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Bible Commentaries

Gary H. Everett's Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures
Daniel

Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4
Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8
Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12

Book Overview - Daniel

by Gary H. Everett

STUDY NOTES ON THE HOLY SCRIPTURES

Using a Theme-based Approach

to Identify Literary Structures

By Gary H. Everett

THE BOOK OF DANIEL

January 2013Edition

All Scripture quotations in English are taken from the King James Version unless otherwise noted. Some words have been emphasized by the author of this commentary using bold or italics.

All Old Testament Scripture quotations in the Hebrew text are taken from Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia: With Westminster Hebrew Morphology, electronic ed, Stuttgart; Glenside PA: German Bible Society, Westminster Seminary, 1996, c 1925, morphology c 1991, in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004.

All New Testament Scripture quotations in the Greek text are taken from Greek New Testament, Fourth Revised Edition (with Morphology), eds. Kurt Aland, Matthew Black, Carlo M. Martini, Bruce M. Metzger, M. Robinson, and Allen Wikgren, Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft (United Bible Societies), c 1966, 1993, 2006, in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004.

All Hebrew and Greek text for word studies are taken from James Strong in The New Strong"s Dictionary of Hebrew and Greek Words, Nashville: Thomas Nelson, c 1996, 1997, in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004.

The Crucifixion image on the book cover was created by the author's daughter Victoria Everett in 2012.

Gary H. Everett, 1981-2013

All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced, stored, or transmitted in any form without prior permission of the author.

Foundational Theme - How to Serve the Lord with All Our Mind

Hear, O Israel: The LORD our God is one LORD:

And thou shalt love the LORD thy God with all thine heart,

and with all thy soul, and with all thy might.

Deuteronomy 6:4-5

Structural Theme - God's Plan of Redemption for Israel in Light of the Times of the Gentiles

For mine eyes have seen thy salvation,

Which thou hast prepared before the face of all people;

A light to lighten the Gentiles, and the glory of thy people Israel.

Luke 2:30-32

INTRODUCTION TO THE BOOK OF DANIEL

Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures supports the view of the verbal, plenary inspiration of the biblical text of the Holy Scriptures, meaning that every word originally written down by the authors in the sixty-six books of the Holy Canon were God-breathed when recorded by men, and that the Scriptures are therefore inerrant and infallible. Any view less than this contradicts the testimony of the Holy Scriptures themselves. For this reason, the Holy Scriptures contain both divine attributes and human attributes. While textual criticism engages with the variant readings of the biblical text, acknowledging its human attributes, faith in His Word acknowledges its divine attributes. These views demand the adherence of mankind to the supreme authority of the Holy Scriptures above all else. The Holy Scriptures can only be properly interpreted by the guidance of the Holy Spirit, an aspect of biblical scholarship that is denied by liberal views, causing much misunderstanding and misinterpretation of the Holy Scriptures.

The Message of the Book of Daniel - The book of Daniel holds a unique place in Old Testament prophecy in that Daniel served as a prophet of illumination for the "Times of the Gentiles" ( Luke 21:24) until the full redemption of God's people Israel. All other Old Testament prophets served the nation of Israel by prophesying its divine judgment and future restoration. Daniel stands alone as a Hebrew prophet who revealed God's divine plan of redemption for the Gentile nations upon the earth. His visions cover the time from the destruction of Jerusalem (586 B.C.) until the Second Coming of Christ, which is the redemptive period called by Jesus Christ as the "Times of the Gentiles." For this reason the book of Daniel draws more attention from modern day students of eschatology than any of the other sixteen latter prophetic books in the Old Testament.

The book of Daniel most clearly gives us an outline of the prophetic history of the Times of the Gentiles, upon which we are thus able to organize and understand many other prophetic passages in the Scriptures regarding the New Testament Church. Daniel's prophecies are some of the most minute and detailed in all of Holy Scripture. No other book of the Old Testament speaks so clearly of the coming of the Lord Jesus Christ. Daniel not only told us that the Messiah would come, but he gives us the chronological time of His Coming. He clearly tells us of the formation of four Gentile kingdoms: the Chaldean, Persian, Greek, and Roman Empires, and their revolutions ( Daniel 2:31-45). Daniel tells us of the coming of the Messiah ( Daniel 9:24-27), about His kingdom that will fill the earth ( Daniel 2:35; Daniel 2:44), that there will be an antichrist and a Tribulation Period ( Daniel 12:1; Daniel 12:10-12), that the saints will rule and reign with Messiah ( Daniel 7:22; Daniel 7:27), of the Resurrection and Great White Throne Judgment ( Daniel 12:2), and of eternity in Heaven ( Daniel 12:3). 1] Daniel's prophecies so impacted his generation that centuries later magi from the east, who knew these prophecies, recognized the time of Jesus' birth and came to Jerusalem seeking the Messiah ( Matthew 2:1-12). The prophet Daniel serves as the brightest beacon of the Old Testament Scriptures to herald the coming of the Lord Jesus Christ into this world as "a light to lighten the Gentiles, and the glory of thy people Israel" ( Luke 2:32).

1] James A. Borland, Daniel , in The KJV Bible Commentary, ed. Edward E. Hindson and Woodrow M. Kroll (Nashville: Thomas Nelson Pub, 1994), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM]. Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004), "Introduction: Purpose."

Introductory Material- The introduction to the book of Daniel will deal with its historical setting, literary style, and theological framework. 2] These three aspects of introductory material will serve as an important foundation for understanding God's message to us today from this divinely inspired book of the Holy Scriptures.

2] Someone may associate these three categories with Hermann Gunkel's well-known three-fold approach to form criticism when categorizing the genre found within the book of Psalm: (1) "a common setting in life," (2) "thoughts and mood," (3) "literary forms." In addition, the Word Biblical Commentary uses "Form/Structure/Setting" preceding each commentary section. Although such similarities were not intentional, but rather coincidental, the author was aware of them and found encouragement from them when assigning the three-fold scheme of historical setting, literary style, and theological framework to his introductory material. See Hermann Gunkel, The Psalm: A Form-Critical Introduction, trans. Thomas M. Horner, in Biblical Series, vol 19, ed. John Reumann (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Fortress Press, 1967), 10; see also Word Biblical Commentary, eds. Bruce M. Metzger, David A. Hubbard, and Glenn W. Barker (Dallas, Texas: Word Incorporated, 1989-2007).

HISTORICAL SETTING

"We dare not divorce our study from understanding the historical setting of every passage of Scripture

if we are going to come to grips with the truth and message of the Bible."

(J. Hampton Keathley) 3]

3] J. Hampton Keathley, III, "Introduction and Historical Setting for Elijah," (Bible.org) [on-line]; accessed 23May 2012; available from http://bible.org/seriespage/introduction-and-historical-setting-elijah; Internet.

Each book of the Holy Scriptures is cloaked within a unique historical setting. An examination of this setting is useful in the interpretation of the book because it provides the context of the passage of Scripture under examination. The section on the historical setting of the book of Daniel will provide a discussion on its title, historical background, authorship, date and place of writing, recipients, and occasion. This discussion supports the Jewish tradition that Solomon was the primary author of the book of Proverbs , writing during his reign as king over Israel.

I. The Title

The Hebrew title for this book is " Daniel ," following the Jewish tradition of naming a prophetic book after the individual that gave the prophecies. 4] The Gospel writers Matthew and Mark were familiar with the title of the book of Daniel ( Matthew 24:15. Mark 13:14).

4] Henry B. Swete, An Introduction to Old Testament in Greek (Cambridge: University Press, 1902), 214.

Matthew 24:15, "When ye therefore shall see the abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel the prophet, stand in the holy place, (whoso readeth, let him understand:)"

Mark 13:14, "But when ye shall see the abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel the prophet, standing where it ought not, (let him that readeth understand,) then let them that be in Judaea flee to the mountains:"

II. Historical Background

A. The Prophetic and Historical Times of Daniel the Prophet- The prophetic ministry of Daniel covers the period of God's redemptive history from the first Babylonian captivity of the Jews in 605 B.C. ( Daniel 1:1) until the first year of the reign of Cyrus, king of Persia, in 536 B.C. ( Daniel 1:21), when the royal decree was issued for the Jews to return to Jerusalem. Thus, the book of Daniel covers the entire period of the seventy-year Babylonian Captivity of the Jews, as prophesied by Jeremiah the prophet, "And this whole land shall be a desolation, and an astonishment; and these nations shall serve the king of Babylon seventy years." ( Jeremiah 25:11). The purpose of Daniel's prophecies was to reveal to the Gentiles ( Daniel 2-7) and to the Jews ( Daniel 8-12) God's redemptive plan through the "Times of the Gentiles" ( Luke 21:24) until Israel's full restoration, which we now know includes the Church of the Lord Jesus Christ. By these visions the Lord manifested Himself to the Gentiles as all-powerful, all-knowing and the only true God of Heaven. Pharaoh, during the time of Moses, knew Him by His mighty signs and wonders because his faith was in the gods of Egypt for guidance. Nebuchadnezzar knew Him by divine dreams and visions as well as miracles because his faith was in his wise men for guidance. Although Pharaoh never bowed down to the God of Israel, King Nebuchadnezzar found it within himself to acknowledge Him as the only True God, the God of Israel.

The book of Daniel was written in during the greatest time of tragedy in Israel's history. The Gentile nations had completely destroyed northern Israel and southern Judah and these mighty kingdoms had given the credit of their success to their heathen gods. The world thought that the God of Israel has failed His people and was inferior to the gods of other religions. In this time of humiliation for the Jews in their Babylonian Captivity, God demonstrated His power through dreams and visions and signs and wonders. Thus, the book of Daniel serves to display of power between the God of Israel and heathen gods. 5]

5] Some scholars point out particular historical periods of Biblical redemption in which miracles were prominent, such as the time of: (1) Moses and the Exodus , (2) Elijah and Elisha, and (4) John the Baptist and Jesus' earthly ministry. The times of Moses and Jesus Christ correspond to the establishments of the Old and New Covenants, the time of Elijah and Elisha corresponds to Israel's times of divine judgment upon the northern Kingdom. Some scholars view the time of Daniel as a time of divine miracles as well. The prophet Daniel ministered during a period of judgment upon Israel called the Babylonian Captivity, which transitioned into the "Times of the Gentiles" ( Luke 21:24) Because God does not allow man to frustrate His great plan of redemption, He works mightily through men in these seasons of transition in order to bring about His purposes and plans.

As the book of Daniel opens, we find young Daniel living during a time of some of the greatest upheavals of ancient history. He became a victim of the first deportation of Jews to Babylon in 605 B.C, a time when world powers in this region were shifting hands from the Assyrians and Egypt to Babylon. Judah had experienced a measure of reform under the reign of Josiah (637-608 B.C.) in the recent past; but this reform was too little and too late for God's hand of judgment upon His people Israel to be withdrawn. God would orchestrate in a number of events that would lead to Israel's destruction and captivity as His prophets had warned. The great city of Nineveh fell to the Babylonians and Medes in 612 B.C, ending the rule of the Assyrian Empire. Assyrian's fall resulting in a power struggle between Egypt and Babylon, particularly over Palestine and Syria. Josiah's decision to involve himself in this emerging power struggle led to his tragic death at Megiddo in 608 B.C. ( 2 Kings 23:29 f, 2 Chronicles 35:20-24). Nabopolassar, the father of Nebuchadnezzar, had become of Babylon (626 B.C.) He had now thrown off the rule of the Assyrian Empire and by his death in 605 B.C. he had eliminated it as a ruling power. This king ushered the world into the period known as the Neo-Babylonian, or Chaldean Empire. The Jews, who has been under the rule of the Assyrian Empire and Egypt since about 670 B.C, were now faced with a new and more powerful foe. Several decisive battles lay ahead between these two great foes at Carchemish on the Euphrates, in which Babylon would eventually win, resulting in Judah's total subjection and deportation to Babylon. Around 606 B.C, after destroying the Assyrians, King Nabopolassar sent his son Nebuchadnezzar to the East to face the next menacing power, that of Egypt. His immediate assignment was to recover the city of Carchemish, which had been wrested from the empire by Necho king of Egypt. Having won this famous battle, Nebuchadnezzar proceeded to march against the governor of Phoenicia and the king of Judah, who were now considered vassals of Babylon. Leaving the upper Fertile Crescent, Nebuchadnezzar marched south and invaded the region of Judah. The book of Daniel opens at time in history, with Babylon's first invasion of Jerusalem and deportation of the Jews in 605 B.C.

Because the Jews were not willing to submit to Babylonian rule after this invasion, despite Jeremiah's warnings to do Song of Solomon , King Nebuchadnezzar was eventually forced to utterly destroy them. The destruction of the nation of Judah and its capital Jerusalem by the Babylonians came in three stages about one hundred twenty (120) years after the destruction of the northern kingdom of Israel by the Assyrians. He first attacked Palestine in 605-604 B.C, during the third year of King Jehoiakim's reign, at which time he brought Judah's king into submission and carried Daniel and his three friends captive into the land of Babylon along with some of the articles of the Temple ( 2 Kings 24:1, Daniel 1:1-6). Nebuchadnezzar was then provoked into making a second expedition to this region in 597 B.C. because of the insurrection of the King Jehoiachin. During the eighth year of Jehoiachin's reign Nebuchadnezzar carried off 10 ,000 Jewish captives, among them King Jehoiachin and the young prophet Ezekiel ( 2 Kings 24:8-20, 2 Chronicles 36:10, Ezekiel 1:1-3). The third visit to Jerusalem by the Babylonians came during the eleventh year of King Zedekiah's reign, resulted in a two-year siege of the city and the destruction of the Temple and the city of Jerusalem as well as the captivity of the king in 586 B.C. ( 2 Kings 25:1-7; Jeremiah 34:1-7; Jeremiah 39:1-7; Jeremiah 52:2-11). This Jewish king was taken to Babylon where his sons were slain before him and his eyes put out. These tragic events that befell the Jews were a result of centuries of rebellion against the God of Israel.

As we are shown in the book of Daniel and by the other prophets, God does not leave His people without a hope and a destiny. A remnant of Israel would be saved. Daniel's ministry to the Jews continued throughout the Babylonian Captivity, coming to a close with the rebuilding of Jerusalem in 538 B.C, after a period of approximately seventy years as prophesied by Jeremiah ( Jeremiah 25:11), when King Cyrus the Great, king of the new Medo-Persian empire, began his reign with a general campaign of restoring displaced people to their homeland ( 2 Chronicles 36:22-23; Ezra 1:1-4). Although the majority of Jews never returned from exile, the Jews that did return slowly began to rebuild their land. The Temple was restored in 515 B.C. under the leadership of Ezra ( Ezra 6:15), which was about seventy years after its destruction in 587 B.C. The temple walls were rebuilt during the time of Nehemiah. As a result of their lengthy captivity the Jews underwent a number of cultural changes during their captivity. They instituted the "synagogue" as their place of worship. They now spoke the Aramaic language, which was the official language of commerce and diplomacy of their land of bondage. Thus, portions of the books of Ezra and Daniel were written in this foreign language and incorporated into the Old Testament canon.

B. The Biography of Daniel the Prophet- Daniel and his three friends were of the tribe of Judah from some of the noblest families in Jerusalem, and possibly of royal descent, since they were skilled and well educated and favored among the Hebrew captives. This is why Josephus says that Daniel was a "the kinsmen of Zedekiah their king." (Antiquities 10101) Most likely born in Jerusalem, these four young men were taken captive during the first Babylonian siege of Jerusalem in 605 B.C, and served in submission in the land of the Chaldeans under their Gentile captors all of the days of their lives. Scholars generally agree that Daniel and his friends were young men when taken captive, perhaps teenagers since they are called "children" ( Daniel 1:6), but no older than their early twenty's. Some of the early Church fathers describe Daniel as a teenager at the time of his captivity. 6] They were selected for a special three-year training period in the language and literature of the Chaldeans during the years of their early captivity. It is suggested that Daniel and his three friends were made eunuchs in the king's court because he was put under the care of Ashpenaz the master of his eunuchs. While serving in this court their excellent spirit and minds lifted them above their contemporaries.

6] Moses Stuart gives us a list of references from the early Church fathers who refer to Daniel's youth at the time of his captivity. Ignatius says Daniel was twelve years old at the time of his captivity, "For Daniel the wise, at twelve years of age, became possessed of the divine Spirit, and convicted the elders, who in vain carried their grey hairs, of being false accusers, and of lusting after the beauty of another man"s wife." (Epistle To Magnesians 3) (ANF-1 ) Epiphanius says, "but being yet a child (νήπιος) he was brought into Babylon from Judea," (de vitis Prophetarum X) (PG 43, Colossians 404) and he says, "and the divine vengeance revealed itself unto the youth Daniel." [see Robert P. Blake and Henri de Vis, Epiphanius de Gemmis, in Studies and Documents, eds. Kirsopp Lake and Silva Lake, vol 2 (London: Christophers, 1934), 144.] Stuart notes that Chrysotom says Daniel was eighteen years old. Jerome calls him "a youth inspired by the Holy Ghost" (Letters 19), and he writes, "Daniel was but a child when he judged the elders," (Letters 149), and he writes, "Daniel and the three children lived on pulse. They were still boys and had not come yet to that frying-pan on which the king of Babylon fried the elders who were judged," (Letters 5410), and he writes, "And as a boy, Daniel judges old men and in the flower of youth condemns the incontinence of age." (Letters 581) [see NPNF 2-6] [see Moses Stuart, A Commentary on the Book of Daniel (Boston: Crocker and Brewster, 1850), 373; Albert Barnes, Notes, Critical, Illustrative, and Practical, on the Book of Daniel (New York: Leavitt and Allen, 1853), vi.]

Daniel lived and worked in the courts and councils of some of the most famous monarchies of ancient history. He ministered by his gifts of interpreting divine dreams and visions, a ministry extending until 535 B.C, about seventy years. Thus, Daniel ministered throughout the seventy-year period of Babylonian captivity by the Jews and lived to he see their return. Daniel himself chose not to return to Jerusalem after the Captivity, but chose, rather, to remain in his position of influence in Babylon. Perhaps at his age he felt it better not to attempt such a trip. But more than likely, he saw himself as a person who would be of much more assistance by entreating the needs of his people before the king of Persia.

We have no ancient documents to verity the events of Daniel's later life, though some ancient Chaldean and Arabic writings and Oriental traditions record some events in his life that are considered by scholars to be unreliable. The writings of Josephus suggest that Daniel ministered and died in the city of Shushan or Susa as an old Prayer of Manasseh , having never returned to his homeland. Josephus says that a monument was raised to him there. (Antiquities 10111) In contrast, we do have a comment from Epiphanius, bishop of Salamis (c. A.D 315-403), saying that Daniel died in the city of Babylon. 7] This comment by Epiphanius may serve to represent the traditional view of the early Church. 8] Benjamin of Tudela claims the tomb of Daniel is located in the ancient city of Shushan. 9] Adam Clarke tells us that some Asiatic writers claim Daniel returned to Judea with Ezra , and then came back to Persia where he died in Susa. 10]

7] Epiphanius writes, "Therefore, in that place in Babylon the devout Daniel died in peace, and he was buried in the glorious, royal tomb." (de vitis Prophetarum X) (PG 43, Colossians 405)

8] August Calmet, " Daniel ," Calmet's Dictionary of the Whole Bible, eds. Charles Taylor and Edward Robinson (Boston: Crocker and Brewster, 1832), 331.

9] Benjamin of Tudela was a Jewish rabbi from Spain, who traveled extensively around the regions of Asia, Africa and Europe between A.D 1160,1173and published a book about his travels in 1543. He claims to have visited the tomb of Daniel in the ancient city of Shushan. He says, "Four miles from thence begins Khuzistan, the Elam of Scripture, a large province, which, however, is but partially inhabited, a portion of it lying in ruins. Among the latter are the remains of Shushan, the metropolis and palace of King Ahasuerus, which still contains very large and handsome buildings of ancient date. It has seven thousand Jewish inhabitants, with fourteen synagogues; in front of one of which is the sepulcher of Daniel , who rests in peace…" See The Travels of Benjamin of Tudela, in The Sacred Books and Early Literature of the East, vol 4, Medieval Hebrew, ed. Charles F. Horne (New York: Parke, Austin and Lipscomb, Inc, 1917), 415.

10] Adam Clarke also writes, "The author of the Tareekh Muntekheb says that Daniel flourished in the time of Lohorasp, king of Persia; and consequently in that of Ceresh, or Cyrus, who gave him the government of Syria; that he taught these two princes the knowledge of the true God; that he preached the true faith through the whole of the Babylonian Irak; and was, on the death of Nebuchadnezzar, sent by Bahman, (Artaxerxes Longimanus,) son of Asfendiar, who then reigned in Persia, into Judea; and that, having returned, he died at Shouster, or Susa, the capital of Persia, where he lies interred." Clarke goes on to say, "Some have supposed that the Zoroaster, or Zeradusht of the Persians, is a confused picture of the prophet Daniel. The account given by Abul Pharaje, in his fifth dynasty, may be considered favourable to this opinion. He says, ‘Zeradusht, author of the Magiouseiah Magism, or sect of the worshippers of fire, flourished in the reign of Cambasous (Cambyses); that he was a native of the province of Adherbigian, or Media, or, according to others, of Assyria; that he foretold to his disciples the coming of the Messiah, who should be pointed out by a star which should appear in the day time at his birth; that they should have the first information of his advent; that he should be born of a virgin; and that they should present him with gifts; because he is the WORD that made the heavens.' See Pococke"s Abul Pharajius, p 83of the Arabic, and 54of the Latin." [see Adam Clarke, "Introduction," in Daniel , in Adam Clarke"s Commentary, Electronic Database (Seattle, WA: Hendrickson Publishers Inc, 1996), in P.C. Study Bible, v 31 [CD-ROM] (Seattle, WA: Biblesoft Inc, 1993-2000).]

III. Authorship

Hebrew tradition has always supported Daniel as the writer of his book. Thus, every Jew and Christian of earliest antiquity supported a date of writing of Daniel as being in the Babylonian and Persian periods of the sixth century B.C. in the region of Babylon. With the exception of a Neo-Platonist philosopher named Porphyry (A.D 233-304), who claimed that the book of Daniel was written by a Palestinian Jew living during the time of Antiochus Epiphanes, king of Syria (175-163 B.C.), the authorship of the book of Daniel remained essentially unchallenged until the rise of the deistic movement in the seventeenth century. Although several early Church writers, such as Eusebius of Caesarea, Apollinaris, Methodius, 11] and most notably, Jerome (de vir. ill. 81and Ep. ad Magnum, 3, Migne's ed. Ep. 70), 12] answered these fanatical claims of Porphyry, the controversy was picked up in modern times by a number of theologians. Such scholarship generally bases its claims on the rejection of the Holy Scripture's divine prophetic nature. In other words, such arguments assume the Scriptures lack the ability to predict the future through divine prophecy. However, both internal and external evidence strongly support the authorship of the book of Daniel being the prophet Daniel himself.

11] Methodius, Fragments: From the Works of Methodius Against Porphyry, in The Ante-Nicene Fathers: Translations of the Writings of the Fathers Down to A.D 325, vol 6: Fathers of the Third Century, American ed, eds. Alexander Roberts, James Donaldson, and A. Cleveland Coxe, Edinburgh: T.& T. Clark, Grand Rapids; Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company; Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, 1997 (electronic edition). In Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM]. Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2009.

12] Eusebius wrote a reply to Porphyry entitled Against Porphyry. See Eusebius, in A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, Second Series, vol 1: Eusebius Pamphilus: Church History, Life of Constantine, Oration in Praise of Constantine, eds. Henry Wace and Philip Schaff (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, Grand Rapids; Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company; Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, 1997 [electronic edition]), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2009), 33 (Prolegomena: chapter 2, "The Writings of Eusebius: Catalogue of His Works: Apologetic Works").

A. Internal Evidence- Internal evidence within the Scriptures strongly supports the prophet Daniel as the author of the book of Daniel.

1. The Book of Daniel Claims the Prophet Daniel as its Author - The prophet Daniel gives affirmation of his authorship throughout his collection of private visions (chpts 7-12).

Daniel 7:1, "In the first year of Belshazzar king of Babylon Daniel had a dream and visions of his head upon his bed: then he wrote the dream, and told the sum of the matters."

Daniel 7:28, "Hitherto is the end of the matter. As for me Daniel, my cogitations much troubled me, and my countenance changed in me: but I kept the matter in my heart."

Daniel 8:1-2, "In the third year of the reign of king Belshazzar a vision appeared unto me, even unto me Daniel, after that which appeared unto me at the first. And I saw in a vision; and it came to pass, when I saw, that I was at Shushan in the palace, which is in the province of Elam; and I saw in a vision, and I was by the river of Ulai."

Daniel 9:2, "In the first year of his reign I Daniel understood by books the number of the years, whereof the word of the LORD came to Jeremiah the prophet, that he would accomplish seventy years in the desolations of Jerusalem."

Daniel 9:20, "And whiles I was speaking, and praying, and confessing my sin and the sin of my people Israel, and presenting my supplication before the LORD my God for the holy mountain of my God;"

Daniel 10:1-2, "In the third year of Cyrus king of Persia a thing was revealed unto Daniel , whose name was called Belteshazzar; and the thing was true, but the time appointed was long: and he understood the thing, and had understanding of the vision. In those days I Daniel was mourning three full weeks."

Daniel 12:4-5, "But thou, O Daniel , shut up the words, and seal the book, even to the time of the end: many shall run to and fro, and knowledge shall be increased. Then I Daniel looked, and, behold, there stood other two, the one on this side of the bank of the river, and the other on that side of the bank of the river."

It is possible that the first six chapters, which comprise accounts of Daniel's public ministry to the kings, was composed or even compiled by another person, since Daniel is referred to in the third person throughout this section. However, it is not uncommon in ancient literature for the author to refer to himself as such. (We find the author using the third person in Xenophon's Anabasis 13] and in Caesar's Gallic Wars.) 14] This means that the author was simply placing emphasis upon the historical event rather than upon himself. We know that Daniel was also trained in the language of the Chaldeans as well as the Hebrews and could resort to either language as the situation permitted. Few Jewish authors would have been as qualified to write in both languages as the prophet Daniel. Ultimately, Jewish tradition credits the prophet Daniel with having prepared the entire book of Daniel.

13] Xenophon, The Anabasis, or Expedition of Cyrus, and the Memorabilia of Socrates, trans. J. S. Watson, in Harper's Classical Library (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1878), 1-258.

14] Julius Caesar, Caesar's Commentaries on the Gallic and Civil Wars: with the Supplimentary Books Attributed to Hirtius; Including the Alexandrian, African, and Spanish Wars, in Harper's New Classical Library (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1872).

2. The Scriptures - We can find support for Danielic authorship in other places in the Holy Scriptures.

a) The Old Testament- If we look elsewhere in the Old Testament, we find Ezekiel , Daniel's contemporary, testifying as to the authenticity of the life of Daniel ( Ezekiel 14:14; Ezekiel 14:20; Ezekiel 28:3). This supports the belief that Daniel actually lived and ministered as a man of righteousness.

Ezekiel 14:14, "Though these three men, Noah, Daniel , and Job , were in it, they should deliver but their own souls by their righteousness, saith the Lord GOD."

Ezekiel 14:20, "Though Noah, Daniel , and Job , were in it, as I live, saith the Lord GOD, they shall deliver neither son nor daughter; they shall but deliver their own souls by their righteousness."

Ezekiel 28:3, "Behold, thou art wiser than Daniel; there is no secret that they can hide from thee:"

As a side note, there are at least two other individuals found in the Old Testament by the name of Daniel , of which one was the son of King David ( 1 Chronicles 3:1). We find a Levite by that name after the Babylonian Captivity listed in the genealogies of Ezra and Nehemiah. It is very unlikely that Ezra and Nehemiah were referring to the prophet Daniel in their genealogies of chiefs and priests who served during their time of the restoration of Jerusalem.

1 Chronicles 3:1, "Now these were the sons of David, which were born unto him in Hebron; the firstborn Amnon, of Ahinoam the Jezreelitess; the second Daniel, of Abigail the Carmelitess:"

Ezra 8:1-2, "These are now the chief of their fathers, and this is the genealogy of them that went up with me from Babylon, in the reign of Artaxerxes the king. Of the sons of Phinehas; Gershom: of the sons of Ithamar; Daniel: of the sons of David; Hattush."

Nehemiah 10:1-8, "Now those that sealed were, Nehemiah , the Tirshatha, the son of Hachaliah, and Zidkijah, Seraiah, Prayer of Azariah ,, Jeremiah , Pashur, Amariah, Malchijah, Hattush, Shebaniah, Malluch, Harim, Meremoth, Obadiah , Daniel, Ginnethon, Baruch , Meshullam, Abijah, Mijamin, Maaziah, Bilgai, Shemaiah: these were the priests."

b) The New Testament- If we look in the New Testament, we find Jesus acknowledging Daniel's authorship of this book and acknowledging his office as a prophet.

Matthew 24:15, "When ye therefore shall see the abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel the prophet, stand in the holy place, (whoso readeth, let him understand:)." (also Mark 13:14)

In addition, we see that Paul's teachings on the antichrist ( 2 Thessalonians 2:3-4) draw from Daniel 7:25; Daniel 11:36-39 and his teachings on the saints judging the world ( 1 Corinthians 6:1) draw from Daniel 7:18; Daniel 7:22; Daniel 7:27. John's book of Revelation draws extensively on the book of Daniel. These two New Testament writers borrow many words and images from the book of Daniel.

3. Jewish Tradition and Canonicity - The Hebrew title for this book is " Daniel ," following the Jewish tradition of naming a prophetic book after the individual that gave the prophecies. 15] The earliest Hebrew manuscripts of the Old Testament support this ancient Jewish tradition, and thus, support the prophet Daniel as its author. The fact that the book of Daniel was accepted into the Old Testament canon serves as a testimony to the authenticity of the Danielic authorship and to an early date of writing of the book of Daniel.

15] Henry B. Swete, An Introduction to Old Testament in Greek (Cambridge: University Press, 1902), 214.

B. External Evidence- External evidence supports the prophet Daniel as a genuine historical figure and as the author of the book of Daniel who wrote during the sixth century B.C.

1. The Septuagint (LXX) - The fact that the book of Daniel was incorporated into the second century B.C. translation of the Old Testament into the Greek language, called the LXX, testifies to its early date of writing and early acceptance into the Hebrew canon. The LXX proves that it was received into the Hebrew canon prior to the time of the Maccabeans (165 B.C.).

2. The Old Testament Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha - We find many references to the prophet Daniel and to the events recorded in his book in the inter-biblical writings of the Old Testament Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha. These writings support the Jewish belief that Daniel lived and prophesied in the sixth century B.C. We find the prophet Daniel and his three friends listed alongside the other living patriarchs of the Old Testament in the apocryphal book of 1Maccabees. 16] Daniel is mentioned in the book of 2Esdras (4Ezra), "The eagle, whom thou sawest come up from the sea, is the kingdom which was seen in the vision of thy brother Daniel." ( 2 Esdras 12:11) 17] We find Daniel mentioned in the books of Susanna 18] and Bel and the Dragon. 19] The story of the three Hebrew children in the fiery furnace ( Daniel 3:1-30) is reflected in The Prayer of Azariah and the Song of the Three Children. 20]

16] 1 Maccabees 2:52-60 reads, "Was not Abraham found faithful in temptation, and it was imputed unto him for righteousness? Joseph in the time of his distress kept the commandment and was made lord of Egypt. Phinees our father in being zealous and fervent obtained the covenant of an everlasting priesthood. Jesus for fulfilling the word was made a judge in Israel. Caleb for bearing witness before the congregation received the heritage of the land. David for being merciful possessed the throne of an everlasting kingdom. Elias for being zealous and fervent for the law was taken up into heaven. Ananias, Azarias, and Misael, by believing were saved out of the flame. Daniel for his innocency was delivered from the mouth of lions." [See 1 Maccabees , trans. W. O. E. Oesterley, in The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament in English With Introductions and Critical and Explanatory Notes to the Several Books, vol 1, ed. R. H. Charles, 59-124 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1913), 74.]

17] 4Ezra, trans. G. H. Box, in The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament in English With Introductions and Critical and Explanatory Notes to the Several Books, vol 2, ed. R. H. Charles, 542-624 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1913), 613.

18] Susanna , trans. D. M. Kay, in The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament in English With Introductions and Critical and Explanatory Notes to the Several Books, vol 1, ed. R. H. Charles, 638-651 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1913).

19] Bel and the Dragon , trans. T. Witton Davies, in The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament in English With Introductions and Critical and Explanatory Notes to the Several Books, vol 1, ed. R. H. Charles, 652-664 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1913).

20] The Prayer of Azariah and the Song of the Three Children, trans. W. H. Bennett, in The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament in English With Introductions and Critical and Explanatory Notes to the Several Books, vol 1, ed. R. H. Charles, 625-637 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1913).

3. The Dead Sea Scrolls- The discovery of the Dead Sea scrolls in the 1940's and 50's revealed that the same books of the Old Testament as we know them today were considered inspired and authoritative by the ancient Jews. Several fragments of a second-century manuscript of the book of Daniel were discovered in Qumran Cave 1, proving that it could not have a late date of writing. 21] Daniel is quoted often by secular Qumran writers since they believed in the prophetic material in his book. 22] These discoveries add additional weight to the ancient Jewish tradition of crediting the authorship of the book of Daniel to the prophet himself.

21] Cave One provided two Danielic manuscripts (1Q 71, 1Q 72), Cave Four provided five (4QDana, 4QDanb, 4QDanc, 4QDand, 4QDane), and Cave Six (6Q 7) provided one. See Harold P.Scanlin, The Dead Sea Scrolls and Modern Translations of the Old Testament (Wheaton, Ill: Tyndale House Publishers, 1993), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004).

22] John E. Goldingay, Daniel , in Word Biblical Commentary: 58 Volumes on CD- Romans , vol 30, eds. Bruce M. Metzger, David A. Hubbard and Glenn W. Barker (Dallas: Word Inc, 2002), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004), xxvii.

4. Josephus - The ancient writer Josephus make numerous references to the prophet Daniel as a genuine figure in Jewish history. He says that Daniel was a prophet born of noble birth (Antiquities 10101). He also calls Daniel a prophet (Antiquities 10114), which title suggests that he walked in a divine, authoritative ministry with the other Old Testament prophets. Josephus reflects the traditional view of the Jewish regarding the authorship of Daniel when he called Daniel "one of the greatest of the [Old Testament] prophets" and clearly says that he wrote several books (Antiquities 10117). 23] This means that Josephus believed Daniel was the author of the book of Daniel. Josephus refers to the prophecies of Daniel telling his readers to study for themselves "the book of Daniel , which he will find among the sacred writings." (Antiquities 10104) Josephus also speaks of the fame that Daniel achieved during his lifetime among the Chaldeans as well as the Jews (Antiquities 10117). 24] Josephus tells how Jaddua the Jewish high priest (341-322 B.C.) met Alexander the Great on his march towards Jerusalem and averted his wrath against the Jews for their friendship with Darius by showing him Daniel's prophecy that a Grecian leader would overthrow the Persians (Antiquities 1185). 25]

23] Josephus writes, "But it is fit to give an account of what this man did, which is most admirable to hear, for he was so happy as to have strange revelations made to him, and those as to one of the greatest of the prophets, insomuch, that while he was alive he had the esteem and applause both of the kings and of the multitude; and now he is dead, he retains a remembrance that will never fail, for the several books that he wrote and left behind him are still read by us till this time; and from them we believe that Daniel conversed with God; for he did not only prophesy of future events, as did the other prophets, but he also determined the time of their accomplishment….Daniel wrote that he saw these visions in the Plain of Susa; and he hath informed us that God interpreted the appearance of this vision after the following manner….In the very same manner Daniel also wrote concerning the Roman government, and that our country should be made desolate by them. All these things did this man leave in writing, as God had showed them to him, insomuch that such as read his prophecies, and see how they have been fulfilled, would wonder at the honor wherewith God honored Daniel." (Antiquities 10117)

24] Josephus writes, "Now when Daniel was become so illustrious and famous, on account of the opinion men had that he was beloved of God, he built a tower at Ecbatana, in Media." (Antiquities 10117)

25] Josephus writes, "And when the Book of Daniel was showed him wherein Daniel declared that one of the Greeks should destroy the empire of the Persians, he supposed that himself was the person intended." (Antiquities 1185)

5. The Targum and Talmud- In addition, the Jewish Targum and Talmud frequently cite Danielic authority.

6. The Babylonian Talmud- The Babylonian Talmud says that the men of the great assembly wrote the books of Ezekiel , the Twelve prophets, Daniel and Esther.

"And who wrote all the books? Moses wrote his book and a portion of Bil'am , xxii.], and Job. Jehoshua wrote his book and the last eight verses of the Pentateuch beginning: "And Moses, the servant of the Lord, died." Samuel wrote his book, Judges , and Ruth. David wrote Psalm , with the assistance of ten elders, viz.: Adam the First, Malachi Zedek, Abraham, Moses, Hyman, Jeduthun, Asaph, and the three sons of Korach. Jeremiah wrote his book, Kings, and Lamentations. King Hezekiah and his company wrote Isaiah ,, Proverbs ,, Song of Solomon , and Ecclesiastes. The men of the great assembly wrote Ezekiel , the Twelve Prophets, Daniel , and the Book of Esther. Ezra wrote his book, and Chronicles the order of all generations down to himself. [This may be a support to Rabh's theory, as to which, R. Jehudah said in his name, that Ezra had not ascended from Babylon to Palestine until he wrote his genealogy.] And who finished Ezra's book? Nehemiah ben Chachalyah." (Babylonian Talmud, Tract Baba Bathra (Last Gate), 1.Mishna 5) 26]

26] Michael L. Rodkinson, New Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, vol 13 (New York: New Talmud Publishing Company, 1902), 45.

In summary, the historical, linguistic, hermeneutical and archeological evidences point to a late sixth-century date of writing for the book of Daniel , with the prophet Daniel being the most likely candidate. It is most likely that the Jews embraced Daniel as inspired and authoritative quiet early after its date of writing. Those who returned to Jerusalem from the Babylonian Captivity would have certainly accepted it as a part of the Jewish writings. It was during the time of Ezra that the canon of the Old Testament was established, which included the book of Daniel.

IV. Date

The closest we come to verifying the ancient Jewish traditional date and place of writing of the book of Daniel is found in the writings of Josephus, the first century Jewish historian. He tells us that Daniel wrote his visions while living in the plain of Susa (Antiquities 10117). This would place the date of writing in the late sixth century in the ancient land of Persia. Internal and external evidence supports an early date of writing.

A. Internal Evidence - Internal evidence supports a sixth-century date of writing.

1. The Historical Passages of Daniel Indicate an Early Date of Authorship- Regarding the dates of the writing of the book of Daniel , as with the other Major Prophets, this book is a collection of prophecies that were compile as a result of a lifetime of ministry and prophecy. The earliest event in Daniel takes place shortly after his capture and deportation to Jerusalem in 605-604 B. C. We are told in Daniel 1:21 that Daniel's public ministry continued until the first year of King Cyrus, which is date 537 B.C. We know from Daniel 10:1 that his collection of private visions was written as late at the third year of King Cyrus (535 B.C.). Thus, Daniel's ministry spanned approximately seventy years, which is the same period of the Babylonian Captivity prophesied by Jeremiah ( Jeremiah 25:12; Jeremiah 29:10). Perhaps Daniel or his assistances compiled and edited this material shortly thereafter, as Daniel was a very old man by this time, but this work would have most likely been completed by 530 B.C. if we agree that Daniel was the author of these prophecies.

The historical parts of the book of Daniel show that the author was familiar with the more important events of the time of the Exile. He was familiar with the customs and laws of the Babylonians and Persians during this period of history. This would not have been the case for a later date of writing in which the author would have been more distant from the details described in the book of Daniel. For example, the author was familiar with the events of Nebuchadnezzar's first siege of Jerusalem; recording details found nowhere else in the Old Testament ( Daniel 1:6). He was familiar with the name of the last king of Babylon, called Belshazzar and he knew the name of Darius, the first viceroy of the Medo-Persian kingdom ( Daniel 5). Daniel was familiar with the details of the customs of the king's court and of the land. Had the book of Daniel been written later, the author would have followed the historical tradition of his day and given a different, and less detailed, account of some of these historical events. As a similar case would have taken place had the four Gospels of the New Testament been written centuries later, rather than by the apostles themselves. However, the precise details of the accounts of Jesus' earthly ministry recorded in the Gospels serves as strong evidence to apostolic authorship. The same holds true for the book of Daniel.

2. Linguistic Studies Indicate Dates of Authorship - Much linguistic studies have been done in the book of Daniel. Research has been done in Greek loan words, Persian derivatives, and in its Aramaic and Hebrew morphology, vocabulary, and syntax.

a. Greek Influence Within the Text of Daniel - Scholars are pretty well agreed that there are only three words in the Aramaic text of Daniel that were borrowed from the Greek language. Gleason L. Archer says, "All of them are musical instruments: qayteros, derived from kitharis ("lyre," "zither"); pesanterin, from psalterion ("trigon"); and sumponeyah, from symphonia ("harmony," "bagpipe"). These all occur in a list of instruments played by the royal symphony orchestra in Daniel 3:5; Daniel 3:7; Daniel 3:10; Daniel 3:15." Although Greek was not a prominent language during the sixth century B.C, there was a Greek culture in existence at this time in history that mixed with the Babylonians and Persians through ancient trade, thus, resulting in loan words. The fact that there is only a small amount of Greek influence in the book of Daniel clearly supports an early date of writing. Had Daniel been written during the time of the Maccabeans, there would have certainly been much more Greek influence. Thus, we would compare these borrowed Greek words of musical instruments found in the book of Daniel to the way in which the English language borrowed "piano" and "viola" from the Italian language. 27]

27] Gleason L. Archer, Jeremiah , Daniel , The Expositor's Bible Commentary, vol 7, eds. Frank E. Gaebelien, J. D. Douglas, Dick Polcyn (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Pub. House, 1976-1992), in Zondervan Reference Software, v 28 [CD-ROM] (Grand Rapids, MI: The Zondervan Corp, 1989-2001), "Introduction: Linguistic Arguments: Alleged Greek Loan Words."; C. F. Keil and F. Delitzsch, Daniel, in Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament, trans. James Martin, in P.C. Study Bible, v 31 [CD-ROM] (Seattle, WA: Biblesoft Inc, 1993-2000), "Introduction."

b. Persian Influence Within the Text of Daniel - There are about fifteen Persian derivatives pertaining to government and administration found in the Aramaic portions of the book of Daniel noted by scholars, thus supporting an early date of writing. 28] Gleason L. Archer says, "A few Persian derivatives can be found in the Hebrew portions, such as "appeden ("palace" [ Daniel 11:45], from apadana), partemim ("noblemen" [ Daniel 1:3], from fratama), patbag ("king"s portion" [ Daniel 1:5], from patibaga)." 29] Scholars suggest that the language of Daniel , Ezra and Nehemiah contains certain Aryan elements or Parsisms. This suggests that these authors lived and wrote during the Babylonian exile or under Persian rule. The Persian words that are cited are Old Persian, dating from 300 B.C. Four of these nineteen Persian words are not translated well into the Greek, which tells us that the book of Daniel had an early date of writing. 30]

28] F. W. Farrar, Daniel , in The Expositor's Bible, ed. William R. Nicoll and Oscar L. Joseph (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1956), in Ages Digital Library, v 10 [CD-ROM] (Rio, WI: Ages Software, Inc, 2001), "Introduction."

29] Gleason L. Archer, Jeremiah , Daniel , The Expositor's Bible Commentary, vol 7, eds. Frank E. Gaebelien, J. D. Douglas, Dick Polcyn (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Pub. House, 1976-1992), in Zondervan Reference Software, v 28 [CD-ROM] (Grand Rapids, MI: The Zondervan Corp, 1989-2001), "Introduction: Linguistic Arguments: Alleged Greek Loan Words."

30] C. F. Keil and F. Delitzsch, Daniel, in Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament, trans. James Martin, in P.C. Study Bible, v 31 [CD-ROM] (Seattle, WA: Biblesoft Inc, 1993-2000), "Introduction."

c. Aramaic and Hebrew Influence Within the Text of Daniel - Comparative studies in linguistics show that the Aramaic and Hebrew contained in the book of Daniel support an early date of writing. The Hebrew diction of Daniel agrees with the language used by Ezekiel , another Old Testament writer of the exile. The Aramaic diction agrees with the Aramaic found in the book of Ezra.

B. External Evidence - External evidence supports a late sixth-century date for the writing of the book of Daniel.

1. Archaeology - The Dead Sea Scrolls- When comparing other ancient Aramaic writings to the text of Daniel , we can conclude that Daniel had an early date of writing. We can suggest from the Aramaic and Persian terms used in the book of Daniel that this work was written when Aramaic was the official government language during the fifth and sixth centuries B.C. For example, from linguistic studies of the Danielic texts of the Dead Sea Scrolls, such as those found in cave 4Q dating from the Maccabean period, we can be certain that the form of the language used in the book of Daniel predates the second century B.C. 31] Also, the discovery of the Genesis Apocryphon (1GapGen) from Qumran Cave 1gives us a third or second century B.C. manuscript containing Palestinian Aramaic. 32] Before the publication of this scroll, there was no document extant from this era. Linguistic studies of the Genesis Apocryphon now show that its morphology, vocabulary, and syntax are of a later stage of Aramaic that what is contained in the book of Daniel.

31] Cave One provided two Danielic manuscripts (1Q 71, 1Q 72), Cave Four provided five (4QDana, 4QDanb, 4QDanc, 4QDand, 4QDane), and Cave Six (6Q 7) provided one. See Harold P.Scanlin, The Dead Sea Scrolls and Modern Translations of the Old Testament (Wheaton, Ill: Tyndale House Publishers, 1993), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004).

32] Harold P.Scanlin, The Dead Sea Scrolls and Modern Translations of the Old Testament (Wheaton, Ill: Tyndale House Publishers, 1993), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004).

2. The LXX - The Alexandrian Jews of the second century B.C. translated the Old Testament into the Greek language of their day. We find evidence in the LXX that these translators had difficulty in translating some of the technical words used in the book of Daniel. For example, Gleason L. Archer says in " Daniel 3:2 we find that the LXX translates adargazerayya ("counselors") by hypatous ("magnates"); gedaberayya ("treasurers") by dioiketas ("administrators"); and tiptaye or detaberayya ("magistrates," "judges") by the vague, general phrase tous ep exousion ("those in authority")." If the book of Daniel was a second-century writing the Alexandrian Jewish translators would not have had this difficulty. Thus, such evidence supports an early date of writing. 33]

33] Gleason L. Archer, Jeremiah , Daniel , The Expositor's Bible Commentary, vol 7, eds. Frank E. Gaebelien, J. D. Douglas, Dick Polcyn (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Pub. House, 1976-1992), in Zondervan Reference Software, v 28 [CD-ROM] (Grand Rapids, MI: The Zondervan Corp, 1989-2001), "Introduction: Linguistic Arguments: Alleged Greek Loan Words."

3. Josephus - Josephus, the Jewish historian of the first century after Christ, claims that Daniel wrote down his own prophecies, which dates the book of Daniel in the late sixth century B.C. (Antiquities 10117)

"Daniel wrote that he saw these visions in the Plain of Susa; and he hath informed us that God interpreted the appearance of this vision after the following manner….In the very same manner Daniel also wrote concerning the Roman government, and that our country should be made desolate by them." (Antiquities 10117)

V. Recipients

The first half of the book of Daniel contains the story of Daniel's public ministry to the kings of Babylon and Persia. Because Daniel 2:4 b to Daniel 7:28 was originally written in Aramaic, it is suggested that this material was initially intended for public records to the Gentile people that Daniel ministered to. The events contained in this first division of the book of Daniel are the records of his public ministry to Gentile kings. In fact, these vision, especially the one in Daniel 2:1-49, reveal God's work of redemption among the Gentile nations. The last half of his book (8-12) was written in Hebrew, which suggests that the immediate recipients would have been the Hebrew children in Captivity and those Jews who returned to Jerusalem. We find in this collection of private visions insight into God's redemptive work among the Jews from the time of their Captivity until the end of time. In fact, the angel told Daniel , "Now I am come to make thee understand what shall befall thy people in the latter days: for yet the vision is for many days." ( Daniel 10:14) The Jews would have been encouraged by these prophecies of hope and restoration of all things. However, the first chapter of Daniel was originally written in Hebrew. This suggests that this first chapter was added by the Jews while compiling these Aramaic stories in order to prepare the entire book for Jewish readers. Josephus speaks of the fame that Daniel achieved during his lifetime among the Chaldeans as well as the Jews (Antiquities 5117). 34] This gives us a legitimate reason for a portion of his book to be written in Aramaic for Chaldean readers. In Daniel 10:14 the angel told this beloved prophet that God had given him visions in order to show him what shall befall the Jews in the latter days. Thus, the Jews are considered the primary recipients of Daniel's private visions (chpts 7-12).

34] Josephus writes, "Now when Daniel was become so illustrious and famous, on account of the opinion men had that he was beloved of God, he built a tower at Ecbatana, in Media." (Antiquities 5117)

Daniel 10:14, "Now I am come to make thee understand what shall befall thy people in the latter days: for yet the vision is for many days."

VI. Occasion

During Daniel's lengthy service in government affairs, his fame spread far and wide among the Chaldeans, as well as among the Jewish exiles. As some point the Jews understood the need to compile the stories and visions of God's divine intervention in the life of this great leader. His tremendous influence upon his generation would have served as the most obvious event that occasioned the writing and compilation of the stories contained in the book of Daniel.

LITERARY STYLE (GENRE)

"Perhaps the most important issue in interpretation is the issue of genre.

If we misunderstand the genre of a text, the rest of our analysis will be askew."

(Thomas Schreiner) 35]

35] Thomas R. Schreiner, Interpreting the Pauline Epistles, second edition (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Academic, c 1990, 2011), 11.

Within the historical setting of the latter kingdom of Israel and the Babylonian Captivity, the author of the book of Daniel chose to write using the literary style of the ancient prophetic literature as well as Jewish interbiblical apocalyptic literature. Thus, the book of Daniel is assigned to two literary genre called "prophecy" and "apocalyptic literature." Included in the genre of prophecy are the three books of the Old Testament major prophets and twelve minor prophets. The book of Daniel and Revelation stand unique in the Holy Scriptures as apocalyptic literature.

The book of Daniel has a number of issues regarding its literary style that distinguish it from the other books of the Holy Scriptures: (A) it is apocalyptic literature that is unique to the Old Testament, (B) the book of Daniel uses two original languages, (C) the divine names used in the book of Daniel , and (D) the book of Daniel used in the New Testament.

A. The Book of Daniel is Apocalyptic Literature Unique to the Old Testament - The second half of the book of Daniel , portions of Ezekiel ( Ezekiel 37:1-14, Ezekiel 40:1 to Ezekiel 48:35) and of Zechariah ( Zechariah 1:7 to Zechariah 6:8) are considered the three apocalyptic writings of the Old Testament, while the book of Revelation is the only New Testament example of such literature. The Greek word "apocalypse" ( ἀποκάλυψις ς) (s 602) literally means "a disclosure, appearing, manifestation, revelation" (Strong). Webster tells us that Jewish apocalyptic literature was written from 250 B.C. to A.D 150. It provides a message of future hope and deliverance for God's people. This type of literature uses prose rather than poetry to describe visions in the form of symbolic language to give future predictions of coming events. It is symbolic, prophetic literature that is composed in times of oppression with an eschatological message. Albert Barnes notes that such symbolism used by the Jews during the period following the Babylonian Captivity may have been inspired by the many symbolic figures that were fashioned and displayed in the Chaldean and Persian Empires in which these prophets lived, for the ruins of these ancient Oriental cities abound with such images. 36] Because of its unique apocalyptic style, the book of Daniel has been grouped with both the historical as well as the prophetic divisions of the Old Testament. The Hebrew Bible places Daniel within the Writings, while the English Bible places it within the Prophets. In fact, the first part of the book is largely historical while the last part is prophetic.

36] Albert Barnes, Daniel , in Barnes" Notes, Electronic Database (Seattle, WA: Hendrickson Publishers Inc, 1997), in P.C. Study Bible, v 31 [CD-ROM] (Seattle, WA: Biblesoft Inc, 1993-2000), "Introduction."

The English Bible - Regarding the arrangement of the book of Daniel in the Old Testament Scriptures, the English Bible follows the order of the ancient LXX and the Latin Vulgate that followed, which grouped the book of Daniel with the Major Prophets by placing it after the book of Ezekiel. Josephus also followed the order of the LXX when he referred to the arrangement of the Old Testament as having three divisions; (1) the five books of Moses called the Pentateuch, (2) thirteen books of the Prophets, and (3) the remaining four books that "embrace hymns to God and counsels for men for the conduct of life," which would be called the Writings, and which we call Poetry ( Psalm ,, Job ,, Proverbs , and Ecclesiastes) (Against Apion 18) 37] Gleason Archer says that Josephus' description of the thirteen books of the Prophets would have comprised "the Former Prophets, including Joshua ,, Judges -, Ruth , the two books of Samuel, the two books of Kings, the two books of Chronicles, Isaiah ,, Jeremiah -, Lamentations ,, Ezekiel ,, Daniel , the Twelve Minor Prophets as one volume (since they could all be included in one large scroll), Song of Solomon ,, Ezra -Nehemiah and Esther." 38]

37] Josephus says, "For we have not an innumerable multitude of books among us, disagreeing from and contradicting one another, [as the Greeks have,] but only twenty-two books, which contain the records of all the past times; which are justly believed to be divine; and of them five belong to Moses, which contain his laws and the traditions of the origin of mankind till his death. This interval of time was little short of three thousand years; but as to the time from the death of Moses till the reign of Artaxerxes king of Persia, who reigned after Xerxes, the prophets, who were after Moses, wrote down what was done in their times in thirteen books. The remaining four books contain hymns to God, and precepts for the conduct of human life." (Against Apion 18)

38] Gleason L. Archer, Jeremiah , Daniel , The Expositor's Bible Commentary, vol 7, eds. Frank E. Gaebelien, J. D. Douglas, Dick Polcyn. (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Pub. House, 1976-1992), in Zondervan Reference Software, v 28 [CD-ROM] (Grand Rapids, MI: The Zondervan Corp, 1989-2001), "Introduction."

The Hebrew Bible- In contrast to the English Bible's arrangement, the Hebrew Bible and the Masoretic Text place the book of Daniel with the major division called the Writings. The Masoretic Text, which was compiled six or seven centuries after Josephus, includes thirteen books in the division of the Writings, including the book of Daniel , and it reduces the number of its prophetic books.

There is no question in the minds of Christian scholars that Daniel walked in the office of a prophet. However, the Jews saw Daniel , not as a prophet on the level of Isaiah , Jeremiah and Ezekiel , but rather, in the office of a government administrator, as was Ezra and Nehemiah. This would explain why the book of Daniel has been placed in different groups within the English and Hebrew Bibles.

Conclusion- Within the scope of the Scriptures, the prophecies of Daniel center on the coming of the Messiah and God's eternal plan of redemption for mankind. My view is that the book of Daniel stands alone in the Old Testament in its characteristics in the same way the book of Revelation stands alone in the New Testament. Both are apocalyptic and both use symbols to predict important events in the future that relate to the nation of Israel as well as the Church. Thus, Daniel should be grouped with neither the Writings nor the Prophets.

B. The Book of Daniel Uses Two Original Languages- As with Ezra , which has four chapters in Aramaic, the book of Daniel is written in both Hebrew (chpts 1, 8-12) and Aramaic (chpts 2-7), which was the language used by most officials on government duty, much like English is widely used today across the world. The Aramaic language of Daniel begins at Daniel 2:4 b and continues through Daniel 7:28. Thus, we may conclude that the material written in Aramaic, which records Daniel's public ministry, was in some way made public for the people or government officials to read, but his collection of private visions, which are written in Hebrew, were very likely for personal use only, or limited to the Jewish synagogues, for no one in Daniel's day was conversant with the Hebrew language except the Jews, with a few possible exceptions.

C. The Divine Names Used in the Book of Daniel - It is important to note that the names of God that are used in the passages of the Scriptures support the theme of these passages. In the book of Daniel the emphasis is upon the prophecies and visions of the Time of the Gentiles and the Last Days. Thus, God's names are used that emphasize His relationship to time.

1. The High God- How great are his signs! and how mighty are his wonders! his kingdom is an everlasting kingdom, and his dominion is from generation to generation. ( Daniel 4:2-3)

2. The Ancient of Days ( Daniel 7:9; Daniel 7:13; Daniel 7:22)

D. The Book of Daniel Used in the New Testament - Although there are not many direct quotes from the book of Daniel found in the New Testament, the ones that do make a quote are important. The most familiar quotes are eschatological in nature and refer to Christ's Second Coming.

1. The Phrase "the abomination of desolation" - Perhaps the best-known phrase in the New Testament that comes from the book of Daniel is "the abomination of desolation", which the prophet Daniel referred to on three occasions.

Daniel 9:27, "And he shall confirm the covenant with many for one week: and in the midst of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease, and for the overspreading of abominations he shall make it desolate, even until the consummation, and that determined shall be poured upon the desolate."

Daniel 11:31, "And arms shall stand on his part, and they shall pollute the sanctuary of strength, and shall take away the daily sacrifice, and they shall place the abomination that maketh desolate."

Daniel 12:11, "And from the time that the daily sacrifice shall be taken away, and the abomination that maketh desolate set up, there shall be a thousand two hundred and ninety days."

Jesus interpreted this event to be something that would take place during the Great Tribulation Period immediately before His Second Coming.

Matthew 24:15, "When ye therefore shall see the abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel the prophet, stand in the holy place, (whoso readeth, let him understand:)"

Mark 13:14, "But when ye shall see the abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel the prophet, standing where it ought not, (let him that readeth understand,) then let them that be in Judaea flee to the mountains:"

2. The Phrase "the Son of Man" - Although the phrase "the son of man" is commonly used in Hebrew poetry and especially by the prophet Ezekiel , the book of Daniel is the only book in the Old Testament to use it directly in reference to the coming of the Messiah.

Daniel 7:13, "I saw in the night visions, and, behold, one like the Son of man came with the clouds of heaven, and came to the Ancient of days, and they brought him near before him."

Although Jesus Christ used the phrase "Son of Man" often to refer to Himself, there are at least six verses in the New Testament that seem to quote Daniel 7:13 regarding the Son of man coming in clouds of glory.

Matthew 24:30, "And then shall appear the sign of the Son of man in heaven: and then shall all the tribes of the earth mourn, and they shall see the Son of man coming in the clouds of heaven with power and great glory."

Matthew 26:64, "Jesus saith unto him, Thou hast said: nevertheless I say unto you, Hereafter shall ye see the Son of man sitting on the right hand of power, and coming in the clouds of heaven."

Mark 13:26, "And then shall they see the Son of man coming in the clouds with great power and glory."

Mark 14:62, "And Jesus said, I am: and ye shall see the Son of man sitting on the right hand of power, and coming in the clouds of heaven."

Luke 21:27, "And then shall they see the Son of man coming in a cloud with power and great glory."

Also, we made suggest that two additional New Testament passages allude to Daniel 7:13.

Luke 22:69, "Hereafter shall the Son of man sit on the right hand of the power of God."

Revelation 1:7, "Behold, he cometh with clouds; and every eye shall see him, and they also which pierced him: and all kindreds of the earth shall wail because of him. Even Song of Solomon , Amen."

3. The Phrase "they shall be cast into a fiery furnace" - Jesus uses the phrase "to be cast into a fiery furnace" two times when referring to Hell. This phrase probably comes from the book of Daniel.

Daniel 3:6, "And whoso falleth not down and worshippeth shall the same hour be cast into the midst of a burning fiery furnace."

Matthew 13:42, "And shall cast them into a furnace of fire: there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth."

Matthew 13:50, "And shall cast them into the furnace of fire: there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth."

Other Allusions- In addition to these direct quotes from the book of Daniel , we can find a number of New Testament verses that allude to the book of Daniel. It is interesting to note that the following list of allusions all focus on the events surrounding the Second Coming of Christ.

4. Allusions to the Stone and the Great Tribulation in Matthew - The Gospel of Matthew alludes to a number of phrases spoken of in the book of Daniel. For example, we can see an allusion in Jesus' statement of a stone grinding to powder those who reject Christ to Daniel's description of the stone striking the image so that it became dust carried away as powder.

Matthew 21:44, "And whosoever shall fall on this stone shall be broken: but on whomsoever it shall fall, it will grind him to powder."

Daniel 2:34-35, "Thou sawest till that a stone was cut out without hands, which smote the image upon his feet that were of iron and clay, and brake them to pieces. Then was the iron, the clay, the brass, the silver, and the gold, broken to pieces together, and became like the chaff of the summer threshingfloors; and the wind carried them away, that no place was found for them: and the stone that smote the image became a great mountain, and filled the whole earth."

Also, when Jesus is giving His eschatological discourse in Matthew 23-24, He is talking about some of the events that Daniel prophesied would come to pass. When Jesus says that there will be great tribulation, such as was not since the beginning of the world to this time, nor ever shall be," ( Matthew 24:21) He was using the same description that is found in Daniel 12:1.

Daniel 12:1, "And at that time shall Michael stand up, the great prince which standeth for the children of thy people: and there shall be a time of trouble, such as never was since there was a nation even to that same time: and at that time thy people shall be delivered, every one that shall be found written in the book."

Matthew 24:21, "For then shall be great tribulation, such as was not since the beginning of the world to this time, no, nor ever shall be."

5. Allusions of the Antichrist in 2Thessalonians- We may see an allusion to the book of Daniel ( Daniel 7:25; Daniel 11:36) in Paul's description of the antichrist found in 2 Thessalonians 2:3-4. In both places, this person speaks boastfully and exalts himself against God.

Daniel 7:25, "And he shall speak great words against the most High, and shall wear out the saints of the most High, and think to change times and laws: and they shall be given into his hand until a time and times and the dividing of time."

Daniel 11:36, "And the king shall do according to his will; and he shall exalt himself, and magnify himself above every god, and shall speak marvellous things against the God of gods, and shall prosper till the indignation be accomplished: for that that is determined shall be done."

2 Thessalonians 2:3-4, "Let no man deceive you by any means: for that day shall not come, except there come a falling away first, and that man of sin be revealed, the son of perdition; Who opposeth and exalteth himself above all that is called God, or that is worshipped; so that he as God sitteth in the temple of God, shewing himself that he is God."

6. Allusions in the Book of Revelation - There are many allusions in the book of Revelation to the descriptions found in Daniel. Both Daniel and John respond in a similar way to these visions. Both give similar descriptions in their visions of heaven, the final tribulation and judgment. Both books contain prophetic scrolls with seals.

a. The Response of the Writers to these Visions- We see the prophet Daniel falling down before the angel while John the apostle fell before the Lord.

Daniel 8:17-18, "So he came near where I stood: and when he came, I was afraid, and fell upon my face: but he said unto me, Understand, O son of man: for at the time of the end shall be the vision. Now as he was speaking with me, I was in a deep sleep on my face toward the ground: but he touched me, and set me upright."

Revelation 1:17, "And when I saw him, I fell at his feet as dead. And he laid his right hand upon me, saying unto me, Fear not; I am the first and the last:"

b. Both Give Similar Descriptions of Heaven, the Throne of God and Angels- We see an allusion in the similar description of the Ancient of Days in Daniel and the Risen Christ in the Apocalypse. Both have garments white as snow and a head and hair like wool.

Daniel 7:9, "I beheld till the thrones were cast down, and the Ancient of days did sit, whose garment was white as snow, and the hair of his head like the pure wool: his throne was like the fiery flame, and his wheels as burning fire."

Revelation 1:14, "His head and his hairs were white like wool, as white as snow; and his eyes were as a flame of fire;"

Both books gives similar descriptions of the throne of God, where dwells the One who lives forever and ever.

Daniel 4:34, "And at the end of the days I Nebuchadnezzar lifted up mine eyes unto heaven, and mine understanding returned unto me, and I blessed the most High, and I praised and honoured him that liveth for ever, whose dominion is an everlasting dominion, and his kingdom is from generation to generation:"

Daniel 7:9, "I beheld till the thrones were cast down, and the Ancient of days did sit, whose garment was white as snow, and the hair of his head like the pure wool: his throne was like the fiery flame, and his wheels as burning fire."

Daniel 12:7, "And I heard the man clothed in linen, which was upon the waters of the river, when he held up his right hand and his left hand unto heaven, and sware by him that liveth for ever that it shall be for a time, times, and an half; and when he shall have accomplished to scatter the power of the holy people, all these things shall be finished."

Revelation 4:2, "And immediately I was in the spirit: and, behold, a throne was set in heaven, and one sat on the throne."

Revelation 4:9, "And when those beasts give glory and honour and thanks to him that sat on the throne, who liveth for ever and ever,"

In Daniel 7:9 both have feet like brass and the voice that sounds like many waters.

Daniel 10:6, "His body also was like the beryl, and his face as the appearance of lightning, and his eyes as lamps of fire, and his arms and his feet like in colour to polished brass, and the voice of his words like the voice of a multitude."

Revelation 1:15, "And his feet like unto fine brass, as if they burned in a furnace; and his voice as the sound of many waters."

Both books refer to the number of angels around the throne as ten thousand times ten thousands.

Daniel 7:10, "A fiery stream issued and came forth from before him: thousand thousands ministered unto him, and ten thousand times ten thousand stood before him: the judgment was set, and the books were opened."

Revelation 5:11, "And I beheld, and I heard the voice of many angels round about the throne and the beasts and the elders: and the number of them was ten thousand times ten thousand, and thousands of thousands;"

Both refer to angels who lived up their hands towards heaven and swore to Him that lives forever and ever.

Daniel 12:7, "And I heard the man clothed in linen, which was upon the waters of the river, when he held up his right hand and his left hand unto heaven, and sware by him that liveth for ever that it shall be for a time, times, and an half; and when he shall have accomplished to scatter the power of the holy people, all these things shall be finished."

Revelation 10:5-6, "And the angel which I saw stand upon the sea and upon the earth lifted up his hand to heaven, And sware by him that liveth for ever and ever, who created heaven, and the things that therein are, and the earth, and the things that therein are, and the sea, and the things which are therein, that there should be time no longer:"

c. Both Give Similar Images of a Tribulation Period With Visions of Beasts- Both books refer to the testing of God's servants for ten days.

Daniel 1:12, "Prove thy servants, I beseech thee, ten days; and let them give us pulse to eat, and water to drink."

Revelation 2:10, "Fear none of those things which thou shalt suffer: behold, the devil shall cast some of you into prison, that ye may be tried; and ye shall have tribulation ten days: be thou faithful unto death, and I will give thee a crown of life."

Both books refer to all people and nations.

Daniel 3:4, "Then an herald cried aloud, To you it is commanded, O people, nations, and languages,"

Daniel 5:19, "And for the majesty that he gave him, all people, nations, and languages, trembled and feared before him: whom he would he slew; and whom he would he kept alive; and whom he would he set up; and whom he would he put down."

Revelation 5:9, "And they sung a new Song of Solomon , saying, Thou art worthy to take the book, and to open the seals thereof: for thou wast slain, and hast redeemed us to God by thy blood out of every kindred, and tongue, and people, and nation;"

Both books refer to men who worship idols of gold, silver, brass, stone and wood, which cannot see or hear.

Daniel 5:23, "But hast lifted up thyself against the Lord of heaven; and they have brought the vessels of his house before thee, and thou, and thy lords, thy wives, and thy concubines, have drunk wine in them; and thou hast praised the gods of silver, and gold, of brass, iron, wood, and stone, which see not, nor hear, nor know: and the God in whose hand thy breath Isaiah , and whose are all thy ways, hast thou not glorified:"

Revelation 9:20, "And the rest of the men which were not killed by these plagues yet repented not of the works of their hands, that they should not worship devils, and idols of gold, and silver, and brass, and stone, and of wood: which neither can see, nor hear, nor walk:"

Both refer to periods during the tribulation that will last about three and a half years.

Daniel 7:25, "And he shall speak great words against the most High, and shall wear out the saints of the most High, and think to change times and laws: and they shall be given into his hand until a time and times and the dividing of time."

Revelation 11:3, "And I will give power unto my two witnesses, and they shall prophesy a thousand two hundred and threescore days, clothed in sackcloth."

Both books refer to a beast with ten horns.

Daniel 7:7, "After this I saw in the night visions, and behold a fourth beast, dreadful and terrible, and strong exceedingly; and it had great iron teeth: it devoured and brake in pieces, and stamped the residue with the feet of it: and it was diverse from all the beasts that were before it; and it had ten horns."

Revelation 12:3, "And there appeared another wonder in heaven; and behold a great red dragon, having seven heads and ten horns, and seven crowns upon his heads."

Both refer to a beast that cast the stars down from heaven to earth.

Daniel 8:10, "And it waxed great, even to the host of heaven; and it cast down some of the host and of the stars to the ground, and stamped upon them."

Revelation 12:4, "And his tail drew the third part of the stars of heaven, and did cast them to the earth: and the dragon stood before the woman which was ready to be delivered, for to devour her child as soon as it was born."

Both describe similar features of beasts. The one described in Revelation 13:1-2 appears to be a composite of the four individual beasts described in Daniel 7:3-6.

Daniel 7:3-6, "And four great beasts came up from the sea, diverse one from another. The first was like a lion, and had eagle"s wings: I beheld till the wings thereof were plucked, and it was lifted up from the earth, and made stand upon the feet as a Prayer of Manasseh , and a man"s heart was given to it. And behold another beast, a second, like to a bear, and it raised up itself on one side, and it had three ribs in the mouth of it between the teeth of it: and they said thus unto it, Arise, devour much flesh. After this I beheld, and lo another, like a leopard, which had upon the back of it four wings of a fowl; the beast had also four heads; and dominion was given to it."

Revelation 13:1-2, "And I stood upon the sand of the sea, and saw a beast rise up out of the sea, having seven heads and ten horns, and upon his horns ten crowns, and upon his heads the name of blasphemy. And the beast which I saw was like unto a leopard, and his feet were as the feet of a bear, and his mouth as the mouth of a lion: and the dragon gave him his power, and his seat, and great authority."

In both books a beast speaks blasphemous words against God.

Daniel 7:8, "I considered the horns, and, behold, there came up among them another little horn, before whom there were three of the first horns plucked up by the roots: and, behold, in this horn were eyes like the eyes of Prayer of Manasseh , and a mouth speaking great things."

Daniel 11:36, "And the king shall do according to his will; and he shall exalt himself, and magnify himself above every god, and shall speak marvellous things against the God of gods, and shall prosper till the indignation be accomplished: for that that is determined shall be done."

Revelation 13:5, "And there was given unto him a mouth speaking great things and blasphemies; and power was given unto him to continue forty and two months."

d. Both Give Similar Descriptions of the Throne of Judgment- Both books refer to thrones of judgment.

Daniel 7:9, "I beheld till the thrones were cast down, and the Ancient of days did sit, whose garment was white as snow, and the hair of his head like the pure wool: his throne was like the fiery flame, and his wheels as burning fire."

Revelation 20:4, "And I saw thrones, and they sat upon them, and judgment was given unto them: and I saw the souls of them that were beheaded for the witness of Jesus, and for the word of God, and which had not worshipped the beast, neither his image, neither had received his mark upon their foreheads, or in their hands; and they lived and reigned with Christ a thousand years."

Both books refer to a set of books that will be opened during the time of judgment.

Daniel 7:10, "A fiery stream issued and came forth from before him: thousand thousands ministered unto him, and ten thousand times ten thousand stood before him: the judgment was set, and the books were opened."

Revelation 20:12, "And I saw the dead, small and great, stand before God; and the books were opened: and another book was opened, which is the book of life: and the dead were judged out of those things which were written in the books, according to their works."

e. Both Books Refer to Prophetic Scrolls- Both refer to prophetic books, or scrolls, shut up with seals.

Daniel 12:4, "But thou, O Daniel , shut up the words, and seal the book, even to the time of the end: many shall run to and fro, and knowledge shall be increased."

Revelation 5:1, "And I saw in the right hand of him that sat on the throne a book written within and on the backside, sealed with seven seals."

THEOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK

"Scholarly excellence requires a proper theological framework."

(Andreas Ksenberger) 39]

39] Andreas J. Ksenberger, Excellence: The Character of God and the Pursuit of Scholarly Virtue (Wheaton, Illinois: Crossway, 2011), 161.

Based upon the historical setting and literary style of the book of Daniel , an examination of the purpose, thematic scheme, and literary structure to this book of the Holy Scriptures will reveal its theological framework. This introductory section will sum up its theological framework in the form of an outline, which is then used to identify smaller units or pericopes within the book of Daniel for preaching and teaching passages of Scripture while following the overriding message of the book. Following this outline allows the minister of the Gospel of Jesus Christ to take his followers on a spiritual journey that brings them to the same destination that the author intended his readers to reach.

VII. Purpose

We can find a two-fold purpose in the writing of the book of Daniel. The book serves to reveal the sovereignty of God over all nations as He includes them in His divine plan of redemption ( Daniel 2-6). It also served to provide hope to the Jewish people as it reveals the restoration of God's people and their ultimate victory over sin and oppression ( Daniel 7-12).

A. To Reveal the Sovereignty of God Over All Nations - The book of Daniel serves more than as a historical account of the life of David or the Jewish Captivity. This book more accurately serves to reveal God's divine plan of redemption that is being worked out for His people Israel through the Gentile nations. This book reveals that by God's divine foreknowledge and providence, by His miraculous intervention, and by His Almighty power, the God of the universe is directing His divine plan of redemption for mankind through the Gentile nations. Daniel foretells that the salvation of the Gentiles will not come as an embracing and enlargement of Judaism, but as a grafting in of a tree cut off at its roots, for the Church will be established among the Gentiles after having sprung from the remnant of Israel.

In the book of Daniel , the God of Israel establishes respect from the Gentile nations and their leaders as the true God of the universe. Thus, the name "Daniel" ( דָּנִיֵּאל) (H 1840) which means, "judge of God" (Strong), "God is my Judges ," (BDB), or "God has judged," (Baker) and it reflects the theme of the book of Daniel. We can see the emphasis of God's sovereignty and judgment in the first six chapters of the book of Daniel.

B. To Reveal the Restoration of God's People - A second purpose found in the book of Daniel is seen in its references to the restoration of God's people. Although the nation of Israel is not spoken of directly in Daniel's visions, we can see the emphasis of the restoration of God's people in the last six chapters of the book of Daniel. The angel told Daniel that his private visions were revealed to help the Jews to understand what shall befall the Jews in the latter days.

Daniel 10:14, "Now I am come to make thee understand what shall befall thy people in the latter days: for yet the vision is for many days."

These prophecies gave the Jews hope that God would one day restore them to their Promised Land and their nation back to its former glory. Thus, the book of Daniel served as a message of hope and encouragement to the oppressed Jews as they returned to Judah to rebuild their nation in the sixth century.

VIII. Thematic Scheme

A. Foundational Theme of the Books of Prophecy (How To Worship the Lord With All thy Mind) - While the book of Psalm and other Hebrew poetry move us to worship God with all of our hearts and the historical narratives and writings inspire us to serve the Lord with all of our strength, the Prophets stir us up to seek God with all our mind as they reveal to us God's eternal plan and destiny for Israel and the Gentiles. The Prophets teach us the future so that we will serve the Lord now in hope of obtaining our eternal, divine destiny. We find several examples in the New Testament as to the purpose of the books of prophecy. In 1 Peter 1:10-12, we are told that these Old Testament prophets did a mental search in order to understand the meaning of their prophecies of the future. They realized that they were speaking of events that would not happen to themselves, but to a future generation.

1 Peter 1:10-12, "Of which salvation the prophets have enquired and searched diligently, who prophesied of the grace that should come unto you: Searching what, or what manner of time the Spirit of Christ which was in them did signify, when it testified beforehand the sufferings of Christ, and the glory that should follow. Unto whom it was revealed, that not unto themselves, but unto us they did minister the things, which are now reported unto you by them that have preached the gospel unto you with the Holy Ghost sent down from heaven; which things the angels desire to look into."

One story that illustrates the theme of prophetic literature is found in the New Testament. In Acts 8:30-31 we find Philip the evangelist meeting the Ethiopian eunuch in the desert while reading the book of Isaiah. This eunuch was inspired by reading this book of prophecy to seek a deeper understanding of its meaning and of the ways of God. Philip then took the opportunity to instruct him in the ways of righteousness by faith in Christ Jesus ( Acts 8:30-31).

Acts 8:30-31, "And Philip ran thither to him, and heard him read the prophet Esaias, and said, Understandest thou what thou readest? And he said, How can I, except some man should guide me? And he desired Philip that he would come up and sit with him."

In John 12:14-16 we see how the Holy Spirit brought the Old Testament prophecies to the remembrance of the early Church so that they could understand the events that took place in the life of Jesus Christ.

John 12:14-16, "And Jesus, when he had found a young ass, sat thereon; as it is written, Fear not, daughter of Sion: behold, thy King cometh, sitting on an ass"s colt. These things understood not his disciples at the first: but when Jesus was glorified, then remembered they that these things were written of him, and that they had done these things unto him."

In these three New Testament passages, the prophetic books were used to stir up the minds of men to seek God. In other words, it inspired men to seek God with all of their minds.

1. The Central Theme of Daniel: The Times of the Gentiles - The theme of the book of Daniel is God's Plan of Redemption During the Times of the Gentiles. The book of Daniel stands alone in the Old Testament in its structure and content in much the same way that the book of Revelation is unique to the New Testament. Both are apocalyptic in nature, using symbolic figures to prophesy of future events. Daniel is structured different than the three major prophets, being similar to the books of Ezra , Nehemiah and Esther in its narrative material, while containing a large amount of prophecy. The book of Daniel takes us through the Times of the Gentiles when God divinely works in this group of people to carry out His divine plan of election and redemption. He makes mention of the Kingdom of Heaven from the view of the ages of the worldly kingdoms. Thus, the theme and prophecies of Daniel focus upon the "Times of the Gentiles" from the fall of Jerusalem until the full restoration of the nation of Israel at Christ's Second Coming. Daniel's prophecies encompass the prophecies of Isaiah , Jeremiah and Ezekiel , so that it serves as a foundational book of prophecy.

While the other thirty-eight books of the Old Testament focus upon the nation of Israel, the prophecies in the book of Daniel focus upon the period of human history called the "Times of the Gentiles" and upon the destiny of the Gentile nations from the fall of Jerusalem up until the time when the nation of Israel is fully restored at Christ's Second Coming. Thus, its primary theme is about the period of history called the "Times of the Gentiles". The fall of Jerusalem to King Nebuchadnezzar began this period of human history and it will last until the time when Christ returns again and usher the world into the thousand-year Millennial Reign. At that time Christ will rule and reign from the holy city of Jerusalem and the nation of Israel will again take center stage and be restored to its fullness. The prophet Daniel ministered directly to the Babylonian kings. As a result he was given insight into the "Time of the Gentiles." However, this Jewish Old Testament writing ministers to the Jews as well in that it tells them when their nation will be fully restored and when their Messiah will come to deliver them from the oppression of the Gentiles. Thus, we can then see the importance of Daniel's understanding of the seventy-year prophecy of Jeremiah. He understood by a vision that a temporary restoration would take place in a seventy-year period, but that a full restoration would not be accomplished until a seventy-week period was fulfilled.

The book of Daniel weaves the theme of God's sovereign power and destiny for mankind within the revelation of the Times of the Gentiles. Despite the historical setting of the destruction of Jerusalem and enslavement of God's people, these prophecies clearly show that the God of Israel is still on the throne and determining the outcome of mankind. Thus, the foreknowledge of God the Father is the underlying theme of the Old Testament with the book of Daniel being given special emphasis upon the destiny of the Gentile nations as they are a part of God's redemptive plan for mankind.

The prophet Daniel was a contemporary of Ezekiel. While Daniel was ministering to the kings of the Gentile nations, Ezekiel was providing comfort and hope to the Jews in Babylonian captivity. If we compare their two ministries, we see that they both served to provide to the Jews a hope of future restoration. Daniel's prophecies emphasize their restoration from the time frame of the Age of the Gentiles, while Ezekiel's prophecies reveal Israel's restoration from the perspective of a clear understanding of divine judgment upon His people Israel, His pending judgment upon their enemies and their future restoration. Although Ezekiel did prophesy about the judgment of those nations surrounding Israel, his main focus reveals the rebirth and establishment of Israel, while Daniel focused upon the rise and fall of the Gentile nations. In addition, both prophets show us that all nations will one day be made subject to the Ancient of Days, the King of Kings, when Jesus Christ will rule and reign over this earth with His saints. The book of Daniel plays an important role in the books of the prophets in that it sets a framework and timelines for all other prophetic events to take place. Daniel literally predicted the year A.D 27 as the year of the Messiah's atonement. Although the prophet Isaiah , as well as King David in Psalm 22, described the coming and death of the Messiah, Daniel established the timeline for Christ's first and second Coming.

If we compare the three prophetic books of Ezekiel , Daniel and Revelation , we can make the following observations. Regarding the end-time events, Daniel addresses the Gentiles, Ezekiel addresses the Jews on these same events, and the book of Revelation addresses the Church on this subject. The book of Ezekiel was written to the people of Israel to help them persevere through their time of persecutions during the Babylonian Captivity. But the book of Revelation was addressed to the Church, and not to the Jews, to help them persevere until the end. Therefore, Ezekiel speaks of three major events that relate to the nation of Israel leading up to the ushering in of the Millennial Reign of Christ Jesus, which are the restoration of Israel (36-37), the great battle with Russia and its allies (38-39) and the rebuilding of the Temple with its institution of worship (40-48). These are the three important events that will involve Israel during these last days leading up to and through the seven-year Tribulation Period. Thus, Ezekiel tells of these end-time events from the perspective of Israel. In contrast, the book of Daniel tells of Christ's Second Coming from the perspective of the Gentile nations. Finally, the book of Revelation tells of the end-time events from the perspective of the Church.

Finally, it is interesting to note how the prayers of the saints throughout history determined the outcome of many historical events within God's framework of His plan of redemption. This reveals the important role of God's people in shaping history for good by overcoming evil. Thus, both God and men have a role to plan in God's eternal plan of redemption for mankind.

2. The Three Major Prophets: Israel's Redemption through the Father, the Song of Solomon , and the Holy Spirit- As we study the life of the three Major Prophets, we see how each of them received a divine visitation from the Lord that launched them into their respective ministries. In these visitations, they received their unique commissions. For example, the books of Isaiah , Jeremiah and Ezekiel all have a common opening in that each one of them has an encounter with the Lord. Isaiah sees the glory of the Lord upon His majestic throne. Jeremiah was overwhelmed with the word of the Lord as it came to him with visions revealing God's judgment upon Judah and other nations. Ezekiel saw the living creatures going forth before the throne of God, exalted high in the heaven. In contrast, the twelve Major Prophets did not receive such a divine visitation in order to commission them.

One reason why these three prophets received such a mighty visitation is understood in a comment by Kenneth Hagin, who said that when the Lord gives us a vision or a word for the future, it often precedes a trial, and is used to anchor our soul and take us through the trial. 40] If we look at the lives of the three Major Prophets, this is exactly what we see. These three men faced enormous trials and objections during their ministries. Their divine commissions certain were the anchor of their souls as it gave them strength and assurance that they were in God's will despite their difficulties. We see such dramatic encounters in the lives of Moses and Saul of Tarsus, as God gave them their divine commissions for a work that was difficult and even cost them their lives.

40] Kenneth Hagin, Following God's Plan For Your Life (Tulsa, Oklahoma: Faith Library Publications, c 1993, 1994), 118.

a) The Central Theme of Jeremiah: Israel's Redemption Through God the Father's Foreknowledge- The prophecies of Jeremiah emphasizes God the Father's divine timeline of judgment and redemption for the nation of Israel and Gentile nations, as stated in its opening passage ( Jeremiah 1:10). Jeremiah's prophecy of Israel's seventy-year captivity serves as God's remedy for divine judgment upon His people Israel before He can bring about their restoration. God also called Jeremiah to judge the nations ( Jeremiah 1:10) in preparation for the coming of the Messiah. Thus, we can see how Jeremiah's prophecies ushered in the Times of the Gentiles.

Jeremiah 1:10, "See, I have this day set thee over the nations and over the kingdoms, to root out, and to pull down, and to destroy, and to throw down, to build, and to plant."

Jeremiah also spoke of the rise and fall of Babylon and gave prophecies of other nations besides Israel. But the prophecy of Israel's seventy-year Captivity was perhaps the most important prophecy he made because it dealt with the nation of Israel and gave us a timeline of the Last Days. We find a two-fold fulfillment in this prophecy when studying Daniel 9. Jeremiah was speaking of the Jews returning to Jerusalem after a literal 70-year period. But the angel explained to Daniel that this prophecy also served as a prediction of the time of the Messiah's First and Second Coming. Thus, Jeremiah places emphasis upon God the Father's foreknowledge of Israel's redemption as well as the Gentile nations in that he shows us a time-table for God's plan of redemption. Thus, God's remedy for divine judgment is to bring about full redemption to Israel and the nations through the First and Second Coming of the Messiah.

b) The Central Theme of Isaiah: Israel's Redemption Through Jesus the Son's Justification- The prophecies of Isaiah emphasize the cleansing of the rebellious nation of Israel, as stated in its opening verses ( Isaiah 1:2). The prophet calls them to repentance by saying, "Come now, and let us reason together, saith the LORD: though your sins be as scarlet, they shall be as white as snow; though they be red like crimson, they shall be as wool," ( Daniel 1:18). He will explain how this cleansing works later in chapters 52-53by giving them a lengthy description of Christ's sacrificial death on Calvary as a reference to Jesus' first coming. This is because the remedy for rebellion is reconciliation, and God chose Calvary as the means of reconciling Israel and the Gentiles back unto Himself. We may be able to say that Isaiah focuses upon the justification of God's people which was accomplished by Jesus' work on Calvary. 41]

41] The book of Isaiah is sometimes referred to as "the Gospel of the Old Testament" or "the Gospel of Isaiah" because the emphasis upon the redemptive work of Jesus Christ is well recognized. Literary evidence is offered by Davies and Allison, who note that half of the Old Testament quotes found in the Gospel of Matthew come from the book of Isaiah. See W. D. Davies and Dale C. Allison, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Gospel According to Saint Matthew: Commentary on Matthew XIX-XXVIII, vol 3, in The International Critical Commentary (London: T. & T. Clark Ltd, 1988), 575.

In his commission, Isaiah found himself unclean before the throne of God and received cleansing by the angel from the live coals of fire being placed upon his tongue. He was then told to preach a message of conversion and healing to a rebellions people. We see this message in the preaching of Jesus Christ. Thus, in this vision we see the theme of justification.

God then told Isaiah to speak to a rebellious people that will reject his message so that they are scattered and a remnant allowed to remain ( Isaiah 6:9-13). Isaiah's prophecies were two-fold in application also. They were fulfilled by the carrying away of the Babylonian Captivity. But, they were also prophetic of the Messiah's First Coming. Thus, they had a two-fold application. Isaiah places emphasis upon Jesus' work of Calvary, which offers justification to a sinful world. Thus, the remedy for Israel's rebellion is provided for in justification through the coming Messiah.

c) The Central Theme of Ezekiel: Israel's Redemption Through the Holy Spirit's Sanctification and Future Glorification - Ezekiel emphasizes Israel's future restoration through the rebirth of the nation and building of the new temple that will allow God to once again dwell with men. At his commission the prophet Ezekiel had a vision of four creatures that were sent from the throne of God to set in motion God's divine plan of the restoration of the nation of Israel. This is why God gave to Ezekiel three major prophecies regarding the role of Israel's during the times leading up to Christ Jesus' Second Coming. He closes his prophecies by telling about God's three-fold method of restoring Israel to its fullness through (1) the restoration of the nation, (2) the battle of Armageddon and (3) the rebuilding of the Temple, for this is the method in which God has chosen to restore His people. In this vision we see the theme of glorification emphasized as Ezekiel seems to focus upon the glorification of God's people Israel at the time of Christ's second coming.

3. The Central Theme of the Twelve Minor Prophets - The twelve Minor Prophets carry the themes of the three Major Prophets. Hosea reveals the heart of God by showing His unfailing love for His people. Micah emphasizes the birth of Jesus and deliverance of God's people, and he portrays the Messiah as the Shepherd of Israel. Jonah emphasizes Jesus' resurrection after three days in the grave, and His provision of justification for the ungodly. Zechariah is the most Messianic of the twelve minor prophets, giving more prophecies of Jesus' life and passion than any of these others.

Obadiah 8fA 6Ri 0dPHF 3QgIhhg 9fRgEQyExcD 00gtL 9KtdvSEHyiVLIWjnJcSSwJHeSOhF 3SAZgOiDDBucljAA 0UvYQ 90gGYDogwwbnJYwANFL 2EPdIBmA 6IMMG 5yWMADRS 9hD 3SAZgOiDDBucljAA 0UvYQ 90gGYDogwwbnJYwANFL 2EPdIBmA 6IMMG 5yWMADRS 9hD 3SAZgOiDDBucljAA 0UvYQ 90gGYDogwwbnJYwANFL 2EPdIBmA 6IMMG 5yWMADRS 9hD 3SAZgOiDDBucljAA 0UvYQ 90gGYDogwwbnJYwANFL 2EPdIBmA 6IMMG 5yWMADRS 9hD 3SAZgOiDDBucljAA 0UvYQ 90gGYDogwwbnJYwANFL 2EPdIBmA 6IMMG 5yWMBCW 6NVXHievaL 7v 249p 6NiX 5L/6JvTkldJPFfHwf/Ux 39Y 3rx 8PA 9/AljoWNPZlOl 98gtxl 7EjgtKBJE 1JlmdQfkrgD 2QeNfZHOp 8F 2HjsSeFjpjSSRQ 10wUDJA 9rPkfUNacFFgML 3ZHS 922woa+zKdH 0tvLMaOBB 5oepNpW 42T 9XV 4tCt 4ZY 2kz 36TTIsM 7Mt 13nHsSOD 40NrUoE 9+smvJGUPQzkuIJYEjp 5fQi 7pBMhCw 6F 8fPjTX 7D 88vAYZASOnQ 8fu 1/9QRZ+ytr 27bqTxj 9d 325XoPnTs/v 0nJ 07ktIC 04KCA 87Xe 3OegsS/SeazTG 43sqAQGpAyQ 3fAyOwys 0zdTu 3Tttr/OvczAYZ 2evOOmCmS 6ry+LuxtVq 8vWDYF 9sc 6XuncVOxI 41umxTi 9NFpZWH+v 0S 4sI/PHPgN 8lS 3XGOjsCXx 22jvhAvP 9gw 4OcAZ+if/q 6Px 0ef 94krw/fT 9kB 68vxeU/LvrpV 6ntF 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0MmjsDpyXHhbMSHYeOxK 41/Sme 3YqF 6+1YU 5+s 5H 0CZpozWRcAHfpvAC 3+6okcI+iL+ Exodus 2QPP 1XSIJ/mqilsKSfqMm+8/Fc+GxC 3oznlj 1FlFrv/GrZDAPeb 0aon 3+l 26TK+2NdTDsumzU 48H 3sPdqm 7Il 2RzxyN 2K 4cFPfpfSMaj 6GvRpqu+9SPdrIe 7o 3n 3gcHmjkfs/SX 2TnfM 2Sfx 6H 8pOXIQIQcL 0sJYgXqdrfypyngom 4OTIfvzAWfYm 1sUxfybveLKxe 7MeSo 4xP+5/ Hosea 3QwL 3mNMX 6V 0e 85IJ+yswxtylFUn 6zI 3b 3dwZ 8sOh 81VuXk 7A 2b 2VOWH 8miRwnKefmhqQJ 7OXPK 9w 6nzxvpa/735s 9slj+jqL 8ps 6nATHMWskcI 85vTpKbH 5ArPOpruKTa+b 2HAfCqnn/2CWHBZPsEHn/ Micah 92HkUvmcW/PnxR 7/frDXkL 6Gem 5F 2vfggiHCj 2ipcF+E+mSmSGRFoYKyBIBNmzPmPnsorusAv 84mJ 36rzgsCDXf 2OKSOAee 3r 1Qs/knL 7Xr 3NxOkF 1tHWt 1yKwq 5fT 3b 9k 72RMTvs 0guqNjLyjUxL/6zd 919Ef+huhDfJ+Iu 8b 0oKTAs 77Cxc 9/dhqXRUj 3n 40D/tCA 1cs 1fGQdqUzhLz 3NxK 43yVL 3dvBkmjYzZL 0sS 3JC 2pjX 5LzjUXp 0U 546jYYPqU 10leQwP 2K 3vmhK 6HWSPqE 9p 1Wd+u 8n 8OCrDGOBO 5T 9IJDV 6xhTi 4pkj 5JE 83tKZ 05PRe 7S+clhwW 5/htzSwL 3OZEtv 8AQ 5BP 1wml 04G+CkBwWNGCu/44dg 8WPRrvk/UTeN 6SFkQKt 3IZ 5AEUrtzN 1rK 43D/YimaWGbl 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Figure 1 - Thematic Scheme of Prophet Books

IX. Literary Structure

The literary structure and outline of the book of Daniel must follow the theme of the book. It is important to note that such a breakdown of this book of the Holy Bible was not necessarily intended by the original author, but it is being used as a means of making the interpretation easier. It is hoped that this summary and outline can identify the underlying themes of the book, as well as the themes of its major divisions, sections and subsections. Then individual verses can more easily be understood in light of the emphasis of the immediate passages in which they are found.

The book of Daniel focuses upon the public ministry of Daniel the prophet to the Gentile nations, and his private visions to the Hebrews. His public interpretation of dreams and private visions are intended to reveal God's redemptive plan for the Gentiles as well as the Jewish people through the period known as the Times of the Gentiles ( Luke 21:24). God's four-fold plan of redemption is unfolded by Paul the apostle in his epistle to the Romans as predestination, calling, justification, and glorification ( Romans 8:28-29).

Luke 21:24, "And they shall fall by the edge of the sword, and shall be led away captive into all nations: and Jerusalem shall be trodden down of the Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled."

Romans 8:29-30, "For whom he did foreknow, he also did predestinate to be conformed to the image of his Song of Solomon , that he might be the firstborn among many brethren. Moreover whom he did predestinate, them he also called: and whom he called, them he also justified: and whom he justified, them he also glorified."

The book of Daniel is divided into two main divisions. The first half of the book (1-6), written in Aramaic, emphasizes Daniel's ministry to the Gentile kings of Babylon and Media. In these passages he interprets two dreams and the writing on the wall for two kings. This section also includes the stories of the persecution of Daniel and his three friends. The second half (7-12) records Daniel's private visions that were not delivered to the kings under whom he served; rather, these revelations Daniel were for his people to provide them a hope that Israel will receive full redemption and restoration as a nation. The angel told Daniel that the visions were given to him so that his people would understand what would befall them in the Last Days. These visions are much more specific than in the first section of the book. This specificity is intended to reveal's Israel's role in God's grand divine plan of redemption for the nations. When we study the prophecies throughout this book, we see how the book of Daniel deals with prophecies limited to the period in history called by Jesus Christ as the "Times of the Gentiles," which covers the time from the Babylonian Captivity of Israel to the Second Coming of Jesus Christ, a period of about sixteen hundred years.

Also, note that the stories recorded in the first division (1-6) have been arranged in chronological order, and the material in the collection of private visions (7-12) has been arranged in chronological order, so that the events of the first division (1-6) do not necessarily precede the events of recorded in the second division (7-12). In contrast, the material contained in the other three Major Prophets, Isaiah , Jeremiah and Ezekiel , is not always arranged in chronological order. However, the material is arranged in order of God's plan of redemption because this arrangement takes priority over a chronological order.

Daniel's Ministry to Gentile Kings ( Daniel 1:1 to Daniel 6:28) - Daniel 1-6 contains the historical section of the book, while Daniel 7-12is called the prophetic section. Chapters 2-6 emphasize Daniel's ministry to the kings of Babylon and Media. In these passages he interprets two dreams and the writing on the wall for these Gentile kings. Note that the stories recorded in the first six chapters of the book of Daniel have been arranged in chronological order. In addition, chapters 3,6 tell of the persecutions that Daniel and his three Hebrew friends faced from the Gentiles, while chapters 2, 4,6 tell of Daniel's ministry to these Gentile kings. But the underlying theme of each of these stories is the glorification of the God of Israel.

I. Introduction: Daniel and the Babylonian Captivity (605-604 B.C) ( Daniel 1:1-21) - The opening chapter of the book of Daniel introduces the reader to Daniel's public ministry that will extend throughout the Jewish seventy-year Babylonian Captivity. Daniel 1:1-21 clearly serves as an introduction to the rest of the book. Barnes tells us the purpose of this historical passage in the book is to explain how Daniel was raised up to a place of distinction among the Babylonians. 42] From a redemptive perspective, this opening chapter reveals to the original Jewish readers that Daniel's ministry begins and ends with the Babylonian Captivity, which began at Daniel's captivity and lasted until the first year of King Cyrus the Great, covering a span of approximately seventy years as prophesied by Jeremiah. Thus, the prophet Daniel was raised up by God to minister to the Jews as well as the Gentiles for this chosen period of time. The fact that this first chapter is written in Hebrew, while the following five chapters of narrative material are written in the Aramaic language, suggests that it is addressed directly to the Jews to tell them that the God of Israel was watching over His people throughout their entire captivity. This opening Hebrew text has also let scholars to suggest that the first chapter was probably added by the Jews as a later addition to the historical section of chapters 2-6 during the compilation of the book of Daniel. The redemptive message to Israel in this passage of Scripture is that God was bringing about Israel's redemption despite the tragic circumstances they were experiencing. The book of Daniel reveals that God would restore Israel to their land after seventy years, but also that their full redemption would not take place until "seventy weeks" of years. The Lord would use this period designated at the Times of the Gentiles to bring in the Church age and graft the Gentiles into the vine of Israel.

42] Albert Barnes, Notes, Critical, Illustrative, and Practical, on the Book of Daniel (New York: Leavitt and Allen, 1853), 85.

II. Predestination: The Four Periods of the Times of the Gentiles and the Kingdom of Heaven ( Daniel 2:1-49) - Daniel 2:1-49 records the story of King Nebuchadnezzar and Daniel's amazing divine recollection of the dream and his prophetic interpretation. This dream reveals four periods of the Times of the Gentiles predestined by God in His divine foreknowledge, and the fall of the fourth kingdom through the rising dominion of the Kingdom of God. The stone symbolizes the redemptive work of Christ Jesus in establishing the Kingdom of God upon earth during the Times of the Gentiles, which will ultimately bring the downfall of Gentile dominion upon earth and the sovereign reign of Christ Jesus at His Second Coming.

The passage in Daniel 2:1-49 tells us about King Nebuchadnezzar's dream and Daniel's interpretation of it. The first act of Daniel's ministry to the Gentile kings is the interpretation of King Nebuchadnezzar's dream. This event takes place early into Nebuchadnezzar's reign as king over Babylon. It is interesting to note that a similar event occurred in the book of Genesis when Joseph interpreted Pharaoh's dream regarding future events. The Lord gives the king a dream in order to reveal to him the things that are coming to pass after him, for this was on the king's mind as he lay in bed that night. However, God only gave him insight into the history of the Gentiles, and revealed nothing about the history of Israel and of the Messiah. The Lord would reveal more about God's redemptive work among the Gentiles later in Daniel's life through dreams and visions.

The events recorded in Daniel 2:1-49 most likely took place shortly after Daniel and his three friends had completed their three-year training course in the king's courts. This story served to confirm Daniel as a prophet of the God of Heaven and earth and to position him in the service of these Gentile kings.

When Daniel divinely recalls and interprets King Nebuchadnezzar's dream, he operated in the gifts of the Spirit, that Isaiah , the gifts of revelation and of utterance (see 1 Corinthians 12:1-11). He operated in the gift of a word of knowledge by supernaturally recalling the details of the dream. He operated in the gift of prophecy by interpreting the dream. In Genesis 41:25-36 we have the account of Joseph interpreting Pharaoh's dream. Joseph operated in the gift of prophecy as he interpreted the dream. He operated in the gift of wisdom to explain what needed to be done as a result of the interpretation.

It is important to interpret the rest of the symbolism found in the book of Daniel within the context of the four phases of God's plan of redemption for the Gentiles. For example, the four symbolic creatures revealed to Daniel in Daniel 7:1-18, the ram and the goat in Daniel 8:1-27, the 70-year fulfillment of Jeremiah's prophecy in Daniel 9:1-27, and the lengthy prophecy of the battles between the king of the north and the king of the south ( Daniel 11-12) should be interpreted in light of these four phases of redemptive Gentile history, understanding that the Second Coming of the Messiah would usher the world into a new era of history, bringing a close to the Times of the Gentiles. Thus, Daniel 2:1-49 lays a foundation for the prophecies in the book of Daniel.

III. Divine Calling: God Calls the Gentile Nations to Worship Him Only ( Daniel 3:1-30) - Daniel 3:1-30 records the story of Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego's deliverance from the fiery furnace because they refused to bow down to the great image of King Nebuchadnezzar. In the fiery furnace the king sees a fourth person in appearance as the Son of Man. This story emphasizes the calling of the Gentiles to serve God through the testimony of these three brave Jews and the miracle that accompanied their proclamation that they will only worship the true and living God. As a result of their testimony and its accompanying miracle, King Nebuchadnezzar acknowledges Jehovah as the Most High God ( Daniel 3:26). The story of Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego's deliverance from the fiery furnace records the first time that King Nebuchadnezzar has faced a power greater than himself. He now rules the known world, wielding enormous power for an individual. He now faces a call to acknowledge the God of Israel as the Almighty God, a call which he accepts by giving those who worship the God of Israel immunity in his kingdom.

These three men were tested in their faith in God. They were given a choice of either bowing down to the powers of darkness and sin and idolatry of this world or face death. In choosing death they were miraculously delivered. This story serves as a testimony of those men of faith who "quenched the violence of fire" referred to in Hebrews 11:34. The reference to the fact that the cords that bound them were burned off symbolizes how true freedom is found in Christ Jesus and not in this world's system.

Hebrews 11:33-34, "Who through faith subdued kingdoms, wrought righteousness, obtained promises, stopped the mouths of lions, Quenched the violence of fire, escaped the edge of the sword, out of weakness were made strong, waxed valiant in fight, turned to flight the armies of the aliens."

IV. Justification: God Exalts the Righteous and Humbles the Proud ( Daniel 4:1 to Daniel 6:28) - Daniel 4:1 to Daniel 6:28 records the stories of Daniel's prophetic interpretation and fulfillment of King Nebuchadnezzar's dream, which predicted his madness for a season ( Daniel 4:1-27). In this interpretation Daniel calls the king to repent and stand righteous before God in order to obtain His mercies ( Daniel 4:27). The king is struck mad in the midst of his boasting, only having his mind restored after the season predicted by Daniel's interpretation of the dream. King Nebuchadnezzar repents when his mind is restored, gives all glory to God, declaring Him true and just, and he finds God's mercy in that God restores to him his kingdom and his splendor ( Daniel 4:28-37). This story is followed by King Belshazzar's drunken pride, when his boasting is interrupted by a divine handwriting upon the wall. Daniel interprets the dream as divine judgment upon the king, only to find its fulfillment that same night in the death of the king and the fall of Babylon ( Daniel 5:1-31). Darius the Mede exalts Daniel above his other governors because of his just character. Daniel's right standing before God is tested in the lion's den and he is proven genuine. Thus, he prospers during the reigns of Darius and Cyprus ( Daniel 6:1-28).

A. Nebuchadnezzar's Second Dream (582to 575 B.C.) ( Daniel 4:1-37) - Daniel 4:1-37 gives us the story of Nebuchadnezzar's dream of the cutting of the great tree and his subsequent seven years of madness and restoration. As far as dating this particular event, scholars note that there is no Babylonian record of governmental events took place during the years of 582to 575 B.C. Thus, this is a very likely period of time for Nebuchadnezzar's madness to take place.

Daniel served the king by interpreting this second important dream for him. Both dreams that Daniel interpreted for the king brought him to a place of acknowledging the God of Israel as the true God.

B. Belshazzar's Feast and Daniel's Prophecy of Babylon's Fall (539 B.C.) ( Daniel 5:1-31) - In Daniel 5:1-31 we have the story of the great feast that Belshazzar held in his palace. Historians tell us that Belshazzar, the son of Evil-Merodach and grandson of Nebuchadnezzar, was the last king of Babylon. While the city of Babylon was under siege by Cyrus, the Persian king, Belshazzar gathered all of his leaders to a great feast, perhaps in order to strengthen their loyalty towards him. When a man's hand appeared and wrote upon the wall during the midst of the feast, the queen brought in Daniel , by now an old Prayer of Manasseh , to interpret the writing. Daniel then told the king that this was the night that the kingdom of Babylon would fall.

C. Daniel and the Lion's Den (538-536 B.C.) ( Daniel 6:1-28) - Daniel 6:1-28 tells the famous story of Daniel being thrown into the lion's den. As the Babylonian kingdom comes to a close and the Medo-Persian Empire takes control of this region of the world, we find Daniel being placed in a strategic position of administration by the divine providence of Almighty God. The entire kingdom was divided into one hundred and twenty provinces with a prince over each one. Over these provinces King Darius appointed three chief governors, of whom Daniel was placed first. Perhaps the incoming king was wise enough to appoint Daniel in an effort to people in leadership who were already familiar with the affairs of these provinces. Thus, he found several men whose reputation qualified them for such a task.

V. Glorification: The Coming of Christ (Daniel's Private Visions) ( Daniel 7:1 too Daniel 12:13) - There are two main divisions to the book of Daniel. Daniel 1-6 is primarily narrative material and emphasizes Daniel's ministry to the kings of Babylon and Media. In these passages he interprets two dreams and the writing on the wall for two kings. This division as well contains three stories of the captivity and persecution of Daniel and his three friends. However, the visions recorded in Daniel 7-12were not for the kings. Rather, they are a collection of private visions of apocalyptic in nature that Daniel received from the Lord regarding the Time of the Gentiles and the Last Days. They were not delivered to the kings under whom he served, but were initially private in nature. Their emphasis is not on the nation of Israel; but rather, upon the fulfillment of the Times of the Gentiles. The fact that the first section was written in Aramaic and the second section in Hebrew suggests that there were initially two different intended recipients. The Babylonian Jews would have found comfort in both divisions as they saw the sovereign power of God at work in their midst and as they understood by prophecy that God had not forsaken the nation of Israel. Note that this second section has been arranged in chronological order independently of the first section's chronological arrangement.

Daniel 7-12is a collection of private visions given to Daniel concerning the future glorification of Jesus Christ and His children and the Great White Throne Judgment of the nations. The redemptive role of Jesus Christ is clearly predicted as the Son of Man comes upon the clouds and approaches the Ancient of Days ( Daniel 7:13) and He establishes the everlasting Kingdom of Heaven ( Daniel 7:14).

A. The Vision of the Four Beasts (556-555 B.C.) ( Daniel 7:1-28) - During the days of Belshazzar king of Babylon Daniel had a dream in which he saw four beasts rising out of the sea. In many passages in the Scriptures the sea represents mankind. We are told in Daniel 7:17 that the four beasts represent four kings that shall arise out of the earth, or out of the sea of people. We are told in Daniel 7:23 that the fourth beast represents the fourth kingdom. Thus, we can conclude that these beasts represent four kings and their kingdoms that are to arise out of the nations on the earth. Most commentators equate these four beasts to the same four kingdoms that Daniel interpreted in the king's dream of Daniel 2, since both visions refer to four kings that are to be overthrown by a greater and heavenly kingdom. They compare the ten horns on the fourth beast to the ten toes on the image of the man in Daniel 2. Since the image of the man in Daniel 2reveals the predestined plan of redemption for the Times of the Gentiles, its image is intended to give us an overall chronological time-line that can be followed throughout the book of Daniel , since this was the desire of the king as he fell asleep that night. Thus, it is reasonable to suggest that the images of the four beasts described in chapter 7 reveal the characteristics of these four kingdoms mentioned in Daniel 2. Another way to compare these parallel prophecies is to say that Daniel 2gives us a vision of the nations from man's perspective, while Daniel 7 gives the vision from a divine perspective.

B. The Vision of the Ram and the Hebrews -Goat (550 B.C.) ( Daniel 8:1-27) - Daniel 8:1-27 records the vision of the ram and the Hebrews -goat. The traditional view is that this vision represents the conquests of Alexander the Great, king of the Grecian Empire, over the Persians, a conquest extending down to the time of Antiochus Epiphanes, and to the calamities and desolations that he would bring upon the holy land

C. Daniel's Intercession and the Seventy-Week Prophecy Regarding Christ's First Coming (538 B.C.) ( Daniel 9:1-27) - In Daniel 9:1-27 we have Daniel's prayer of intercession for his people Israel and the vision of the angel who came to reveal to him a greater depth of Jeremiah's prophecy of the seventy-year captivity of Israel. Within this vision we are given the date of Christ's first coming. Because Daniel had been faithful to God in showing several kings the understanding of their dreams and visions, He was going to help Daniel understand his own visions. This is the principle of sowing and reaping. Daniel has probably heard Jeremiah as a young child or teenager speaking publicly to the Jews and giving the prophecy of the seventy years of Babylonian Captivity. Whether he ever knew Jeremiah or not, when Daniel understood from Jeremiah's prophecies that his people would be in captivity for seventy years because of their sins, he began to intercede for Israel because he understood that this time was coming to an end. Thus, while he was praying God sent an angel to show Daniel the proper interpretation of Jeremiah's prophecy, that Israel's full restoration would not take place after this seventy-year period, but after the fulfillment of a seventy-week period. This meant that Israel's return after seventy years was a partial restoration. Thus, we can understand that Jeremiah's prophecy had a two-fold application in that it refers to two separate events, a partial restoration of Israel that would take place in seventy years and a full restoration that would take place in seventy weeks of years, or four hundred ninety (490) years.

D. The Vision of Future Wars Up Until Christ's Second Return (535-534 B.C.) ( Daniel 10:1 to Daniel 12:13) - Daniel 10:1 to Daniel 12:13 records Daniel's most lengthy vision about the future wars between the kings of the North and the South. The traditional interpretation of this lengthy vision is that it represents a conflict, first between Persia and Greece, and then between two kingdoms that rise up out of the Grecian Empire, the Seleucid Empire of Syria and the Ptolemaic Empire of Egypt ( Daniel 11:4-20). History records the many battles that took place. The continual wars that took place between these two powers deeply affected the Jewish people since they were situated between them. Their land would be taken and retaken in these ongoing conflicts and battles, causing many problems for them. These conflicts are believed to carry on until the time of the death of Antiochus Epiphanes, a great enemy of the Hebrew people. In Daniel 11:21-35 we are given the description of Antiochus Epiphanes and his violent acts against the Jews.

Many scholars suggest that Daniel 11:36-45 refers to the antichrist figure that will arise during the Tribulation Period, whom Paul calls the Son of Perdition. Within this context, the king of the North would refer to Gog and his army that surrounds Jerusalem during the Battle of Armageddon, as described in Ezekiel 38-39.

At this point the vision comes to a close with a few brief remarks about the last times and the coming of the Lord and the final Day of Judgment. Thus, the first few verses of Daniel 12tell us that this is a time of trouble, which we now call the Tribulation Period. It makes a brief refer to the Rapture of the Church and the Great White Throne Judgment.

This lengthy vision that Daniel is given takes biblical prophecy up to the Second Coming of the Messiah when the "Times of the Gentiles" will come to an end. Thus, we see how the book of Daniel deals with prophecies limited to the Times of the Gentiles.

X. Outline of Book

The following outline is a summary of the preceding literary structure; thus, it reflects the theological framework of the book of Daniel: its purpose, its three-fold thematic scheme, and its literary structure. As a result, this outline offers sermon sections that fit together into a single message that can be used by preachers and teachers to guide a congregation or class through the book of Daniel. This journey through Daniel will lead believers into one aspect of conformity to the image of Christ Jesus that was intended by the Lord.

Here is a proposed outline of the book of Daniel with suggested dates when these events and prophecies occurred:

I. Introduction - Daniel's Captivity (605-604 B.C)— Daniel 1:1-21

II. Predestination: The Times of the Gentiles (603-602 B.C)— Daniel 2:1-49

A. The King Condemns His Wise Men — Daniel 2:1-13

B. The Lord Gives Daniel the Interpretation — Daniel 2:14-30

C. Daniel Describes the King's Dream — Daniel 2:31-35

D. Daniel Interprets the Dream — Daniel 2:36-45

E. The King Honors Daniel — Daniel 2:46-49

III. Divine Calling: God Calls the Gentile Nations (586 B.C.)— Daniel 3:1-30

IV. Justification: God Exalts the Righteous and Humbles the Proud — Daniel 4:1 to Daniel 6:28

A. Nebuchadnezzar's Second Dream (582to 575 B.C.)— Daniel 4:1-37

1. The King Recounts His Dream— Daniel 4:1-18

2. Daniel Interprets the Dream— Daniel 4:19-27

3. The Divine Judgment upon King Nebuchadnezzar — Daniel 4:28-33

4. The King's Restoration — Daniel 4:34-37

B. Belshazzar's Feast (539 B.C.) — Daniel 5:1-31

C. Daniel and the Lion's Den (538-536 B.C.)— Daniel 6:1-28

V. Glorification: The Coming of Christ — Daniel 7:1 to Daniel 12:13

A. The Vision of Four Beasts (556-555 B.C.)— Daniel 7:1-28

1. Daniel's Vision— Daniel 7:1-14

2. The Interpretation of Daniel's Vision— Daniel 7:15-28

B. The Vision of the Ram & the Goat (550B.C.)— Daniel 8:1-27

C. The Vision of the 70 Weeks & Christ's 1st Return (538 B.C.)— Daniel 9:1-27

1. Daniel Intercedes for His People— Daniel 9:1-19

2. Gabriel's Prophecy of Seventy Weeks of Years— Daniel 9:20-27

D. The Vision of Future Wars & Christ's 2nd Return (535-534 B.C.)— Daniel 10:1 to Daniel 12:13

1. Introduction of the Vision— Daniel 10:1-9

2. Prophecies of the Immediate Future — Daniel 10:10 to Daniel 11:35

a) Greece's Conquest of Medo-Persia — Daniel 10:10 to Daniel 11:3

b) The Decay of the Grecian Empire — Daniel 11:4-35

i) The Wars between Egypt and Syria — Daniel 11:4-20

ii) The Reign of Antiochus Epiphanes — Daniel 11:21-35

3. Prophecies of the Distant Future — Daniel 11:36 to Daniel 12:13

a) The Antichrist — Daniel 11:36-45

b) The Great Tribulation — Daniel 12:1-13

BIBLIOGRAPHY

COMMENTARY BIBLIOGRAPHY

Archer, Gleason L, Jr. Daniel. In The Expositor's Bible Commentary, vol 7. Eds. Frank E. Gaebelien, J. D. Douglas, Dick Polcyn. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Pub. House, 1976-1992. In Zondervan Reference Software, v 28 [CD-ROM] Grand Rapids, MI: The Zondervan Corp, 1989-2001.

Barnes, Albert. Notes, Critical, Illustrative, and Practical, on the Book of Daniel. New York: Leavitt and Allen, 1853.

Borland, James A. Daniel. In The KJV Bible Commentary. Eds. Edward E. Hindson and Woodrow M. Kroll. Nashville: Thomas Nelson Pub, 1994. In Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004.

Clarke, Adam. Daniel. In Adam Clarke"s Commentary, Electronic Database. Seattle, WA: Hendrickson Publishers Inc, 1996. In P.C. Study Bible, v 31 [CD-ROM]. Seattle, WA: Biblesoft Inc, 1993-2000.

Clarke, Adam. The Holy Bible, Containing the Old and New Testaments, vol. IV Isaiah to Malachi. New York: T. Mason and G. Lane, 1837.

Davies, W. D. and Dale C. Allison. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Gospel According to Saint Matthew: Commentary on Matthew XIX-XXVIII, vols 1-3. In The International Critical Commentary. London: T. & T. Clark Ltd, 1988.

Espin, E. T. and J. F. Thrupp. Numbers. In The Holy Bible According to the Authorized Version (A.D 1611), with an Explanation and Critical Commentary and a Revision of the Translation, by Bishops and Clergy of the Anglican Church, vol 1, part 2. Ed. F. C. Cook. London: John Murray, 1871.

Exell, Joseph S, ed. Daniel. In The Biblical Illustrator. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Pub. House, 1954. In Ages Digital Library, v 10 [CD-ROM], Rio, WI: Ages Software, Inc, 2002.

Farrar, F. W. Daniel. In The Expositor's Bible. Eds. William R. Nicoll and Oscar L. Joseph. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1956. In Ages Digital Library, v 10 [CD-ROM] Rio, WI: Ages Software, Inc, 2001.

Gill, John. Daniel. In John Gill's Expositor. In OnLine Bible, v 20 [CD-ROM], Nederland: Online Bible Foundation, 1992-2005.

Gill, John. Numbers. In John Gill's Expositor. In e-Sword, v 777 [CD-ROM]. Franklin, Tennessee: e-Sword, 2000-2005.

Goldingay, John E. Daniel. In Word Biblical Commentary: 58 Volumes on CD- Romans , vol 30. Eds. Bruce M. Metzger, David A. Hubbard and Glenn W. Barker. Dallas: Word Inc, 2002. In Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM], Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004.

Henry, Matthew. Daniel. In Matthew Henry"s Commentary on the Whole Bible, New Modern Edition, Electronic Database. Seattle, WA: Hendrickson Publishers, Inc, 1991. In P.C. Study Bible, v 31 [CD-ROM]. Seattle, WA: Biblesoft Inc, 1993-2000.

Hobbs, T. R. 2Kings. In Word Biblical Commentary: 58 Volumes on CD-Rom, vol 13. Eds. Bruce M. Metzger, David A. Hubbard and Glenn W. Barker. Dallas: Word Inc, 2002. In Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM]. Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004.

Jamieson, Robert, A. R. Fausset, and David Brown. The Book of Daniel. In Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown Commentary, Electronic Database. Seattle, WA: Hendrickson Publishers Inc, 1997. In P.C. Study Bible, v 31 [CD-ROM]. Seattle, WA: Biblesoft Inc, 1993-2000.

Keil, C. F. and F. Delitzsch. The Book of Daniel. In Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Seattle, WA: Hendrickson Publishers Inc, 1996. In P.C. Study Bible, v 31 [CD-ROM]. Seattle, WA: Biblesoft Inc, 1993-2000.

Macdonald, William. Daniel. In Believer's Bible Commentary. Ed. Arthur Farstad. Nashville: Thomas Nelson Pub, 1995. In Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM], Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004.

McGee, J. Vernon. The Book of Daniel. In Thru the Bible With J. Vernon McGee. Nashville: Thomas Nelson Pub, 1998. In Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM]. Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004.

Metzger, Bruce M, David A. Hubbard, and Glenn W. Barker, eds. Word Biblical Commentary. Dallas, Texas: Word Incorporated, 1989-2007.

Pfeiffer, Charles and Everett F. Harrison, eds. The Book of Daniel. In The Wycliffe Bible Commentary, Electronic Database. Chicago: Moody Press, c 1962. In P.C. Study Bible, v 31 [CD-ROM]. Seattle, WA: Biblesoft Inc, 1993-2000.

Pusey, E. B. Daniel the Prophet: Nine Lectures, Delivered in the Divinity School of the University of Oxford. Oxford: James Parker and Company, 1865).

Radmacher, Earl D, Ronald B. Allen, and H. Wayne House, eds. The Book of Daniel. In Nelson's New Illustrated Bible Commentary. Nashville: Thomas Nelson Pub, 1999. In Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM]. Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004.

Stuart, Moses. A Commentary on the Book of Daniel. Boston: Crocker and Brewster, 1850.

Thomson, J. E. H. and Walter F. Adeney. Daniel. In The Pulpit Commentary. Eds. H. D. M. Spence and Joseph Exell. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Pub. Co, 1950. In Ages Digital Library, v 10 [CD-ROM]. Rio, WI: Ages Software, Inc, 2001.

Zckler, Otto. The Book of the Prophet Daniel. In Lange's Commentary on the Holy Scriptures. Trans. James Strong. New York: Charles Scriber's Sons, 1876.

GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHY

1Enoch. Trans. R. H. Charles. In The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament in English With Introductions and Critical and Explanatory Notes to the Several Books, vol 2. Ed. R. H. Charles, 163-281. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1913.

2Enoch. Trans. R. H. Charles. In The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament in English With Introductions and Critical and Explanatory Notes to the Several Books, vol 2. Ed. R. H. Charles, 425-469. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1913.

1Maccabees. Trans. W. O. E. Oesterley. In The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament in English With Introductions and Critical and Explanatory Notes to the Several Books, vol 1. Ed. R. H. Charles, 59-124. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1913.

4Ezra. Trans. G. H. Box. In The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament in English With Introductions and Critical and Explanatory Notes to the Several Books, vol 2. Ed. R. H. Charles, 542-624. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1913.

Arrian, Arrian With an English Translation, vol 1. Trans. E. Iliff Robson. In The Loeb Classical Library. Eds. T. E. Page, E. Capps, W. H. D. Rouse, L. A. Post, and E. H. Warmington. London: William Heinemann Ltd, c 1929, 1967.

Balcer, Jack Martin. "Cyrus the Great." In The World Book Encyclopedia, vol 4. Chicago: World Book, Inc, 1994.

Baxter, Irvin, Jr. A Message for the President. Richmond, Indiana: Endtime, Inc, 1986.

Beall, Todd S, William A. Banks, and Colin Smith. Old Testament Parsing Guide. Nashville, Tennessee: Broadman and Holdman Publishers, 2000.

Bel and the Dragon. Trans. T. Witton Davies. In The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament in English With Introductions and Critical and Explanatory Notes to the Several Books, vol 1. Ed. R. H. Charles, 652-664. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1913.

Blake Robert P. and Henri de Vis. Epiphanius de Gemmis. In Studies and Documents. Eds. Kirsopp Lake and Silva Lake, vol 2. London: Christophers, 1934.

The Book of Jubilees. Trans. R. H. Charles. In The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament in English With Introductions and Critical and Explanatory Notes to the Several Books, vol 2. Ed. R. H. Charles, 1-82. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1913.

Bright, John. A History of Israel, third edition. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Westminster Press, 1981.

Bruce, F. F. The Books and the Parchments. Old Tappan, New Jersey: Fleming H. Revell Company, 1963.

Bynum, Juanita. Weapon of Power. Trinity Broadcasting Network: Santa Ana, California, July 2008.

Calmet, August. "Daniel." Calmet's Dictionary of the Whole Bible. Eds. Charles Taylor and Edward Robinson. Boston: Crocker and Brewster, 1832.

Cook, John Manuel The Persian Empire. London: Dent, 1983.

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Lectionary Calendar
Monday, October 21st, 2019
the Week of Proper 24 / Ordinary 29
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