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Bible Commentaries

Gary H. Everett's Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures
Matthew 26

 

 

Verse 1-2

Introduction of Plot: Jesus Foretells His Crucifixion- Matthew 26:1-2 records the fourth mention of the Crucifixion by Jesus in the book of Matthew. These two verses serve as an introduction to the epilogue of Matthew's Gospel by announcing the theme of this section, the crucifixion of Jesus Christ. The plot of the epilogue will center on this crucial event as its climax. Jesus had foreknowledge of His impending crucifixion through the understanding of biblical prophecy and the guidance of the Holy Spirit. Since the time of Peter's confession that Jesus was the Christ, the Son of the Living God, Jesus has been telling His disciples of His impending Passion in order to prepare them for this dramatic event.

Prior References Made by Jesus to His Crucifixion- First mention:

Matthew 16:21, "From that time forth began Jesus to shew unto his disciples, how that he must go unto Jerusalem, and suffer many things of the elders and chief priests and scribes, and be killed, and be raised again the third day."

Second mention:

Matthew 17:22-23, "And while they abode in Galilee, Jesus said unto them, The Son of man shall be betrayed into the hands of men: And they shall kill him, and the third day he shall be raised again. And they were exceeding sorry."

Third mention:

Matthew 20:17-19, "And Jesus going up to Jerusalem took the twelve disciples apart in the way, and said unto them, Behold, we go up to Jerusalem; and the Son of man shall be betrayed unto the chief priests and unto the scribes, and they shall condemn him to death, And shall deliver him to the Gentiles to mock, and to scourge, and to crucify him: and the third day he shall rise again."

Jesus will make a number of references to His death during the Passover meal.

Matthew 26:12, "For in that she hath poured this ointment on my body, she did it for my burial."

Matthew 26:31-32, "Then saith Jesus unto them, All ye shall be offended because of me this night: for it is written, I will smite the shepherd, and the sheep of the flock shall be scattered abroad. But after I am risen again, I will go before you into Galilee."

Matthew 26:1 And it came to pass, when Jesus had finished all these sayings, he said unto his disciples,

Matthew 26:1Comments- Matthew 26:1 is the fifth transitional sentence that takes us out of the fifth major discourse and into the Passion of our Lord. Each of these five lengthy discourses ends with the similar phrase, "when Jesus had finished these sayings (or parables)," giving these five sections a common division.

Matthew 7:28-29, "And it came to pass, when Jesus had ended these sayings, the people were astonished at his doctrine: For he taught them as one having authority, and not as the scribes."

Matthew 11:1, "And it came to pass, when Jesus had made an end of commanding his twelve disciples, he departed thence to teach and to preach in their cities."

Matthew 13:53, "And it came to pass, that when Jesus had finished these parables, he departed thence."

Matthew 19:1, "And it came to pass, that when Jesus had finished these sayings, he departed from Galilee, and came into the coasts of Judaea beyond Jordan;"

Matthew 26:1, "And it came to pass, when Jesus had finished all these sayings, he said unto his disciples,"

Thus, each of these five discourses is separated with large sections of narrative material, with the discourses being interwoven between the narratives. Each section of narrative material relates to and prepares us for the next discourse.

Scholars note how Matthew 26:1 adds "all" to describe Jesus' teachings, unlike the previous four transitional sentences, suggesting that He had ended His teaching ministry, both public and private, having taught everything that the Holy Spirit gave Him to say. Now, He would prepare for His Passion and Resurrection.

The statement, "He said to His disciples" follows the fifth lengthy discourse of the Gospel of Matthew that was delivered on the Mount of Olives exclusively to His disciples ( Matthew 24:4). Therfore, Jesus concludes His Eschatological Discourse on Mount Olivet with the statement predicting His betrayal and passion in Matthew 26:2.

Matthew 26:2 Ye know that after two days is the feast of the passover, and the Son of man is betrayed to be crucified.

Matthew 26:2Comments - The author of the Gospel of Matthew uses the two Greek word παραδίδωμι and σταυρόω in the opening verses of this narrative section to describe how Jesus will be delivered to be crucified. These two words are important in the development of the theme of Matthew's epilogue. The Greek word παραδίδωμι will be used eleven times in Matthew 26:1 to Matthew 27:10 to describe how Judas Iscariot handed Jesus over to the Jewish leaders, and how the Jewish leaders handed Him over to Pontius Pilate. The Greek word σταυρόω will be used six times in Matthew 27:11-66 to describe the crucifixion event.

The disciples were certainly familiar with the Roman crucifixion scenes. The classical Greek and Roman writer gives us graphic descriptions of some of the most gruesome forms of human torture through impalement and crucifixion. This form of punishment is recorded as far back as the Persians and it was perfected by the Romans. The disciples of Jesus would have struggled to find an explanation of how Jesus would be subject to Roman crucifixion in two days. However, Matthew develops the plot in this narrative section ( Matthew 26:3-16) so that the reader of his Gospel is able to foresee this event unfolding.


Verses 1-20

The Messiah's Departure - Matthew 26:1 to Matthew 28:20 is popularly referred to as the epilogue of this Gospel. This narrative section records the accounts of Jesus' Passion: His betrayal, arrest, trial, crucifixion, burial, resurrection, and final commission to the disciples.

The Theme- The plot of Matthew 26-28 develops around the predictions made by Jesus regarding His Passion and the events that take place in fulfillment of these predictions. The movement of this narrative plot can be divided into three parts: the setup, the conflict, and the resolution. The Setup- This narrative section sets up the plot by opening with Jesus predicting His crucifixion to the loyal disciples, saying, "Ye know that after two days is the feast of the Passover, and the Son of man is betrayed to be crucified." ( Matthew 26:2) The Conflict- The action within the epilogue rises as Judas Iscariot plans his Master's betrayal, leading to His arrest, trial, and death in fulfillment of Jesus' opening prophecy in the epilogue. The climax of this conflict is reached with the crucifixion of the Saviour. The Resolution- The resolution of this conflict takes place at the resurrection of Jesus Christ and the commissioning of His disciples. Thus, the theme of the Scriptural fulfillment of events surrounding the Passion of Christ is introduced in the opening verses of the epilogue ( Matthew 26:2) and fulfilled throughout course of the narrative material. The setting for the epilogue of Matthew is the city of Jerusalem and its immediate suburbs, in particular, the Mount of Olives and Golgotha. The main characters in this narrative section are Jesus and His disciples in conflict with the Jewish leaders and the Roman government. Also important to the plot of the epilogue is the development of events surrounding two key disciples of Jesus Christ, Peter and Judas Iscariot.

The Structure- Using the literary element of Matthew's one ἵνα πληρωθῇ formulae as a key to his structural design throughout His Gospel, an Old Testament citation can be found in Matthew 27:9-10, which refers to a key event in Jesus' betrayal, when Judas Iscariot hangs himself in guilt over his deed despite Master's innocence.

Zechariah 11:12-13, "And I said unto them, If ye think good, give me my price; and if not, forbear. So they weighed for my price thirty pieces of silver. And the LORD said unto me, Cast it unto the potter: a goodly price that I was prised at of them. And I took the thirty pieces of silver, and cast them to the potter in the house of the LORD."

Matthew 27:9-10, "Then was fulfilled that which was spoken by Jeremy the prophet, saying, And they took the thirty pieces of silver, the price of him that was valued, whom they of the children of Israel did value; And gave them for the potter"s field, as the Lord appointed me."

Jesus also cites an Old Testament passage in Zechariah 13:7 as a part of one of His predictions ( Matthew 26:31).

Zechariah 13:7, "Awake, O sword, against my shepherd, and against the man that is my fellow, saith the LORD of hosts: smite the shepherd, and the sheep shall be scattered: and I will turn mine hand upon the little ones."

Matthew 26:31, "Then saith Jesus unto them, All ye shall be offended because of me this night: for it is written, I will smite the shepherd, and the sheep of the flock shall be scattered abroad."

Thus, we observe that each division of Matthew's Gospel gives one ἵνα πληρωθῇ formulae as a fulfillment of prophecy. Each of these quotes reflects the five-fold themes of our spiritual journey, which is reflected within the structure of the Gospel of Matthew.

The epilogue opens with Jesus predicting His crucifixion ( Matthew 26:1-2). The testimony of Jesus predicts His death and betrayal ( Matthew 26:3-30). The testimony of the Scriptures predicts the arrest and scattering of the disciples ( Matthew 26:31-75). The testimony of man is recorded to reveal two opposing views of His arrest, death, burial, and resurrection ( Matthew 27:1 to Matthew 28:15). The epilogue closes with the Great Commission ( Matthew 28:16-20).

Outline: Here is a proposed outline:

1. Introduction: Jesus Foretells His Passion — Matthew 26:1-2

2. The Testimony of Jesus Christ — Matthew 26:3-30

3. The Testimony of the Scriptures — Matthew 26:31-75

4. The Testimony of Man — Matthew 27:1 to Matthew 28:15

5. The Great Commission — Matthew 28:16-20

Moses' Departure vs. The Passion of Christ- The Betrayal, Trial, Passion, and Resurrection narrative of Matthew 26:1 to Matthew 28:20 tell us of His Departure and soon Return. This departure can be compared to the departure of Moses in the final chapter of the book of Deuteronomy. There is one quote from the Old Testament in this section of Matthew. Jesus quotes Zechariah 13:7 in Matthew 26:31 which refers to the theme of this section, which is a prophecy of the Passion of Christ.

Matthew 26:31, "Then saith Jesus unto them, All ye shall be offended because of me this night: for it is written, I will smite the shepherd, and the sheep of the flock shall be scattered abroad."

His Passion - Jerome says that Jesus' Passion took place twenty-seven years before the death of Paul, which was the fourteenth year of Nero, around A.D 41.

"He (Paul) then, in the fourteenth year of Nero on the same day with Peter, was beheaded at Rome for Christ"s sake and was buried in the Ostian way, the twenty-seventh year after our Lord"s passion." (Lives of Illustrious Men 5)


Verses 3-30

The Testimony of Jesus Christ - Matthew 26:3-30 records the predictions of Jesus Christ regarding His impending death and betrayal. This passage of Scripture reflects the testimony of Jesus Christ regarding the Passion.

Literary Evidence of the Theme - Matthew 26:3-30 contains literary evidence of the theme of betrayal. The Greek word παραδίδωμι is used thirty-one times throughout the Gospel of Matthew. Of the fifteen times this word refers directly to the betrayal of Judas Iscariot, eleven of these uses are concentrated within Matthew 26:1 to Matthew 27:10. The other five uses are found in Matthew 10:4; Matthew 17:22; Matthew 20:18-19 as predictions of His future betrayal.

Literary Evidence of the Structure - Matthew 26:3-30 contains literary evidence of its structure in the form of contrasting plots placed alongside one another. For example, the assembly of the Jews to plot the death of Jesus ( Matthew 26:3-5) is immediately followed by Jesus assembling in a leper's house and predicting His death ( Matthew 26:6-13). These two passages of Scripture contrast divine providence and man's free will at work together in God's divine plan of redemption. Also, Judas Iscariot's visit to the chief priests to betrayal Jesus ( Matthew 26:14-16) is immediately followed by Jesus gathering with His disciples to observe the Passover meal in which He reveals Judas as the betrayer ( Matthew 26:17-30). Again, a contrast is made between divine providence and man's free will. Both of these contrasting passages open with the Greek word τότε ( Matthew 26:3; Matthew 26:14).

Here is a proposed outline:

1. The Predictions of Jesus' Death — Matthew 26:3-13

2. The Predictions of Jesus' Betrayal — Matthew 26:14-30

Matthew 26:3-13 — The Predictions of Jesus' Death - In Matthew 26:3-13 the evangelist places two events two together in order to contrast the roles of man and God leading up to the crucifixion of Christ Jesus. While the Jewish leaders are secretly plotting to kill Jesus ( Matthew 26:3-5), He is telling His disciples of His impending death ( Matthew 26:6-13). Both scenes work together to introduce the events of the impending Passion, reflecting the dual roles of divine providence and man's free will in God's plan of redemption.

Here is a proposed outline:

1. The Jews Plot to Kill Jesus — Matthew 26:3-5

2. Jesus Is Anointed at Bethany — Matthew 26:6-13

Matthew 26:3-5 — The Jews Plot to Kill Jesus ( Mark 14:1-2, Luke 22:1-2, John 11:45-53) - Matthew 26:3-5 tells us about the plot by the Jewish leaders to kill Jesus. This story will stand in direct contrast to the following passage in which Jesus meets with His disciples in the house of Simon the leper and predicts His own death, an event that was currently being plotted by the Jews ( Matthew 26:6-13).

Of the parallel passages to Matthew 26:3-5 in the Gospels, John's account is the lengthiest of this event, perhaps because he places more emphasis upon Jesus being rejected by the Jews in his Gospel.

Man Plan His Steps, But God Controls the Outcome of Redemptive History - In Matthew 26:3-5 the Jewish leaders were determined to control the outcome of the death of the Son of God. The Jewish people had just honored Jesus' entrance into Jerusalem by crying "Hosanna to the Son of David…" ( Matthew 21:8-9) The crowds were willing to accept Him as their new king. Although the Jewish leaders wanted to kill Jesus quietly without the notice of the people, they had not yet factored in the betrayal of Judas Iscariot, which Matthew adds to the plot in Matthew 26:14-16. When Judas presented himself to the Jewish leaders, they were subject to the time of this betrayal, which took place during the festive days in Jerusalem. It was necessary that prophecy by fulfilled and that the Passover Lamb of God be sacrificed on the Day of Atonement. While the Jewish leaders believed they were organizing this most wicked scheme of all humanity, God was taking control of its outcome for redemptive reasons according to Proverbs 16:9, "A man"s heart deviseth his way: but the LORD directeth his steps," and Proverbs 19:21, "There are many devices in a man"s heart; nevertheless the counsel of the LORD, that shall stand," and Psalm 33:10-11, "The LORD bringeth the counsel of the heathen to nought: he maketh the devices of the people of none effect. The counsel of the LORD standeth for ever, the thoughts of his heart to all generations."

Matthew 26:3 Then assembled together the chief priests, and the scribes, and the elders of the people, unto the palace of the high priest, who was called Caiaphas,

Matthew 26:3Comments - Matthew 26:3 clearly describes an assembly of the most powerful Jewish leaders in Israel meeting in the palace of the high priest to discuss an important issue and make a profound decision. While the Jewish leaders had grumbled about Jesus' public ministry for years, this is the first time they will agree to an official plan and organize themselves to move forward with its implimentation.

Matthew 26:4 And consulted that they might take Jesus by subtilty, and kill him.

Matthew 26:4Comments - Matthew 26:4 states the agenta at this meeting, which is to come up with method of killing Jesus Christ.

Matthew 26:5 But they said, Not on the feast day, lest there be an uproar among the people.

Matthew 26:5Comments - John Gill notes that the Jewish leaders feared man more than God. They were men-pleasers. 663]

663] John Gill, Matthew , in John Gill's Expositor, in e-Sword, v 777 [CD-ROM] (Franklin, Tennessee: e-Sword, 2000-2005), comments on Matthew 26:5.

Jesus Christ was crucified on the Day of Atonement in fulfillment of divine prophecy. The outcome of this event was beyond the control of the Jews although the Jews felt they were determining their own destiny as a people.

Matthew 26:6-13 — Jesus Is Anointed at Bethany ( Mark 14:3-9, John 12:1-8) - Matthew 26:6-13 records the account of the woman who anointed Jesus' feet with spikenard ointment and wiped His feet with her hair. John's Gospel tells us that the woman's name was Mary. While the Jewish leaders meet in the glorious palace of the high priest ( Matthew 26:3-5), which should have been a place of righteous judgment, Jesus and His disciples gather in the house of Simon the leper, who is considered an outcast by society.

Matthew 26:6 Now when Jesus was in Bethany, in the house of Simon the leper,

Matthew 26:6Comments - The identidy of Simon the leper is unknown, since he is only mentioned in Matthew 26:6. Scholars suggest that he could have been one of those many lepers cured by Jesus Christ.

Matthew 26:7 There came unto him a woman having an alabaster box of very precious ointment, and poured it on his head, as he sat at meat.

Matthew 26:7 — "an alabaster box of very precious ointment" - Alabaster is a soft mineral consisting of "gypsum (sulfate of lime)," generally white although it varies in color, and used in the ancient world to make a number of articles, such as "vases, jars, saucers, bowls, lamps, and statues." 664] Pliny gives us a number of locations that it was found throughout the ancient world. Pliny the elder tells us that ancient perfumes were valuable commodities and stored in vessels of lead or alabaster boxes because of their ability to preserve the perfumes from decay and corruption. He also mentions the practice of sprinkling perfumes on the feet of the wealthy. 665] An alabaster box of perfume is also mentioned by Claudius Aelian. 666]

664] R. F. Youngblood, F. F. Bruce, R. K. Harrison, and Thomas Nelson Publishers, Nelson"s New Illustrated Bible Dictionary, rev. ed. (Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1995), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004), "Alabaster."

665] Regarding the storage of perfumes, Pliny writes, "Unguents keep best in boxes of alabaster…unguents, too, improve with age; but the sun is apt to spoil them, for which reason they are usually stowed away in a shady place in vessels of lead…" (Natural History 133) Regarding the value of perfumes, Pliny writes, "These perfumes form the objects of a luxury which may be looked upon as being the most superfluous of any…" (Natural History 134) Regarding the sprinkling of the feet, Pliny writes, "We have known the very soles even of the feet to be sprinkled with perfumes; a refinement which was taught, it is said, by M. Otho to the Emperor Nero." (Natural History 134) Pliny also writes, "This stone is called ‘alabastrites' by some, and is hollowed out into vessels for holding unguents, it having the reputation of preserving them from corruption better than anything else." (Natural History 368) See Pliny, The Natural History of Pliny, vol 3, trans. John Bostock and H. T. Riley, in Bohn's Classical Library, ed. Henry G. Bohn (London: Henry G. Bohn, 1855), 166-167; Pliny, The Natural History of Pliny, vol 6, trans. John Bostock and H. T. Riley, in Bohn's Classical Library, ed. Henry G. Bohn (London: Henry G. Bohn, 1857), 329-330.

666] Aelian writes, "On a time Venus came to him, desiring to pass over: he received her courteously, not knowing who she was, and with much care conveyed her whither she desired; for which the Goddess gave him an Alabaster Box of Ointment, which Phaon using, became the most beautiful of men, and the Wives of the Mitylenans fell in love with him." (Various History 1218) See Thomas Stanley, trans, Claudius Aelianus His Various History (London: Thomas Dring, 1665, Thomas Basset, 1670, 1677) 212-257.

Matthew 26:7Comments- John records the story of Mary of Bethany anointing the feet of Jesus with costly perfume and wiping them with her hair ( John 12:3). Luke records a similar incident when a sinful woman washed the feet of Jesus with her tears and wiped them with her hair, then anointed his feet with perfume ( Luke 7:37-38). Matthew and Mark record the incident of a woman pouring perfume on Jesus' head ( Matthew 26:7, Mark 14:3).

John 12:3, "Then took Mary a pound of ointment of spikenard, very costly, and anointed the feet of Jesus, and wiped his feet with her hair: and the house was filled with the odour of the ointment."

Luke 7:37-38, "And, behold, a woman in the city, which was a sinner, when she knew that Jesus sat at meat in the Pharisee"s house, brought an alabaster box of ointment, And stood at his feet behind him weeping, and began to wash his feet with tears, and did wipe them with the hairs of her head, and kissed his feet, and anointed them with the ointment."

Mark 14:3, "And being in Bethany in the house of Simon the leper, as he sat at meat, there came a woman having an alabaster box of ointment of spikenard very precious; and she brake the box, and poured it on his head."

Richard Trench reflects a popular view that these stories record variations of the same event. 667] This view has its origin in the hermeneutical principle of approaching the four Gospels as a collection of primarily the same events, but from different perspectives by their respective authors. However, there is no justification in assuming that these four accounts are the same event. I approach the four Gospels with the principle that each Evangelist offers a testimony of Jesus as the Son of God with different emphasis and each one chose events as their narrative material by the inspiration of the Holy Spirit that fit their theme. For example, Jesus Christ visited many synagogues on the Sabbath and may have read from the book of Isaiah on numerous occasions, with an example recorded in Luke 4:14-30. Jesus could have preached the Sermon on the Mount ( Matthew 5-7) a number of times, as recorded in the Sermon on the Plain ( Luke 6:17-49). For example, today many travelling ministers of the Gospel in the field ministry repeat their sermons as they travel to various churches. In addition, Jesus may have cleansed the Temple on at least two occasions ( Matthew 21:12-17, John 2:12-22).

667] Richard Trench says, "It may be taken as agreed on by all that the two earlier Evangelists and the last, in their several records of the anointing of Christ by a woman, refer to one and the same event (Matt. xxvi 7; Markxiv 3; John xii 8)." See Richard Chenevix Trench, Notes on the Parables of Our Lord (London: Kegan Paul, 1906), 297.

Matthew 26:12Comments- Since Jesus' body never received an anointing for burial, a pre-ceremonial anointing was given. The nature of His death did not allow the customary washing and anointing of the body in preparation for burial. It was not until the third day that some of the women came to the tomb for the purpose of preparing the body properly for burial ( Luke 24:1).

Luke 24:1, "Now upon the first day of the week, very early in the morning, they came unto the sepulchre, bringing the spices which they had prepared, and certain others with them."

This is the fifth mention of Jesus" death. Verse 2was the fourth mention.

Matthew 26:13 Verily I say unto you, Wheresoever this gospel shall be preached in the whole world, there shall also this, that this woman hath done, be told for a memorial of her.

Matthew 26:13Comments - In Matthew 26:13 the narrative plot is preparing the reader for the Great Commission ( Matthew 28:18-20) as Jesus reveals that the Gospel will be preached throughout the whole world.

Matthew 26:14-30 — The Predictions of Jesus' Betrayal- In Matthew 26:14-30 the evangelist places two events two together in order to contrast the roles of man and God leading up to the crucifixion of Christ Jesus. While Judas Iscariot is plotting the betrayal of Jesus ( Matthew 26:14-16), He is telling His disciples who is about to betray Him ( Matthew 26:17-30). Both scenes work together to introduce the events of the impending Passion, reflecting the dual roles of divine providence and man's free will in God's plan of redemption.

Here is a proposed outline:

1. Judas Seeks to Betray Jesus — Matthew 26:14-16

2. Jesus Predicts His Betrayal — Matthew 26:17-30

Matthew 26:14-16 — Judas Seeks to Betray Jesus ( Mark 14:10-11, Luke 22:3-6) - Matthew 26:14-16 records the account of how Judas Iscariot went to the chief priests and betrayed Jesus Christ for thirty pieces of silver. Within the development of the narrative plot of Matthew's epilogue, this passage reaches back to Matthew 26:3-5 for its context. However, this story is placed prior to Jesus' prediction of His betrayal by Judas in Matthew 26:17-25.

Matthew 26:14 Then one of the twelve, called Judas Iscariot, went unto the chief priests,

Matthew 26:15 And said unto them, What will ye give me, and I will deliver him unto you? And they covenanted with him for thirty pieces of silver.

Matthew 26:15 — "And they covenanted with him for thirty pieces of silver" - Comments- The significance of the value of thirty pieces of silver that the priests arrived at is that it matches the value that the Jews gave to slaves under the Law. Note:

Exodus 21:32, "If the ox shall push a manservant or a maidservant; he shall give unto their master thirty shekels of silver, and the ox shall be stoned."

Leviticus 27:1-8 also gives similar values upon those who make a vow before God. That Isaiah , when someone made a vow to God, the priests were to set a value on the offering that the person is to bring before God to confirm the vow.

This event was the fulfilling of the prophecy in the book of Zechariah 11:12-13, according to Matthew 27:9-10.

Zechariah 11:12-13, "And I said unto them, If ye think good, give me my price; and if not, forbear. So they weighed for my price thirty pieces of silver. And the LORD said unto me, Cast it unto the potter: a goodly price that I was prised at of them. And I took the thirty pieces of silver, and cast them to the potter in the house of the LORD."

Matthew 27:9-10, "Then was fulfilled that which was spoken by Jeremy the prophet, saying, And they took the thirty pieces of silver, the price of him that was valued, whom they of the children of Israel did value; And gave them for the potter"s field, as the Lord appointed me."

Matthew 26:14-15Comments - Judah Sold Joseph- Note that it was Judah"s idea to sell Joseph, his brother in the book of Genesis.

Genesis 37:26-27, "And Judah said unto his brethren, What profit is it if we slay our brother, and conceal his blood? Come, and let us sell him to the Ishmeelites, and let not our hand be upon him; for he is our brother and our flesh. And his brethren were content."

The name "Judas" is the New Testament word for the Hebrew name "Judah." Also, it was Judas that sold Jesus for thirty pieces of silver.

Matthew 26:16 And from that time he sought opportunity to betray him.

Matthew 26:16Comments - Since it was two days until the last Passover, Judas Iscariot quickly found an opportunity to betray Jesus in the Garden of Gethsemane..

Matthew 26:17-30 — Jesus Predicts His Betrayal ( Mark 14:12-26, Luke 22:7-50; Luke 22:21-23, John 13:21-30, 1 Corinthians 11:23-25) - Matthew 26:17-30 records the preparation of the Passover meal ( Matthew 26:17-19) and the prediction of Jesus' betrayal during the eating of the meal ( Matthew 26:20-30). The Gospels of Matthew and Mark follow each other closely with their text, placing an emphasis in this passage of Scripture upon the betrayal of Jesus. This passage of Scripture stands in contrast to the preceding event of Judas Iscariot making an agreement with the Jewish leaders to betray his Master. 668] As Judas Iscariot makes a covenant with the Jewish leaders, Jesus demonstrates the blood of the new covenant in the Passover meal.

668] Davies and Allison note the literary element of contrast between ,26:17-19, saying, "The disciples' question offers a striking contrast with the question in v 15: Judas asks how he can betray Jesus; the others ask how they can serve him." See W. D. Davies and Dale C. Allison, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Gospel According to Saint Matthew: Commentary on Matthew XIX-XXVIII, vol 3, in The International Critical Commentary (London: T. & T. Clark Ltd, 2004), 456-457.

The Institution of the Lord's Supper - Matthew 26:26-30 records the institution of the Lord's Supper as Jesus explained the significance of the bread and the wine. The Jews understood that the Passover Meal was to consist of the Passover lamb and unleavened bread. They understood that the lamb and its shed blood served as an atonement for the sins of the people. Therefore, when Jesus presented the cup and the bread as His blood and body, they could not help but relate this symbolism to the Passover lamb.

Matthew 26:17 Now the first day of the feast of unleavened bread the disciples came to Jesus, saying unto him, Where wilt thou that we prepare for thee to eat the passover?

Matthew 26:17Comments - The first day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread most likely refered to Thursday, 14th Nisan. Under the Mosaic Law, the seven-day Feast of Unleavened Bread took place on Friday through Saturday, 15th to the 21st Nisah with the Passover feast being observed on Thursday, 14th Nisan ( Leviticus 23:5-6).

Leviticus 23:5-6, "In the fourteenth day of the first month at even is the LORD"S passover. And on the fifteenth day of the same month is the feast of unleavened bread unto the LORD: seven days ye must eat unleavened bread."

Although these were two festivals under the Law, they eventually blended into a single festive occasion in Jerusalem. 669] For example, Philo the Jew writes:

669] C. D. Yonge, The Works of Philo Judaeus, the Contemporary of Josephus, vol 3 (London: Henry G. Bohn, 1855), 284.

"And there is another festival combined with the feast of the passover, having a use of food different from the usual one, and not customary; the use, namely, of unleavened bread, from which it derives its name." (The Special Laws 2150)

By the first century, the Jews referred to these two events singularly as either the Passover of Feast of Unleavened Bread. 670] Robert Gundry notes that Josephus refers to Nisan 14th as the first day of the festival on numerous occasions, as well as referring to this eight-day festive occasion as the Feast of Unleavened Bread. 671] For example, Josephus writes:

670] R. T. France, The Gospel of Matthew , in New International Commentary on the New Testament, (Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2007), 981.

671] Robert H. Gundry, Matthew: A Commentary on His Handbook of a Mixed Church Under Persecution, 2nd ed. (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1994), 524.

"Whence it is that, in memory of the want we were then in, we keep a feast for eight days, which is called the feast of unleavened bread." (Antiquities 2151)

"As the Jews were celebrating the feast of unleavened bread, which we call the Passover, it was customary for the priests to open the temple gates just after midnight." (Antiquities 1822)

"As now the war abroad ceased for a while, the sedition within was revived; and on the feast of unleavened bread, which was come, it being the fourteenth day of the month Xanthicus [Nisan], when it is believed the Jews were first freed from the Egyptian." (Wars 531)

Matthew 26:18 — "My time is as hand" - Comments - This is His hour of crucifixion.

Matthew 26:19Comments - Some scholars draw a parallel between Matthew 26:19 and Exodus 12:28. In both passages Moses and Jesus send the people to prepare for the Passover. The people did as they were commended and departed to prepare the Passover meal.

Exodus 12:28, "And the children of Israel went away, and did as the LORD had commanded Moses and Aaron, so did they."

Matthew 26:23Comments - This Passover meal was communal in nature in that all of the disciples share the food in the same dish.

Matthew 26:24 The Son of man goeth as it is written of him: but woe unto that man by whom the Son of man is betrayed! it had been good for that man if he had not been born.

Matthew 26:24 — "The Son of man goeth as it is written of him: but woe unto that man by whom the Son of man is betrayed!" - Comments - This is the sixth mention of His death. See Matthew 26:2; Matthew 26:12 for earlier mentions.

"it had been good for that man if he had not been born" - King Solomon makes a similar statement in Ecclesiastes 4:3, "Yea, better is he than both they, which hath not yet been, who hath not seen the evil work that is done under the sun."

Matthew 26:25 Then Judas, which betrayed him, answered and said, Master, is it I? He said unto him, Thou hast said.

Matthew 26:26 And as they were eating, Jesus took bread, and blessed it, and brake it, and gave it to the disciples, and said, Take, eat; this is my body.

Matthew 26:26Comments - The Gospel of Matthew offers to witness to the custom of praying a blessing upon a meal before eating the food ( Matthew 14:19; Matthew 26:26).

Matthew 14:19, "And he commanded the multitude to sit down on the grass, and took the five loaves, and the two fishes, and looking up to heaven, he blessed, and brake, and gave the loaves to his disciples, and the disciples to the multitude."

Matthew 26:27 And he took the cup, and gave thanks, and gave it to them, saying, Drink ye all of it;

Matthew 26:28 For this is my blood of the new testament, which is shed for many for the remission of sins.

Matthew 26:28Comments - This new covenant was spoken by Jeremiah over four hundred years earlier.

Jeremiah 31:31, "Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel, and with the house of Judah:"

These words of the new covenant are reminiscent of the words of Moses when he instituted the old covenant.

Exodus 24:8, "And Moses took the blood, and sprinkled it on the people, and said, Behold the blood of the covenant, which the LORD hath made with you concerning all these words."

Matthew 26:29 But I say unto you, I will not drink henceforth of this fruit of the vine, until that day when I drink it new with you in my Father"s kingdom.

Matthew 26:29Comments - Jesus ate and drank with the disciples during the forty days immediately after His resurrection. He most likely drank wine with them at these meals. Perhaps Jesus is saying that He will no longer drink wine with the disciples in His present body, but soon afterwards in His new resurrection body and after His ascention to the right hand of the Father. However, the most popular view is to understand that Jesus is referring to the Marriage Supper of the Lamb that takes place after His Second Coming when He will again be with them forever ( Revelation 19:6-9).

Matthew 26:30 And when they had sung an hymn, they went out into the mount of Olives.

Matthew 26:30 — "And when they had sung an hymn" - Comments - BDAG says the Greek word ὑμνέω (G 5214) means, "to sing (a hymn)," and in Matthew 26:30 it specifically refers to "the second part of the Hallel 113-18 Heb.], sung at the close of the Passover Meal."

Matthew 26:30Comments - In Matthew 26:30 Jesus and His disciples were following the ancient Jewish tradition of reciting or singing the "Hallel," consisting of six psalms (113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118). 672] The title of this group of psalms is taken from the opening word of Psalm 113, which is "Hallelujah" (Praise the Lord). The Jews understood that these psalms mentioned a number of events related to the Exodus of the children of Israel and their journey in the wilderness.

672] See the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Pesachim 95a-b, 118a-b and the Mishna, Tractate Pesachim 106-7. In addition, Philo the Jew mentions the Jewish traditiuon of songs during the Passover meal, saying, "And each house is at that time invested with the character and dignity of a temple, the victim being sacrificed so as to make a suitable feast for the man who has provided it and of those who are collected to share in the feast, being all duly purified with holy ablutions. And those who are to share in the feast come together not as they do to other entertainments, to gratify their bellies with wine and meat, but to fulfil their hereditary custom with prayer and songs of praise." (The Special Laws 2148) See C. D. Yonge, trans, The Works of Philo Judaeus, The Contemporary of Josephus (London: Henry G. Bohn, 1855), 284.


Verses 31-35

Jesus Predicts His Arrest and Peter's Denial ( Mark 14:27-31, Luke 22:31-34, John 13:36-38) - In Matthew 26:31-35 Jesus foretells of the fulfillment of Zechariah 13:7 and Peter's denial of Him during His trials the night before His crucifixion. These two predictions are placed together because Peter's denial is the strongest evidence of the fulfillment of Zechariah's prophecy.

Matthew 26:31 Then saith Jesus unto them, All ye shall be offended because of me this night: for it is written, I will smite the shepherd, and the sheep of the flock shall be scattered abroad.

Matthew 26:31Comments - In Matthew 26:31 Jesus cites Zechariah 13:7 as one of the Old Testament prophecies that are about to be fulfilled.

Zechariah 13:7, "Awake, O sword, against my shepherd, and against the man that is my fellow, saith the LORD of hosts: smite the shepherd, and the sheep shall be scattered: and I will turn mine hand upon the little ones."

Matthew 26:32 But after I am risen again, I will go before you into Galilee.

Matthew 26:32Comments- Jesus does go into Galilee after His resurrection and meets His disciples in order to deliver unto them His last charge prior to His Ascension ( Matthew 28:18-20).

Matthew 26:31-32Comments - Jesus Mentions His Death- Matthew 26:31-32 is the seventh mention of His death. See verses 2, 12,24of this chapter for earlier mentions.

Jesus will indeed go before His disciples into Galilee, and Matthew's Gospel will emphasize this meeting after His Resurrection. Only Mark's Gospel makes another mention of His meeting with the disciples in Galilee ( Mark 16:7). Matthew's Gospel mentions it three times in his final chapter. He records how the angels told the women at the Garden Tomb to have His disciples meet Him there ( Matthew 28:7). Jesus then appeared to these same women as they left the Tomb and told them to have His disciples meet Him there ( Matthew 28:10). It was in Galilee that Jesus delivered to His disciples the Great Commission ( Matthew 28:16-20). Thus, it was an important meeting.

Matthew 28:7, "And go quickly, and tell his disciples that he is risen from the dead; and, behold, he goeth before you into Galilee; there shall ye see him: lo, I have told you."

Matthew 28:10, "Then said Jesus unto them, Be not afraid: go tell my brethren that they go into Galilee, and there shall they see me."

Matthew 28:16, "Then the eleven disciples went away into Galilee, into a mountain where Jesus had appointed them."

Some scholars believe that the reference in 1 Corinthians 15:6 to Jesus appearing to above five hundred disciples took place in Galilee. It would have been a location, perhaps in a rural area, where Jesus would have been able to appear with causing a disturbance.

1 Corinthians 15:6, "After that, he was seen of above five hundred brethren at once; of whom the greater part remain unto this present, but some are fallen asleep."

Matthew 26:33 Peter answered and said unto him, Though all men shall be offended because of thee, yet will I never be offended.

Matthew 26:34 Jesus said unto him, Verily I say unto thee, That this night, before the cock crow, thou shalt deny me thrice.

Matthew 26:34Comments - One of the strongest evidences to the fulfillment of Zechariah 13:7 will be Peter's denial of His Saviour after Jesus' arrest. Although the other disciples scatter in the Garden of Gethsemane with no further record of their behavior during the Passion events, Matthew is careful to record Peter's behavior. Thus, Peter's actions are a fulfillment of Zechariah 13:7.

Matthew 26:35 Peter said unto him, Though I should die with thee, yet will I not deny thee. Likewise also said all the disciples.


Verses 31-75

The Testimony of the Scriptures - Matthew 26:31-75 records the testimony of the Old Testament Scriptures regarding the impending betrayal and passion of Jesus Christ. Jesus predicts His arrest and the scattering of the disciples, and in particular Peter's denial ( Matthew 26:31-35). When Jesus is arrested in the Garden of Gethsemane, His disciples scatter in fulfillment of Zechariah's prophecy ( Matthew 26:36-56). When Jesus is brought before the Sanhedrin, Peter denies Jesus three times in fulfillment of Jesus' prediction ( Matthew 26:57-75).

Here is a proposed outline:

1. Jesus Predicts His Arrest and Peter's Denial — Matthew 26:31-35

2. The Fulfillment of Zechariah's Prophecy — Matthew 26:36-56

3. The Fulfillment of Peter's Denial — Matthew 26:57-75


Verses 36-56

The Fulfillment of Zechariah's Prophecy - In Matthew 26:36-56 Jesus is arrested while praying in the Garden of Gethsemane as His disciples scatter in fulfillment of Zechariah's prophecy.

Here is a proposed outline:

1. Jesus Prays in the Garden of Gethsemane — Matthew 26:36-46

2. The Betrayal and Arrest of Jesus in the Garden — Matthew 26:47-56

Matthew 26:36-46 — Jesus Prays in the Garden of Gethsemane ( Mark 14:32-42, Luke 22:39-46) - Matthew 26:36-46 records Jesus" prayer in the Garden Gethsemane. Parallel passages are Mark 14:32-42 and Luke 22:39-46. Jesus prayed the same (similar) prayer three times (verses 36, 42, 44). How long did this prayer time last? The passage does not say. But there may have been much time spent in just waiting on Lord. The first time He returns to his disciples, He asks them to stay awake. The second time, He leaves them to sleep. Note that it was Jesus" custom to pray here.

Luke 22:39, "And he came out, and went, as he was wont, to the mount of Olives; and his disciples also followed him."

Matthew 26:38Comments - Dutch Sheets gives an interesting insight into Matthew 26:38. He refers to the two times when Jesus Chris travailed in His spirit in prayer. The first time was when He groaned and wept just before He raised Lazarus from the dead ( John 11:33-38). This passage of Scripture describes an occasion when Jesus was deeply troubled in His spirit and began to weep. We must be careful not to interpret this event in Jesus' life as something that took place in His emotions; for it tells us that before Jesus wept, He "groaned in the spirit, and was troubled." We must interpret is as a work and manifestation of the Holy Spirit stirring inside of Him and breaking forth through weeping. We call it travailing in the Spirit. I remember watching one of my mentors in the early 1980's having this similar experience. After the church service, the pastor and several of us gathered around in a circle and began to pray. Within a few minutes Jack Emerson began to tremble and groan, then fell to the floor and began to weep. We all waited while he regained his composure and strength and stood up. He later told some of us that this was not him weeping, but the moving of the Holy Spirit within him. When Jesus began to weep, the people around only saw it in the natural realm ( John 11:36-37). But, it was this type travail and weeping in the Spirit that was necessary in order for this miracle to break forth and manifest as the resurrection of Lazarus. The second time was when He prayed in the Garden of Gethsemane just before His arrest; for there Jesus said, "My soul is exceeding sorrowful, even unto death," ( Matthew 26:38). This is a description of Jesus experiencing a heavy weight in His Spirit and being moved into prayer for a release of this weight. Dutch Sheets says that this event was a fulfillment of Isaiah 53:11, "He shall see of the travail of his soul, and shall be satisfied: by his knowledge shall my righteous servant justify many; for he shall bear their iniquities." 673]

673] Dutch Sheets, Intercessory Prayer (Ventura, California: Regal Books, 1996), 129.

We also see a reference to this type of travail and weeping in Psalm 126:6.

Psalm 126:6, "He that goeth forth and weepeth, bearing precious seed, shall doubtless come again with rejoicing, bringing his sheaves with him."

We know that Paul the apostle experienced it according to Galatians 4:19.

Galatians 4:19, "My little children, of whom I travail in birth again until Christ be formed in you,"

Matthew 26:39 And he went a little further, and fell on his face, and prayed, saying, O my Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass from me: nevertheless not as I will, but as thou wilt.

Matthew 26:39 — "nevertheless not as I will, but as thou wilt" - Comments - The longer I serve the Lord, the less I trust my will and the more I trust God"s will and plan for my life. I have prayed and believed and received, only to later wish that I had taken the more difficult path.

In this prayer of consecration by our Lord Jesus, He yielded to the will and plan that the Father had for His life. My personal experience has been that God"s plan for my life is often the most difficult path to follow. I have tried the easy paths, only to see years later, how little it had conformed me into the image of His Dear Son.

I am learning to pray this prayer more in these later years, knowing that suffering brings about my perfection in Him. It brings me into God"s perfect plan. It brings the greatest contentment in my heart.

When I know that I am in God"s will, I have learned not to leave this path, no matter how difficult it may be. If I walk away from a difficult task, and out of God"s will, it may take years to be restored into God"s plan for my life. Suffering is often the better choice over pleasure.

This is the choice that Moses made:

Hebrews 11:24-26, "By faith Moses, when he was come to years, refused to be called the son of Pharaoh"s daughter; Choosing rather to suffer affliction with the people of God, than to enjoy the pleasures of sin for a season; Esteeming the reproach of Christ greater riches than the treasures in Egypt: for he had respect unto the recompence of the reward."

It is the choice that Abraham made. He chose to dwell in tents in Canaan, while his nephew, Lot, chose the choicest of the land and the city of Sodom.

Hebrews 11:9-10, "By faith he sojourned in the land of promise, as in a strange country, dwelling in tabernacles with Isaac and Jacob, the heirs with him of the same promise: For he looked for a city which hath foundations, whose builder and maker is God."

It is the choice that Paul, the apostle, made:

Colossians 1:24, "Who now rejoice in my sufferings for you, and fill up that which is behind of the afflictions of Christ in my flesh for his body"s sake, which is the church:"

This truth must be recognized as suffering for Christ"s sake. This is a prayer of dedicating our lives to serving God in His plan for our lives. It does not mean that we are to suffer in sickness, poverty, and pestilence. For it was in this great sacrifice that Jesus made for us that we might enter into the blessings of God.

Matthew 26:40 And he cometh unto the disciples, and findeth them asleep, and saith unto Peter, What, could ye not watch with me one hour?

Matthew 26:41 Watch and pray, that ye enter not into temptation: the spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh is weak.

Matthew 26:41Comments - Perhaps the charge to watch refers to our thoughts, and the charge to pray refers to our words. The Lord wants our entire mind focused upon him, both thoughts and confession, when we walk this spiritual journey.

How important is it to spend time with the Lord in prayer? It is important enough that even when a man is sluggish in the morning or worn out at night, God still would have you pray, even though the body wants to sleep. One morning while praying I fell into a doze and the Lord spoke to me 1 Thessalonians 5:6-7 so plainly that it startled me. The Lord did not want me sleeping during my time with Him, no matter what my flesh said!

1 Thessalonians 5:6-7, "Therefore let us not sleep, as do others; but let us watch and be sober. For they that sleep sleep in the night; and they that be drunken are drunken in the night."

Note these insightful words from Sadhu Sundar Singh regarding temptation and indulgence towards sin:

"7. The ship, quite properly, has its place in the water, but for the water to flow into the ship is both unsuitable and dangerous. So for a man to have his abode in this world is right and good for himself and others, for, keeping himself afloat, he will be able to help them to arrive along with himself at the haven of life. But for the world to find its way into his heart means death and destruction. Therefore the man of prayer ever reserves his heart for Him who formed it to be His temple, and thus both in this world and that which is to come he rests in peace and safely 8. We all know that without water it is impossible to live; but if we sink beneath it we choke and die. While we need to make use of and drink water, we ought not to fall into and sink beneath it. Therefore the world and worldly things must be used with discretion, for without them life is not only difficult but impossible. For this very purpose God created the world that men might make use of it, but men should not drown themselves in it, for thus the breath of prayer is stopped and they perish.

9. If by ceasing to live the life of prayer the life of the spirit begins to fail, then those worldly things which are intended to be useful become hurtful and destructive. The sun by its light and heat makes all vegetable things to live and flourish, and also causes them to wither and die. The air also gives life and vigour to all living beings, but itself is the cause of their decomposition. Therefore ‘Watch and Pray.'" 674]

674] Sadhu Sundar Singh, At the Master's Feet, translated by Arthur Parker (London: Fleming H. Revell Co, 1922) [on-line]; accessed 26 October 2008; available from http://www.ccel.org/ccel/singh/feet.html; Internet, "III Prayer," section 1, part 7-9.

Matthew 26:43Comments - The second time He returned to His disciples, He did not tell them to watch with him one hour. Rather, He let them sleep.

Matthew 26:36-44Comments - Jesus' Prayer of Consecration- The prayers that Jesus prayed in the garden are called a prayer of consecration. The fact that Jesus prayed this prayer of consecration three different times illustrates our need to pray this prayer more than once in our Christian journey. When we drift away from God, we must consecrate ourselves afresh and anew to do God's will. This is the prayer that we must pray each time that we yield our lives to God's will when our flesh and mind are inclined to resist. This prayer comes before each trial that we face as we walk through the valley of the shadow of death. We consecrate our lives to His will each day that we willingly take up our cross and follow Him.

Matthew 26:45 Then cometh he to his disciples, and saith unto them, Sleep on now, and take your rest: behold, the hour is at hand, and the Son of man is betrayed into the hands of sinners.

Matthew 26:45 — "Sleep on now, and take your rest" - Comments - The Greek text allows the statement "Sleep on now, and take your rest" to be either a question or a command. While the KJV translates it as a command from Jesus, the UBS3 interprets it as a question. Thus, the statement can read, "Are you sleeping and taking your rest?" The context of the passage better supports the question than the command. This is because the next verse says, "Rise, let us be going." Jesus would not tell them to sleep, then tell them to rise up.

The LO reads, "Then he came back to his disciples, and said to them, Do you sleep now, and take your rest? Behold, the hour approaches, when the Son of Man must be delivered into the hands of sinners."

Matthew 26:45Comments - In Matthew 26:45 Jesus mentions His betrayal leading to His death (verses 2 ,12 ,24 ,31-32).


Verses 47-56

The Betrayal and Arrest of Jesus in the Garden ( Mark 14:43-50, Luke 22:47-53, John 18:3-12) - Matthew 26:47-56 records the betrayal and arrest of Jesus Christ in the Garden of Gethsemane.

Matthew 26:51Comments - All four Evangelists records the event of Peter drawing his sword in the Garden and cutting off the ear of Malchus, the servant of the high priest ( Matthew 26:51, Mark 14:47, Luke 22:49-51, John 18:10). Only John records the man's name as Malchus and that it was Peter who drew the sword, and only Luke records the fact that Jesus healed the man's ear. Peter was the most zealous of the twelve disciples. He had taken Jesus literally in Luke 22:36 when Jesus told them to sell their garments and purchase a sword.

John 18:10, "Then Simon Peter having a sword drew it, and smote the high priest"s servant, and cut off his right ear. The servant"s name was Malchus."

Matthew 26:51, "And, behold, one of them which were with Jesus stretched out his hand, and drew his sword, and struck a servant of the high priest"s, and smote off his ear."

Mark 14:47, "And one of them that stood by drew a sword, and smote a servant of the high priest, and cut off his ear."

Luke 22:50-51, "And one of them smote the servant of the high priest, and cut off his right ear. And Jesus answered and said, Suffer ye thus far. And he touched his ear, and healed him."

John 18:10, "Then Simon Peter having a sword drew it, and smote the high priest"s servant, and cut off his right ear. The servant"s name was Malchus."

Luke 22:36, "Then said he unto them, But now, he that hath a purse, let him take it, and likewise his scrip: and he that hath no sword, let him sell his garment, and buy one."

Matthew 26:54Comments - Matthew 26:54 reflects the secondary theme of Matthew's Gospel as Jesus refers to the the events surrounding His being the fulfillment of the Old Testament Scriptures.

Matthew 26:56 — "But all this was done, that the scriptures of the prophets might be fulfilled" - Comments - Matthew 26:56 a is understood by many scholars to be a comment made by Jesus Himself, although some view it as the author's insertion. The support for the first view comes from the parallel passage in Mark 14:49-50, which clearly credits the statement to Jesus Himself, who says, "I was daily with you in the temple teaching, and ye took me not: but the scriptures must be fulfilled. And they all forsook him, and fled."

Matthew 26:56 reflects the secondary theme of Matthew's Gospel as Jesus refers to the the events surrounding His being the fulfillment of the Old Testament Scriptures.

"Then all the disciples forsook him, and fled" - Comments - Matthew 26:56 b is most likely a fulfillment of Matthew 26:31 in which Jesus cites Zechariah 13:7, saying, "All ye shall be offended because of me this night: for it is written, I will smite the shepherd, and the sheep of the flock shall be scattered abroad."


Verses 57-75

The Fulfillment of Peter's Denial- In Matthew 26:57-75 Jesus is brought before the Sanhedrin while Peter denies Jesus three times in fulfillment of Jesus' prediction.

Here is a proposed outline:

1. Jesus Stands before the Sanhedrin — Matthew 26:57-68

2. Peter Denies Jesus Three Times — Matthew 26:69-75

Matthew 26:57-68 — Jesus Stands Before the Sanhedrin ( Mark 14:53-65, Luke 22:54-55; Luke 22:63-71, John 18:13-14; John 18:19-24) - Matthew 26:57-68 records the event of Jesus standing trial before the Jewish Sanhedrin.

Matthew 26:57Comments - The Jewish leaders had gathered at the palace of Caiaphas to plan the death of Jesus ( Matthew 26:3). Thus, this was the logical place to bring Him immediately after His arrest.

Matthew 26:3, "Then assembled together the chief priests, and the scribes, and the elders of the people, unto the palace of the high priest, who was called Caiaphas,"

Matthew 26:57-59Comments - John the Apostle Followed Jesus Into the Temple- In the parallel passage of John 18:15-16 we see that the apostle John followed Jesus into the Temple court.

John 18:15-16, "And Simon Peter followed Jesus, and so did another disciple: that disciple was known unto the high priest, and went in with Jesus into the palace of the high priest. But Peter stood at the door without. Then went out that other disciple, which was known unto the high priest, and spake unto her that kept the door, and brought in Peter."

Matthew 26:64Comments - Matthew 26:64 records the tenth mention of His death in the Gospel of Matthew. The false witnesses claimed Jesus would destroy the Temple and rebuild it in three days, while the high priest asked Jesus if He were the Messiah, the Son of God. Jesus, as the Living God, acknowledged their confessions and declared that afterwards, that Isaiah , after His resurrection, He will ascend to the right hand of God. Thus, Jesus took their confessions and explained the work of redemption that would result from these events.

Matthew 26:68Comments - The Jewish people had come to recognize Jesus as a prophet. He had also delivered many prophetic sayings during the course of His public ministry.

Matthew 26:69-75 — Peter Denies Jesus Three Times ( Mark 14:66-72, Luke 22:56-62, John 18:15-18; John 18:25-27) - Matthew 26:69-75 records Peter's three denials of the Lord Jesus Christ. Peter played a key role in the narrative plot by confessing the deity of Jesus Christ ( Matthew 16:16). This event that marked a turning point in the public ministry of Jesus Christ as He began to focus upon His crucifixion after this confession.

Matthew 26:73Comments- Aramaic was the common language of the people of New Testament Palestine. We see that there were different dialects of this language even among the Jews. In the New Testament era, the speech of the Galileans was pronounced different than that of Judea. We see an example of this in the Old Testament, where the Ephraimites spoke differently from the Gileadites.

Judges 12:6, "Then said they unto him, Say now Shibboleth: and he said Sibboleth: for he could not frame to pronounce it right. Then they took him, and slew him at the passages of Jordan: and there fell at that time of the Ephraimites forty and two thousand."

Matthew 26:75Comments- God's Word is quick to be recalled by Peter when it is fulfilled.

 


Copyright Statement
These files are copyrighted by the author, Gary Everett. Used by Permission.
No distribution beyond personal use without permission.

Bibliography Information
Everett, Gary H. "Commentary on Matthew 26:4". Gary H. Everett's Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ghe/matthew-26.html. 2013.

Lectionary Calendar
Monday, November 18th, 2019
the Week of Proper 28 / Ordinary 33
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