Syria — Amos 1:3-5

B. Oracle against Philistia — Amos 1:6-8

C. Oracle against Tyre — Amos 1:9-10

D. Oracle against Edom — Amos 1:11-12

E. Oracle against Ammon — Amos 1:13-15

F. Oracle against Moab — Amos 2:1-3

G. Oracle against Judah — Amos 2:4-5

H. Oracle against Israel — Amos 2:6-16

III. 2nd Group of Oracles (Three Judgments Against Israel)— Amos 3:1 to Amos 6:14

A. The Lord Has Spoken, Who Will Declare His Word? — Amos 3:1-8

B. — Amos 3:1-15

C. — Amos 4:1-13

D. — Amos 5:1 to Amos 6:14

IV. 3rd Group of Oracles (Five Symbolic Visions)— Amos 7:1 to Amos 9:15

A. First Vision (The Locusts)— Amos 7:1-3

B. Second Vision (The Drought)— Amos 7:4-6

C. Third Vision (The Plumb Line)— Amos 7:7-9

D. The Confrontation of Amos with Amaziah— Amos 7:10-17

E. Fourth Vision (The Fruit Basket)— Amos 8:1-3

F. Prophecy of Israel's Certain Doom— Amos 8:4-14

G. Fifth Vision (The Lord Standing by the Altar)— Amos 9:1-15

1. — Amos 9:1-10

2. Restoration— Amos 9:11-15

BIBLIOGRAPHY

COMMENTARY BIBLIOGRAPHY

Barnes, Albert. Job. In Barnes" Notes, Electronic Database. Seattle, WA: Hendrickson Publishers Inc, 1997. In P.C. Study Bible, v 31 [CD-ROM] Seattle, WA: Biblesoft Inc, 1993-2000.

Gill, John. Job. In John Gill's Expositor. In e-Sword, v 777 [CD-ROM] Franklin, Tennessee: e-Sword, 2000-2005.

Harper, William R. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on Amos and Hosea. In The International Critical Commentary on the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments. Eds. Charles A. Briggs, Samuel R. Driver, and Alfred Plummer. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1905.

Metzger, Bruce M, David A. Hubbard, and Glenn W. Barker, eds. Word Biblical Commentary. Dallas, Texas: Word Incorporated, 1989-2007.

Schmoller, Otto. The Minor Prophets, Exegetically, Theologically, and Homiletically Expounded. In Lange's Commentary on the Holy Scriptures, vol 14. Ed. Philip Schaff. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1886.

Smith, George A. Amos. In The Books of the Twelve Prophets Commonly Called Minor, vol 1. In The Expositor's Bible. Ed. William R. Nicoll and Oscar L. Joseph. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1956. In Ages Digital Library, v 10 [CD-ROM] Rio, WI: Ages Software, Inc, 2001.

Stuart, Douglas. Hosea -Jonah. In Word Biblical Commentary: 58 Volumes on CD- Romans , vol 31. Eds. Bruce M. Metzger, David A. Hubbard and Glenn W. Barker. Dallas: Word Inc, 2002. In Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004.

GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHY

Allen, David. "Calling Church Members ‘Fat Cows': The Art of Velvet Brick Preaching from Amos." In "Preaching Through Amos." In Advance Expository Workshop. Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, Fort Worth, Texas, 5 October 2007.

"Aven." In International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. Ed. James Orr. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co, c 1915, 1939. In The Sword Project, v 1511 [CD-ROM] Temple, AZ: CrossWire Bible Society, 1990-2008.

Bentley, Todd. Journey Into the Miraculous. Victoria, BC, Canada: Hemlock Printers, Ltd, 2003.

Churgin, Pinkhos. Targum of Jonathan to the Prophets. In Yale Oriental Series: Researches, vol. xvi. New Haven, Yale University Press, 1907.

Gunkel, Hermann. The Psalm: A Form-Critical Introduction. Trans. Thomas M. Horner. In Biblical Series, vol 19. Ed. John Reumann. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Fortress Press, 1967.

Keathley, III, J. Hampton. "Introduction and Historical Setting for Elijah." (Bible.org) [on-line]. Accessed 23May 2012. Available from http://bible.org/seriespage/introduction-and-historical-setting-elijah; Internet.

Ksenberger, Andreas J. Excellence: The Character of God and the Pursuit of Scholarly Virtue. Wheaton, Illinois: Crossway, 2011.

Levy, David H. "Orion." In The World Book Encyclopedia, vol 14. Chicago: World Book, Inc, 1994.

McComiskey, Thomas. Amos , In The Expositor's Bible Commentary, vol 7. Ed. Frank E. Gaebelien, J. D. Douglas, Dick Polcyn. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Pub. House, 1976-1992. In Zondervan Reference Software, v 28 [CD-ROM] Grand Rapids, Michigan: The Zondervan Corp, 1989-2001.

Robertson, James. "Amos." In International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. Ed. James Orr. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co, c 1915, 1939. In The Sword Project, v 1511 [CD-ROM] Temple, AZ: CrossWire Bible Society, 1990-2008.

Rodkinson, Michael L. New Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, vol 13. New York: New Talmud Publishing Company, 1902.

Sailhamer, John H. Introduction to Old Testament Theology. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House, c 1995.

Schreiner, Thomas R. Interpreting the Pauline Epistles, second edition. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Academic, c 1990, 2011.

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