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Bible Commentaries

Gary H. Everett's Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures
Job 9

 

 


Verses 1-35

Job 9:9 Which maketh Arcturus, Orion, and Pleiades, and the chambers of the south.

Job 9:9Word Study on "Arcturus" - Strong tells us that the Hebrew word "ayish" ( עַיִשׁ) (H 5906) comes from ( עוּש) (H 5789), which means, "to hasten." However, Easton suggests that the word "aish" is derived from an Arabic word meaning "night-watcher" because this constellation revolves around the North Pole and never sets.

Comments- John Gill says that Arcturus does set in the horizon, first appearing in early September at the beginning of stormy weather preceding winter. 17] Webster tells us that the English name Arcturus is derived from the Latin "arcturus" (OE. artik, OF. artique, F. arctique, L. arcticus, L. Arcturus), which is derived from the Greek words αρκτος ουρα , meaning "bear tail." It is in the same family of words with "arctic," which means, "Pertaining to, or situated under, the northern constellation called the Bear." In addition, the alternate title "Ursa Major" is derived from the Latin "ursus" meaning, "bear."

17] John Gill, Job , in John Gill's Expositor, in e-Sword, v 777 [CD-ROM] (Franklin, Tennessee: e-Sword, 2000-2005), comments on Job 9:9.

Scholars give us several opinions as to the identification of the Hebrew word "Arcturus" "ayish" ( עַיִשׁ) (H 5906). Some say that it refers to the constellation commonly known as "the Great Bear," "Ursa Major," or "Charles' Wain" (Smith, ISBE) 18] Others, such as Easton, tells us that Arcturus refers to a single star called "bear-keeper," which is the brightest star within the constellation Bootes located near the Bear.

18] E. W. Maunder, "Arcturus," and "Astronomy, II," in International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, ed. James Orr (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co, c 1915, 1939), in The Sword Project, v 1511 [CD-ROM] (Temple, AZ: CrossWire Bible Society, 1990-2008).

The Enhanced Strong says this Hebrew word ( עַיִשׁ) is used only 2times in the Old Testament, being translated in the KJV as "Arcturus 2." Its second use in found in Job 38:32 and makes a reference to "his sons," which supports the second view that the Hebrew word Arcturus is the brightest star within a constellation of stars. However, it may be that the name for this bright star is being used to identify its constellation as well.

Job 38:32, "Canst thou bring forth Mazzaroth in his season? or canst thou guide Arcturus with his sons?"

Job 9:9Word Study on "Orion" - Gesenius says the Hebrew word "Orion" "kes-eel" ( כְּסִיל) (H 3685) means, "a fool." Strong says it is derived from the primitive root ( כָּסַל) (H 3684), which literally means, "to be fat," and figuratively, "to be silly." Thus, this constellation is also called "the Fool." The Enhanced Strong says this Hebrew word is used only 4times in the Old Testament, being translated in the KJV as "Orion 3, constellation 1." This word is used in Job 38:31 and Amos 5:8 as the name of one of several constellations. Isaiah 13:10 uses this word in its plural form in a wider sense to mean all of the constellations in the heavens.

Job 38:31, "Canst thou bind the sweet influences of Pleiades, or loose the bands of Orion?"

Amos 5:8, "Seek him that maketh the seven stars and Orion, and turneth the shadow of death into the morning, and maketh the day dark with night: that calleth for the waters of the sea, and poureth them out upon the face of the earth: The LORD is his name:"

Isaiah 13:10, "For the stars of heaven and the constellations thereof shall not give their light: the sun shall be darkened in his going forth, and the moon shall not cause her light to shine."

Comments- Webster says that Orion is "a large and bright constellation on the equator between the stars Aldebaran and Sirius…it contains a remarkable nebula visible to the naked eye." In addition, John Gill tells us that the Hebrew name "Cesil" ( כְּסִיל) is a derivative of the name of the Hebrew month "Cisleu," which corresponds to the Roman calendar of November and December at which time this constellation is visible in the Middle East. He says because this constellation appears during the stormy, winter season, Virgil referred to it as "nimbosus Orion," or "stormy Orion." 19]

19] John Gill, Job , in John Gill's Expositor, in e-Sword, v 777 [CD-ROM] (Franklin, Tennessee: e-Sword, 2000-2005), comments on Job 9:9.

The legend of this constellation is of a celebrated mythological hero who was bound in the heavens for an unsuccessful war against the gods. Thus, Job 38:31 describes Orion as being bound with cords. Among the Eastern tradition this individual was identified as Nemrod, who rebelled against the Lord in Genesis. 20] However, the Greeks identified this person as Orion, a celebrated hunter in the oldest Greek mythology of a gigantic stature. 21]

20] Albert Barnes, Job , in Barnes" Notes, Electronic Database (Seattle, WA: Hendrickson Publishers Inc, 1997), in P.C. Study Bible, v 31 [CD-ROM] (Seattle, WA: Biblesoft Inc, 1993-2000), comments on Job 9:9.

21] David H. Levy, "Orion," in The World Book Encyclopedia, vol 14 (Chicago: World Book, Inc, 1994), 856.

Job 9:9Word Study on "Pleiades" - Gesenius says the Hebrew word "Pleiades" "kiymah" ( כִּימָה) (H 3598) means, "a heap, a cluster." Strong defines this word as "Pleiades, seven stars," and says it is derived from an unused primitive root ( כּוּמָז) (H 3558) that means, "to store away." The Enhanced Strong says this Hebrew word "cimah" is found three times in the Old Testament, being translated in the KJV as, "Pleiades 2, seven stars 1."

Job 38:31, "Canst thou bind the sweet influences of Pleiades, or loose the bands of Orion?"

Amos 5:8, "Seek him that maketh the seven stars and Orion, and turneth the shadow of death into the morning, and maketh the day dark with night: that calleth for the waters of the sea, and poureth them out upon the face of the earth: The LORD is his name:"

Comments- Webster tells us that the name "Pleiades" is derived from Greek mythology, referring to "the seven daughters of Atlas and the nymph Pleione, fabled to have been made by Jupiter a constellation in the sky." As a constellation, it is "a group of small stars in the neck of the constellation Taurus." Since there are only six of these pleiads that are "distinctly visible to the naked eye," the ancient Greeks supposed that "a sister had concealed herself out of shame for having loved a mortal, Sisyphus." Hence, we get the rendering "the seven stars" in Amos 5:8 (KJV).

Job 9:9 — "and the chambers of the south" - Word Study on "the chambers" - Strong says the Hebrew word "chambers' "cheder" ( חֶדֶר) (H 2315) means, "chamber, innermost part, parlour."

Comments- John Gill comments that the phrase "the chambers of the south" refers to the constellations of the southern hemisphere. He says that they are described as "chambers" because they are hidden from view to those in the northern hemisphere, which includes the Middle East. 22]

22] John Gill, Job , in John Gill's Expositor, in e-Sword, v 777 [CD-ROM] (Franklin, Tennessee: e-Sword, 2000-2005), comments on Job 9:9.

Job 9:9Comments- John Gill suggests that three constellations Arcturus, Orion, and Pleiades are used in Job 9:9 because they divide the whole year into three parts. Arcturus appears in September, Orion in Nov/Dec and Pleiades in April. 23]

23] John Gill, Job , in John Gill's Expositor, in e-Sword, v 777 [CD-ROM] (Franklin, Tennessee: e-Sword, 2000-2005), comments on Job 9:9.

Job 9:9Comments - Job 9:9 reveals that astronomy and astrology is an ancient science. We know from The Code of Hammurabi that the civilization of Abraham and Job's time was highly organized, with civil laws, schools, an alphabet, a system of weights and measures, architecture, and irrigation and astronomy. Thus, Job 9:9 testifies to the highly developed art of astrology.

Job 9:32 For he is not a Prayer of Manasseh , as I Amos , that I should answer him, and we should come together in judgment.

Job 9:32Comments- The idea of coming together in judgment reflects the idea of a gathering in a courtroom. It is not like we can call Almighty God to court with a summons (an order for some one to appear in court), for God is the judge.

Job 9:33 Neither is there any daysman betwixt us, that might lay his hand upon us both.

Job 9:33Word Study on "daysman" - Gesenius says the Hebrew word "daysman" ( יָכַח) (H 3198) means, "to dispute, to altercate with anyone." Webster says the word "daysman" is an archaic English word for an arbiter or an umpire. An arbiter is one who judges a dispute. An umpire is a person chosen to render a decision in a dispute.

Job 9:33Comments- Job needed one who would stand between both Job and God Almighty to decide Job's case of innocence. Today, we have Jesus Christ ( Romans 5:1, Hebrews 7:25).

Romans 5:1, "Therefore being justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ:"

Hebrews 7:25, "Wherefore he is able also to save them to the uttermost that come unto God by him, seeing he ever liveth to make intercession for them."

 


Copyright Statement
These files are copyrighted by the author, Gary Everett. Used by Permission.
No distribution beyond personal use without permission.

Bibliography Information
Everett, Gary H. "Commentary on Job 9:4". Gary H. Everett's Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ghe/job-9.html. 2013.

Lectionary Calendar
Wednesday, December 2nd, 2020
the First Week of Advent
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