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Bible Commentaries

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged
Matthew 13

 

 

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Verse 1

The same day went Jesus out of the house, and sat by the sea side.

The same day went Jesus out of the house, and sat by the sea - [side].


Verse 2

And great multitudes were gathered together unto him, so that he went into a ship, and sat; and the whole multitude stood on the shore.

And great multitudes were gathered together unto him, so that he went into a ship - the article in the received text wants authority --

And sat; and the whole multitude stood on the shore. How graphic this picture-no doubt from the pen of an eye-witness, himself impressed with the scene! It was "the same day" on which the foregoing solemn discourse was delivered, when His kindred thought Him "beside Himself" for His indifference to food and repose-that same day, retiring to the sea-shore of Galilee, and there seating Himself, perhaps for coolness and rest, the crowds again flock around Him, and He is fain to push off from them, in the boat usually kept in readiness for Him; yet only to begin, without waiting to rest, a new course of teaching by parables to the eager multitudes that lined the shore. To the parables of our Lord there is nothing in all language to be compared, for simplicity, grace, fullness, and variety of spiritual teaching. They are adapted to all classes and stages of advancement, being understood by each according to the measure of his spiritual capacity.


Verse 3

And he spake many things unto them in parables, saying, Behold, a sower went forth to sow;

And he spake many things unto them in parables, saying ... These parables are SEVEN in number; and it is not a little remarkable that while this is the sacred number, the first FOUR of them were spoken to the mixed multitude, while the remaining THREE were spoken to the Twelve in private-these divisions, four and three, being themselves notable in the symbolical arithmetic of Scripture. Another thing remarkable in the structure of these parables is, that while the first of the Seven-that of the Sower-is of the nature of an introduction to the whole, the remaining six consist of three pairs-the second and seventh, the third and fourth, and the fifth and sixth, corresponding to each other; each pair setting forth the same general truths, but with a certain diversity of aspect. All this can hardly be accidental.

This Parable may be entitled, THE EFFECT OF THE WORD DEPENDENT ON THE STATE OF THE HEART. For the exposition of this parable, see the notes at Mark 4:1-9; Mark 4:14-20.


Verses 4-9

And when he sowed, some seeds fell by the way side, and the fowls came and devoured them up:

No JFB commentary on these verses.


Verse 10

And the disciples came, and said unto him, Why speakest thou unto them in parables?

And the disciples came, and said unto him - "they that were with Him, when they were alone" (Mark 4:10) --

Why speakest thou unto them in parables? Though before this He had couched some things in the parabolic form, for more vivid illustration, it would appear that He now, for the first time, formally employed this method of teaching.


Verse 11

He answered and said unto them, Because it is given unto you to know the mysteries of the kingdom of heaven, but to them it is not given.

He answered and said unto them, Because it is given unto you to know the mysteries of the kingdom of heaven. The word "mysteries" [ musteeria (Greek #3466)] in Scripture is not used in its classical sense-of 'religious secrets,' nor yet of 'things incomprehensible, or in their own nature difficult to be understood'-but in the sense of 'things of purely divine revelation,' and, usually, 'things darkly announced under the ancient economy, and during all that period darkly understood, but fully published under the Gospel' (1 Corinthians 2:6-10; Ephesians 3:3-6; Ephesians 3:8-9). "The mysteries of the kingdom of heaven," then, mean those glorious Gospel truths which at that time only the more advanced disciples could appreciate, and they but partially.

But to them it is not given (See the note at Matthew 11:25.) Parables serve the double purpose of revealing and concealing; presenting 'the mysteries of the kingdom' to those who know and relish them, though in never so small a degree, in a new and attractive light; but to those who are insensible to spiritual things yielding only, as so many tales, some temporary entertainment.


Verse 12

For whosoever hath, to him shall be given, and he shall have more abundance: but whosoever hath not, from him shall be taken away even that he hath.

For whosoever hath (that is, keeps; as a thing which he values), to him shall be given, and he shall have more abundance - he will be rewarded by an increase of what he so much prizes.

But whosoever hath not (who lets this go or lie unused, as a thing on which he sets no value) from him shall be taken away even that he hath - or as it is in Luke (Luke 8:18), "what he seemeth to have" [ ho (Greek #3588) dokei (Greek #1380) echein (Greek #2192)], or 'thinketh he hath.' This is a principle of immense importance, and, like other weighty sayings, appears to have been uttered by our Lord on more than one occasion, and in different connections. (See the note at Matthew 25:9.) As a great ethical principle, we see it in operation everywhere, under the general law of habit; in virtue of which moral principles become stronger by exercise, while by disuse, or the exercise of their contraries, they wax weaker, and at length expire, The same principle reigns in the intellectual world, and even in the animal-if not in the vegetable also-as the facts of physiology sufficiently prove. Here, however, it is viewed as a divine ordination, as a judicial retribution in continual operation under the divine administration.


Verse 13

Therefore speak I to them in parables: because they seeing see not; and hearing they hear not, neither do they understand.

Therefore speak I to them in parables - which our Lord, be it observed, did not begin to do until His miracles were malignantly ascribed to Satan.

Because they seeing, see not. They "saw," for the light shone on them as never light shone before; but they "saw not," for they closed their eyes.

And hearing, they hear not; neither do they understand. They "heard," for He taught them who "spake as never man spake;" but they "heard not," for they took nothing in, apprehending not the soul-penetrating, life-giving words addressed to them. In Mark and Luke, what is here expressed as a human fact is represented as the fulfillment of a divine purpose - "that seeing they may see, and not perceive," etc. The explanation of this lies in the statement of the foregoing verse-that, by a fixed law of the divine administration, the duty men voluntarily refuse to do, and in point of fact do not do, they at length become morally incapable of doing.


Verse 14

And in them is fulfilled the prophecy of Esaias, which saith, By hearing ye shall hear, and shall not understand; and seeing ye shall see, and shall not perceive:

And in them is fulfilled , [ anapleeroutai (Greek #378)] - rather, 'is fulfilling,' or is receiving its fulfillment --

The prophecy of Esaias, which saith (Isaiah 6:9-10 - here quoted according to the Septuagint), "By hearing ye shall hear, and shall not understand ... "


Verse 15

For this people's heart is waxed gross, and their ears are dull of hearing, and their eyes they have closed; lest at any time they should see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and should understand with their heart, and should be converted, and I should heal them.

For this people's heart is waxed gross ... and their eyes they have closed; lest at any time they should see ... and hear ... and should understand ... and should be converted, and I should heal them. They were thus judicially sealed up under the darkness and obduracy which they deliberately preferred to the light and healing which Jesus brought nigh to them.


Verse 16

But blessed are your eyes, for they see: and your ears, for they hear.

But blessed are your eyes, for they see; and your ears, for they hear: - q.d., 'Happy ye, whose eyes and ears, voluntarily and gladly opened, are drinking in the light divine.'


Verse 17

For verily I say unto you, That many prophets and righteous men have desired to see those things which ye see, and have not seen them; and to hear those things which ye hear, and have not heard them.

For verily I say unto you, That many prophets and righteous men have desired, [ epethumeesan (G1937) - rather, 'coveted,'] to see those things which ye see, and have not seen them; and to hear those things which ye hear, and have not heard them. Not only were the disciples blessed above the blinded just spoken of, but favoured above the most honoured and the best that lived under the old economy, who had but glimpses of the things of the new kingdom, just sufficient to kindle in them desires not to be fulfilled to any in their day. In Luke 10:23-24, where the same saying is repeated on the return of the Seventy-the words, instead of "many prophets and righteous men," are "many prophets and kings;" for several of the Old Testament saints were kings.

The subject of both these Parables-which teach the same truth, with a slight diversity of aspect-is:

THE MIXED CHARACTER OF THE KINGDOM IN ITS PRESENT STATE, AND THE FINAL ABSOLUTE SEPARATION OF THE TWO CLASSES


Verses 18-23

Hear ye therefore the parable of the sower.

No JFB commentary on these verses.


Verse 24

Another parable put he forth unto them, saying, The kingdom of heaven is likened unto a man which sowed good seed in his field:

Another parable put he forth unto them, saying, The kingdom of heaven is likened unto a man which sowed good seed in his field. Happily for us, these exquisite parables are, with like charming simplicity and clearness, expounded to us by the Great Preacher Himself. Accordingly, we pass to Matthew 13:36-38.

Then Jesus sent the multitude away, and went into the house: and his disciples came unto him, saying, Declare unto us the parable of the tares of the field. He answered and said unto them, He that soweth the good seed is the son of man (see the note at John ); the field is the world; the good seed are the children of the kingdom. In the parable of the Sower, "the seed is the word of God" (Luke 8:11). But here that word has been received into the heart, and has converted him that received it into a new creature, a "child of the kingdom," according to that saying of James (James 1:18), "Of His own will begat He us with the word of truth, that we should be a kind of first-fruits of His creatures." It is worthy of notice that this vast field of the world is here said to be Christ's own - "His field," says the parable. (See Psalms 2:8.)


Verse 25

But while men slept, his enemy came and sowed tares among the wheat, and went his way.

But while men slept, his enemy came and sowed tares among the wheat, and went his way. "The tares are the children of the wicked one." (See Matthew 13:38) Since this sowing could only be "while men slept," no blame seems intended, and certainly none is charged upon "the servants:" it is probably just the dress of the parable. See Matthew 13:39. "The enemy that sowed them is the devil" - emphatically "His enemy" (Matthew 13:25). See Genesis 3:15; 1 John 3:8. By "tares" [ zizania (Greek #2215)] is meant, not what in our husbandry is so called, but some noxious plant, probably darnel. "The tares are the children of the wicked one;" and by their being sown "among the wheat" is meant their being deposited within the territory of the visible Church. As they resemble the children of the kingdom, so they are produced, it seems, by a similar process of "sowing" - the seeds of evil being scattered and lodging in the soil of those hearts upon which falls the seed of the word. The enemy, after sowing his "tares," "went his way" - his dark work soon done, but taking time to develop its true character.


Verse 26

But when the blade was sprung up, and brought forth fruit, then appeared the tares also.

But when the blade was sprung up, and brought forth fruit, then appeared the tares also - the growth in both cases running parallel, as antagonistic principles are seen to do.


Verse 27

So the servants of the householder came and said unto him, Sir, didst not thou sow good seed in thy field? from whence then hath it tares?

So the servants of the householder came (that is, Christ's ministers) and said unto him, Sir, didst not thou sow good seed in thy field? from whence then hath it tares? This well expresses the surprise, disappointment, and of Christ's faithful servants and people, at the discovery of "false brethren" among the members of the Church.


Verse 28

He said unto them, An enemy hath done this. The servants said unto him, Wilt thou then that we go and gather them up?

He said unto them, An enemy hath done this. Kind words these from a good Husbandman, honourably clearing His faithful servants of the wrong done to His field.

The servants said unto him, Wilt thou then that we go and gather them up? Compare with this the question of James and John (Luke 9:54), "Lord, wilt thou that we command fire to come down from heaven and consume" those Samaritans? In this kind of zeal there is usually a large mixture of carnal heat. (See James 1:20.)


Verse 29

But he said, Nay; lest while ye gather up the tares, ye root up also the wheat with them.

But he said, Nay - `It will be done in due time, but not now, nor is it your business.'

Lest, while ye gather up the tares, ye root up also the wheat with them. Nothing could more clearly or forcibly teach the difficulty of distinguishing the two classes, and the high probability that in the attempt to do so these will be confounded.


Verse 30

Let both grow together until the harvest: and in the time of harvest I will say to the reapers, Gather ye together first the tares, and bind them in bundles to burn them: but gather the wheat into my barn.

Let both grow together (that is, in the visible Church) until the harvest - until the one have ripened for full salvation, the other for destruction.

[The harvest is the end of the world (verse 39)}, [ sunteleia (Greek #4930) tou (Greek #3588) aioonos (Greek #165)] - the period of Christ's second coming, and of the judicial separation of the righteous and the wicked. Until then, no attempt is to be made to effect such separation. But to stretch this so far as to justify allowing openly scandalous persons to remain in the communion of the Church, is to wrest the teaching of this parable to other than its proper design, and go in the teeth of apostolic injunctions (1 Corinthians 5:1-13).

And in the time of harvest I will say to the reapers. And the reapers are the angels. But whose angels are they? "The Son of man shall send forth HIS angels" (Matthew 13:41). Compare 1 Peter 3:22 - "Who is gone into heaven, and is on the right hand of God; angels and authorities and powers being made subject unto Him."

Gather ye together first the tares, and bind them in bundles to burn them ("in the fire", Matthew 13:40) but gather the wheat into my barn. Christ, as the Judge, will separate the two classes (as in Matthew 25:32). It will be observed that the tares are burned before the wheat is housed; in the exposition of the parable (Matthew 13:41; Matthew 13:43) the same order is observed; and the same in Matthew 25:46 - as if, in some literal sense, "with thine eyes shalt thou behold and see the reward of the wicked" (Psalms 91:8).

Third and Fourth Parables, or Second Pair: THE MUSTARD SEED and THE LEAVEN (Matthew 13:31-33). The subject of both these parables as of the first pair, is the same, but under a slight diversity of aspect: namely,

THE GROWTH OF THE KINGDOM, FROM THE SMALLEST BEGINNINGS TO ULTIMATE UNIVERSALITY


Verse 31

Another parable put he forth unto them, saying, The kingdom of heaven is like to a grain of mustard seed, which a man took, and sowed in his field:

Another parable put he forth unto them, saying, The kingdom of heaven is like to a grain of mustard seed, which a man took, and sowed in his field:


Verse 32

Which indeed is the least of all seeds: but when it is grown, it is the greatest among herbs, and becometh a tree, so that the birds of the air come and lodge in the branches thereof.

Which indeed is the least of all seeds - not absolutely, but popularly and proverbially, as in Luke 17:6, "If ye had faith as a grain of mustard seed," that is, 'never so little faith.'

But when it is grown, it is the greatest among herbs - not absolutely, but in relation to the small size of the seed, and in warm latitudes proverbially great.

And becometh a tree, so that the birds of the air come and lodge in the branches thereof. This is added, no doubt, to express the amplitude of the tree. But as this seed has a hot, fiery vigour, gives out its best virtues when bruised, and is grateful to the taste of birds, which are accordingly attracted to its branches both for shelter and food, is it straining the parable, asks Trench, to suppose that, besides the wonderful growth of His kingdom, our Lord selected this seed to illustrate further the shelter, repose, and blessedness it is destined to afford to the nations of the world?


Verse 33

Another parable spake he unto them; The kingdom of heaven is like unto leaven, which a woman took, and hid in three measures of meal, till the whole was leavened.

Another parable spake he unto them; The kingdom of heaven is like unto leaven, which a woman took and hid in three measures of meal, until the whole was leavened. This parable, while it teaches the same general truth as the foregoing one, holds forth, perhaps, rather the inward growth of the kingdom, while "the Mustard Seed" seems to point chiefly to the outward. It being a woman's work to knead, it seems a refinement to say that "the woman" here represents the Church, as the instrument of depositing the leaven. Nor does it yield much satisfaction to understand the "three measures of meal" of that threefold division of our nature into "spirit, soul, and body," alluded to in 1 Thessalonians 5:23, or of the threefold partition of the world among the three sons of Noah (Genesis 10:32), as some do. It yields more real satisfaction to see in this brief parable just the all-penetrating and assimilating quality of the Gospel, by virtue of which it will yet mould all institutions and tribes of men, and exhibit over the whole earth one "Kingdom of our Lord and of His Christ." (See the note at Revelation 11:15)


Verse 34

All these things spake Jesus unto the multitude in parables; and without a parable spake he not unto them:

All these things spake Jesus unto the multitude in parables; and without a parable spake he not unto them - that is, on this occasion; refraining not only from all naked discourse, but even from all interpretation of these parables to the mixed multitude.


Verse 35

That it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet, saying, I will open my mouth in parables; I will utter things which have been kept secret from the foundation of the world.

That it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet, saying (Psalms 78:2, nearly as in Septuagint), I will open my mouth in parables; I will utter things which have been kept secret from the foundation of the world. Though the Psalm seems to contain only a summary of Israelite history, the Psalmist himself calls it "a parable," and "dark sayings from of old" [ mineey (Hebrew #4480) qaadaam (Hebrew #6925); ap' (Greek #575) archees (Greek #746)] - as containing, underneath the history, truths for all time, not fully brought to light until the Gospel Day.

Remarks:

(1) Those who maintain that the millennial era will be organically different from the present Gospel dispensation, and denounce as unscriptural the notion that the one will be but the universal triumph of the other, will find it hard to interpret the parables of the Mustard Seed and the Leaven on any other principle. The gradual growth of the Christian tree until the world be overshadowed by its widespreading branches-the silent operation of the Gospel on the mass of mankind, until the whole be leavened-these are representations of what the Gospel is designed to do, which it will be hard to reconcile to the belief that the world is not to be Christianized before Christ's Second Coming; that Christendom is to wax worse and worse, and be at its worst condition, when He comes; and that not until after He appears the second time, without sin, unto salvation, will the millennium commence and a universal Christianity be seen upon the earth. That those gigantic superstitions, and spiritual tyrannies, and hideous corruptions, which have for ages supplanted and well-nigh crushed out a pure Christianity in some of the fairest portions of Christendom, will not disappear without a struggle, and that in this sense the blessed millennial era will be ushered in convulsively, we may well believe, and Scripture prophecy is abundant and clear in such details. But in the light of such grand divisions as are presented to us in the parables of the Tares end wheat and of the good fish and the bad-between the present mixed and the future unmixed condition of Humanity, all such minor divisions disappear; and the representations of the parables of the mustard seed and the leaven (yeast) are seen to stretch from the commencement of the Christian era, unbroken, into and through and on to the termination of the millennial era. But,

(2) It would be a pity if these parables were used merely for adjusting our views of the kingdom of Christ. They cheer the servants of Christ, when planting the standard of the Cross on new ground, with the assurance of ultimate triumph; when exposed to crashing persecution, with assurances of final victory; and when gaining little ground on the pagan world, while old forms of corrupted Christianity seem never to yield, with the certainty that the time to favour Zion is coming, even the set time, and the kingdom and dominion, and the greatness of the kingdom under the whole heaven shall be given unto the saints of the Most High, and the kingdoms of this world shall become the Kingdom of our Lord and of His Christ.


Verses 36-40

Then Jesus sent the multitude away, and went into the house: and his disciples came unto him, saying, Declare unto us the parable of the tares of the field.

See the comments at .


Verse 41

The Son of man shall send forth his angels, and they shall gather out of his kingdom all things that offend, and them which do iniquity;

The son of man shall send forth his angels, and they shall gather out of his kingdom - to which they never really belonged. They usurped their place and name and outward privileges; but "the ungodly shall not stand in the judgment, nor sinners [abide] in the congregation of the righteous" (Psalms 1:5).

All things that offend , [ panta (Greek #3956) ta (Greek #3588) skandala (Greek #4625)] - all those who have proved a stumbling-block to others,

And them which do iniquity. The former class, as the worst, are mentioned first.


Verse 42

And shall cast them into a furnace of fire: there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth.

And shall cast them into a furnace (rather, 'the furnace') of fire: there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth. What terrific strength of language-the "casting" or "flinging" expressive of indignation, abhorrence, contempt (cf. Psalms 9:17; Daniel 12:2); "the furnace of fire" denoting the fierceness of the torment; the "wailing" signifying the anguish this causes; while the "gnashing of teeth" is a graphic way of expressing the despair in which its remedilessness issues (see the note at Matthew 8:12)!


Verse 43

Then shall the righteous shine forth as the sun in the kingdom of their Father. Who hath ears to hear, let him hear.

Then shall the righteous shine forth as the sun in the kingdom of their Father - as if they had been under a cloud during their present association with ungodly pretenders to their character, and claimants of their privileges, and obstructors of their course.

Who hath ears to hear, let him hear. (See the note at Mark 4:9.)

Fifth and Sixth Parables, or Third Pair: THE HIDDEN TREASURE and THE PEARL OF GREAT PRICE (Matthew 13:44-46). The subject of this last Pair, as of the two former, is the same, but also under a slight diversity of aspect: namely,

THE PRICELESS VALUE OF THE BLESSINGS OF THE KINGDOM

And while the one parable represents the Kingdom as found without seeking, the other holds forth the Kingdom as sought and found.


Verse 44

Again, the kingdom of heaven is like unto treasure hid in a field; the which when a man hath found, he hideth, and for joy thereof goeth and selleth all that he hath, and buyeth that field.

Again, the kingdom of heaven is like unto treasure hid in a field - no uncommon thing in unsettled and half-civilized countries, even now as well as in ancient times, when there was no other way of securing it from the rapacity of neighbours or marauders (Jeremiah 41:8; Job 3:21; Proverbs 2:4)

The which when a man hath found (that is, unexpectedly found), he hideth, and for joy thereof (on perceiving what a treasure he had lighted on, passing the worth of all he possessed) goeth and selleth all that he hath, and buyeth that field - in which case, by Jewish law, the treasure would become his own.


Verse 45

Again, the kingdom of heaven is like unto a merchant man, seeking goodly pearls:

Again, the kingdom of heaven is like unto a merchantman, seeking goodly pearls: Again, the kingdom of heaven is like unto a merchantman, seeking goodly pearls:


Verse 46

Who, when he had found one pearl of great price, went and sold all that he had, and bought it.

Who, when he had found one pearl of great price, went and sold all that he had, and bought it. The one pearl of great price, instead of being found by accident, as in the former case, is found by one whose business it is to seek for such, and who finds it just in the way of searching for such treasures. But in both cases the surpassing value of the treasure is alike recognized, and in both all is parted with for it.

The object of this brief parable is the same with that of the Tares and Wheat. But as its details are fewer, so its teaching is less rich and varied.


Verse 47

Again, the kingdom of heaven is like unto a net, that was cast into the sea, and gathered of every kind:

Again, the kingdom of heaven is like unto a net, that was cast into the sea, and gathered of every kind.

The word here rendered "net" [ sageenee (Greek #4522)] signifies, a large drag-net, which draws everything after it, suffering nothing to escape, as distinguished from 'a casting-net' [ amfibleestron (Greek #293), and diktuon (Greek #1350)], Mark 1:16; Mark 1:18. The far-reaching efficacy of the Gospel is thus denoted. This Gospel net "gathered of every kind," meaning every variety of character.


Verse 48

Which, when it was full, they drew to shore, and sat down, and gathered the good into vessels, but cast the bad away.

Which, when it was full, they drew to shore - for the separation will not be made until the number of the elect is accomplished

And sat down - expressing the deliberateness with which the judicial separation will at length be made --

And gathered the good into vessels, but cast the bad away , [ ta (Greek #3588) de (Greek #1161) sapra (Greek #4550)] - literally, 'the rotten,' but here meaning, 'the foul' or 'worthless' fish; corresponding to the "tares" of the other - literally, 'the rotten,' but here meaning, 'the foul' or 'worthless' fish; corresponding to the "tares" of the other parable.


Verse 49

So shall it be at the end of the world: the angels shall come forth, and sever the wicked from among the just,

So shall it be at the end of the world: the angels shall come forth, and sever the wicked from among the just,


Verse 50

And shall cast them into the furnace of fire: there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth.

And shall cast them into the furnace of fire: there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth. See the note at Matthew 13:42. We have said that each of these two parables holds forth the same truth under a slight diversity of aspect. What is that diversity? First, the bad, in the former parable, are represented as vile seed sown among the wheat by the enemy of souls; in the latter, as foul fish drawn forth out of the great sea of human beings by the Gospel net itself. Both are important truths-that the Gospel draws within its pale, and into the communion of the visible Church, multitudes who are Christians only in name; and that the injury thus done to the Church on earth is to be traced to the wicked one. But further, while the former parable gives chief prominence to the present mixture of good and bad, in the latter, the prominence is given to the future separation of the two classes.

Remarks on Matthew 13:24-30; Matthew 13:36-43; Matthew 13:47-50 - SECOND AND SEVENTH PARABLES, THE WHEAT AND THE TARES, AND THE GOOD AND BAD FISH

(1) These two parables teach clearly the vanity of expecting a perfectly pure Church in the present state, or before Christ comes. In the latter parable, it is the Gospel net itself that gathers the bad as well as the good; and as it is by this tie that they get and keep their connection with the Church, we cannot expect so to cast that net as to draw in the good only. But, on the other hand, as the presence of tares among the wheat, in the former parable, is ascribed to the enemy of the Church and her Lord, it follows that, in so far as we encourage the entrance of such into the communion of the Church, we do the devil's work. Thus does this parable give as little encouragement to laxity as to a utopian purism in church-discipline.

(2) When the servants, in the former parable, ask liberty to pull up the tares, that the growth of the wheat may not suffer from their presence, and that liberty is denied them, does not this rebuke intolerance in religion, on pretence of purging out heresy?

(3) How grand is the view here given by the Great Preacher of His own majesty, as Bengal remarks! The field of the world into which the seed of the kingdom is cast is "His field" (Matthew 13:24); the angels who do the work of separation at the end of the world are "His angels;" and as it is "the Son of man that sends them forth," so in "gathering out of His kingdom all things that offend, and them which do iniquity," they do but obey His commands (Matthew 13:30; Matthew 13:41.)

(4) The Scripture nowhere holds out the expectation of a millennium in which there will be none but regenerate men on the earth, in flesh and blood-or, in the language of our parable, in which the earth will be one field of wheat without any tares. It would seem to follow that there are but two great stages of humanity under the Gospel: the present mixed state, and the future, final, absolutely unmixed condition; the millennial era being, in that case, but a continuation of the present condition-vastly superior, indeed, and with much less mixture than we now see, but-not essentially differing from it, and so, having no place in this parable at all. The proper place of the millennium, in these parables, is in the next pair.

(5) Do those who talk so much of "the meekness and gentleness of Christ," as if that were the one feature of His character, set their seal to the sharp lines of His teaching in these two parables-on the subject of the tares as "the children of the wicked one," and "the enemy that sows them" being "the devil;" as to the "furnace of fire" prepared for them, the "casting" or "flinging" of them into the furnace, which that gentle Lamb of God shall demand of His angels, and the "wailing and gnashing of teeth" in which this will end? O, if men but knew it, it is just the gentleness of the Lamb which explains the eventual "wrath of the Lamb."


Verse 51

Jesus saith unto them, Have ye understood all these things? They say unto him, Yea, Lord.

Jesus saith unto them - that is, to the Twelve. He had spoken the first four in the hearing of the mixed multitude: the last three He reserved until, on the dismissal of the mixed audience, He and the Twelve were alone, (Matthew 13:36, etc.)

Have ye understood all these things? They say unto him, Yea, Lord.


Verse 52

Then said he unto them, Therefore every scribe which is instructed unto the kingdom of heaven is like unto a man that is an householder, which bringeth forth out of his treasure things new and old.

Then said he unto them, Therefore - or as we should say, Well, then,

Every scribe - or Christian teacher; here so called from that well-known class among the Jews. (See Matthew 23:34.)

Which is instructed unto the kingdom of heaven - himself taught in the mysteries of the Gospel which he Which is instructed unto the kingdom of heaven - himself taught in the mysteries of the Gospel which he has to teach to others,

Is like unto a man that is an householder which bringeth forth - `turneth' or 'dealeth out' [ ekballei (Greek #1544)] --

Out of his treasure - his store of divine truth,

Things new and old - old truths in ever new forms, aspects, applications, and with ever new illustrations.

Remarks:

(1) The truths taught in the third pair of these parables-the Hidden Treasure and the Pearl of Great Price-are these: that the blessings of Christ's kingdom are of incomparable value; that they only truly deem them so who are prepared to part with all for them; and that while some find Christ without seeking Him, others find Him as the result of long and anxious search. Of the former sort, Messiah Himself says, "I was found of them that sought me not; I was made manifest unto them that asked not after me." (Isaiah 65:1; Romans 10:20.) Such was the woman of Samaria (John 4:1-54); such was Matthew the publican (Matthew 9:9); such was Zaccheus the publican (Luke 19:1-10); such was the thief on the cross (Luke 23:39-43); such was the man born blind (John 9:1-41); and such was Saul of Tarsus, (Acts 9:1-43.) Of the latter sort it is said, "Ye shall seek me, and find me, when ye shall search for me with all your heart" (Jeremiah 29:13). Such was Nathanael (John 1:45-49), and many others of whom we read in the New Testament. Of the former sort were nearly all who were called from among the Gentiles, as are the fruits of missions still in pagan lands: of the latter sort were probably most of John's disciples who went from him to His Master, and generally, "all who in Jerusalem looked for redemption," and "waited for the consolation of Israel" (Luke 2:25; Luke 2:38); and to them must be added all now in Christian lands reared in the knowledge of Christ, taught to seek Him early, yet often long of finding Him.

(2) Those who find Christ without seeking Him have usually the liveliest joy-the joy of a blessed surprise; while those who find Him after long and anxious search have usually the deepest apprehensions of His value. It will be observed that the "joy" of discovery is only in the former parable-as if to express, not the value set upon the treasure, but the unexpectedness of it. On this principle, then was "more joy" over the unexpected return of the prodigal son than over the son who had been with his father all his days. (Luke 15:1-32.) Yet not less, but more profound is the sense of Christ's preciousness, when found after lengthened and weary search, which has deepened the sense of wretchedness without Him and the craving of the soul after Him.


Verse 53

And it came to pass, that when Jesus had finished these parables, he departed thence.

And it came to pass, that, when Jesus had finished these parables, he departed thence.


Verse 54

And when he was come into his own country, he taught them in their synagogue, insomuch that they were astonished, and said, Whence hath this man this wisdom, and these mighty works?

And when he was come into his own country - that is, Nazareth; as is plain from Mark 6:1. See the note at John 4:43, where also the same phrase occurs. This, according to the majority of harmonists, was the second of two visits which our Lord paid to Nazareth during His public ministry; but in our view it was His first and only visit to it. See the note at Matthew 4:13; and for the reasons, see the notes at Luke 4:16-30.

He taught them in their synagogue, insomuch that they were astonished, and said, Whence hath this man this wisdom, and these mighty works? - `these miracles' [ dunameis (Greek #1411)]. These surely are not like the questions of people who had asked precisely the same questions before, who from astonishment had proceeded to rage, and in their rage had hurried Him out of the synagogue, and away to the brow of the hill whereon their city was built, to thrust Him down headlong, and who had been foiled even in that object by His passing through the midst of them, and going His way. But see the note at Luke 4:16, etc.


Verse 55

Is not this the carpenter's son? is not his mother called Mary? and his brethren, James, and Joses, and Simon, and Judas?

Is not this the carpenter's son? In Mark (Mark 6:3) the question is, "Is not this the carpenter?" In all likelihood, our Lord, during His stay under the roof of His earthly parents, worked side by side with His legal father.

Is not his mother called Mary? - `Do we not know all about His parentage? Has He not grown up in the midst of us? Are not all His relatives our own townsfolk? Whence, then, such wisdom and such miracles?' These particulars of our Lord's human history constitute the most valuable testimony, first, to His true and real humanity-for they prove that during all His first thirty years His townsmen had discovered nothing about Him different from other men; secondly, to the divine character of His mission-for these Nazarenes proclaim both the unparalleled character of His teaching and the reality and glory of His miracles, as transcending human ability; and thirdly, to His wonderful humility and self-denial-in that when He was such as they now saw Him to be, He yet never gave any indications of it for thirty years, because "His hour was not yet come."

And his brethren James, and Joses, and Simon, and Judas?


Verse 56

And his sisters, are they not all with us? Whence then hath this man all these things? And his sisters, are they not all with us? Whence then hath this man all these things?

And his sisters, are they not all with us? Whence then hath this [man] all these things? An exceedingly difficult question here arises-What were these "brethren" and "sister" to Jesus? Were they, First, His full brothers and sisters? or, Secondly, Were they his step-brothers and step-sisters, children of Joseph by a former marriage? or, Thirdly, Were they His cousins, according to a common way of speaking among Jews respecting persons of collateral descent? On this subject an immense deal has been written; nor are opinions yet by any means agreed. For the second opinion there is no ground but a vague tradition, arising probably from the wish for some such explanation. The first opinion undoubtedly suits the text best in all the places where the parties are certainly referred to (Matthew 12:46, and its parallels, Mark 3:31, and Luke 8:19; our present passage, and its parallel, Mark 6:3; John 2:12; John 7:3; John 7:5; John 7:10; Acts 1:14).

But, in addition to other objections, many of the best interpreters, thinking it in the last degree improbable that our Lord, when hanging on the cross, would have committed His mother to John if He had had full brothers of His own then alive, prefer the third opinion; although, on the other hand, it is not to be doubted that our Lord might have good reasons for entrusting the guardianship of His doubly widowed mother to the beloved disciple in preference even to full brothers of His own. Thus dubiously we prefer to leave this vexed question, encompassed as it with difficulties. As to the names here mentioned, the first of them, "JAMES," is afterward called "the Lord's brother" (see the note at Galatians 1:19), but is perhaps not to be confounded with "James the son of Alpheus," one of the Twelve, though many think their identity beyond dispute. This question also is one of considerable difficulty, and not without importance; since the James who occupies so prominent a place in the Church of Jerusalem, in the latter part of the Acts, was apparently the apostle, but is by many regarded as "the Lord's brother," while others think their identity best suits all the statements. The second of those here named, "JOSES" (or Joseph), who must not be confounded with "Joseph called Barsabas, who was surnamed Justus" (Acts 1:23); and the third here named, "SIMON," is not to be confounded with Simon the Kahanite or Zealot (see the note at Matthew 10:4). These three are nowhere else mentioned in the New Testament. The fourth and last-named, "JUDAS," can hardly be identical with the apostle of that name-though the brothers of both were of the name of "James" - nor (unless the two be identical, was this Judas) with the author of the catholic Epistle so called.


Verse 57

And they were offended in him. But Jesus said unto them, A prophet is not without honour, save in his own country, and in his own house.

And they were offended in him. But Jesus said unto them, A prophet is not without honour, save in his own country, and in his own house.


Verse 58

And he did not many mighty works there because of their unbelief. And he did not many mighty works there, because of their unbelief - "except that He laid His hands on a few sick folk, and healed them" (Mark 6:5). See the notes at Luke 4:16-30, and Remarks at the close of that section.

 


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Bibliography Information
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Matthew 13:4". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/matthew-13.html. 1871-8.

Lectionary Calendar
Saturday, September 21st, 2019
the Week of Proper 19 / Ordinary 24
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