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Bible Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge
2 Samuel 23

 

 

Introduction
1David, in his last words, professes his faith in God's promises to be beyond sense or experience.
6The different state of the wicked.
8A catalogue of David's mighty men.

Verse 1
Now these be the last words of David. David the son of Jesse said, and the man who was raised up on high, the anointed of the God of Jacob, and the sweet psalmist of Israel, said,
A. M. 2989. B.C. 1015. An. Ex. Is. 476. the last
Genesis 49:1; Deuteronomy 33:1; Joshua 23:1-24; Psalms 72:20; 2 Peter 1:13-15
raised
7:8,9; Psalms 78:70
the anointed
1 Samuel 2:10; 16:12,13; Psalms 2:6; 89:20
sweet psalmist
1 Chronicles 16:4,5,7,9; Amos 6:5; Luke 20:42; 24:44; Ephesians 5:19,20; Colossians 3:16; James 5:13

Verse 2
The Spirit of the LORD spake by me, and his word was in my tongue.
Matthew 22:43; Mark 12:36; Acts 2:25-31; Hebrews 3:7,8; 2 Peter 1:21

Verse 3
The God of Israel said, the Rock of Israel spake to me, He that ruleth over men must be just, ruling in the fear of God.
God
Genesis 33:20; Exodus 3:15; 19:5,6; 20:2
the Rock
22:2,32; Deuteronomy 32:4,30,31; Psalms 42:9
He that ruleth
or, Be thou ruler, etc.
Psalms 110:2
must be just
Exodus 23:6-8; Deuteronomy 16:18-20; Psalms 82:3,4; Proverbs 31:9; Isaiah 11:4,5; 32:1; Jeremiah 23:5; Zechariah 9:9; Hebrews 1:8
ruling
Exodus 18:21; 2 Chronicles 19:7-9; Nehemiah 5:14

Verse 4
And he shall be as the light of the morning, when the sun riseth, even a morning without clouds; as the tender grass springing out of the earth by clear shining after rain.
as the light
Judges 5:31; Psalms 89:36; 110:3; Proverbs 4:18; Isaiah 60:1,3,18-20; Hosea 6:5; Malachi 4:2; Luke 1:78,79; John 1:7
mourning
Hosea 6:3
tender
Deuteronomy 32:2; Psalms 72:6; Isaiah 4:2; Micah 5:7

Verse 5
Although my house be not so with God; yet he hath made with me an everlasting covenant, ordered in all things, and sure: for this is all my salvation, and all my desire, although he make it not to grow.
Although
7:18; 12:10; 13:14,28; 18:14; 1 Kings 1:5; 2:24,25; 11:6-8; 12:14
he hath made
7:14-16; 1 Chronicles 17:11-14; Psalms 89:3,28; Isaiah 9:6,7; 55:3; 61:8; Jeremiah 32:40; Jeremiah 33:25,26; Ezekiel 37:26; Hebrews 13:20
and sure
1 Samuel 2:35; 25:28; 1 Kings 11:38; Acts 13:34; Hebrews 6:19
all my salvation
Psalms 62:2; 119:81
desire
Psalms 27:4; 63:1-3; 73:25,26
to grow
Isaiah 4:2; 7:14; 9:6,7; 11:1; 27:6; Amos 9:11; 1 Corinthians 3:6,7

Verse 6
But the sons of Belial shall be all of them as thorns thrust away, because they cannot be taken with hands:
the sons
20:1; Deuteronomy 13:13; 1 Samuel 2:12
thorns
Genesis 3:18; Song of Solomon 2:2; Isaiah 33:12; Ezekiel 2:6

Verse 7
But the man that shall touch them must be fenced with iron and the staff of a spear; and they shall be utterly burned with fire in the same place.
fenced
Heb. filled. and they shall.
22:8-10; Isaiah 27:4; Matthew 3:10-12; 13:42; Luke 19:14,27; John 15:6; 2 Thessalonians 1:8; 2:8; Hebrews 6:8

Verse 8
These be the names of the mighty men whom David had: The Tachmonite that sat in the seat, chief among the captains; the same was Adino the Eznite: he lift up his spear against eight hundred, whom he slew at one time.
A. M. 2949-2989. B.C. 1055-1015. An. Ex. Is. 436-476. The Tachmonite. or, Josheb-bassebet, the Tachmonite, head of the three
1 Chronicles 11:11,12; 27:2,32; It is highly probable that in this version instead of {yoshaiv bashshaiveth tachkemoni,} we should read {yoshavam ben chachmoni,} "Joshebeam, son of Hachmoni;' and instead of {hoo adino haëtzni, hoo ôrair eth chanitho,} "he lift up his spear," which are the readings in the parallel place in Chronicles, where it is also, "three hundred," instead of "eight hundred."
whom he slew
Heb. slain.

Verse 9
And after him was Eleazar the son of Dodo the Ahohite, one of the three mighty men with David, when they defied the Philistines that were there gathered together to battle, and the men of Israel were gone away:
Eleazar
1 Chronicles 11:12-14; 27:4
Dodai
defied.
Numbers 23:7,8; 1 Samuel 17:10,26,36,45,46
the men
Isaiah 63:3,5; Mark 14:50

Verse 10
He arose, and smote the Philistines until his hand was weary, and his hand clave unto the sword: and the LORD wrought a great victory that day; and the people returned after him only to spoil.
the Lord
Joshua 10:10,42; 11:8; Judges 15:14,18; 1 Samuel 11:13; 14:6,23; 19:5; 2 Kings 5:1; Psalms 108:13; 144:10; Romans 15:18; 2 Corinthians 4:5; Ephesians 6:10-18
and the people
Psalms 68:12; Isaiah 53:12

Verse 11
And after him was Shammah the son of Agee the Hararite. And the Philistines were gathered together into a troop, where was a piece of ground full of lentiles: and the people fled from the Philistines.
Shammah
1 Chronicles 11:27
Shammoth the Harorite
the Philistines.
1 Chronicles 11:13,14
into a troop
or, for foraging.

Verse 12
But he stood in the midst of the ground, and defended it, and slew the Philistines: and the LORD wrought a great victory.
the Lord
10; Psalms 3:8; 44:2; Proverbs 21:31

Verse 13
And three of the thirty chief went down, and came to David in the harvest time unto the cave of Adullam: and the troop of the Philistines pitched in the valley of Rephaim.
three, etc
or, the three captains over the thirty.
1 Chronicles 11:15-19; "captains,":
the cave
Joshua 12:15; 15:35; 1 Samuel 22:1; Micah 1:15
the valley
5:18,22; 1 Chronicles 11:15; 14:9; Isaiah 17:5

Verse 14
And David was then in an hold, and the garrison of the Philistines was then in Bethlehem.
an hold
1 Samuel 22:1,4,5; 24:22; 1 Chronicles 12:16
garrison
1 Samuel 10:5; 13:4,23; 14:1,6

Verse 15
And David longed, and said, Oh that one would give me drink of the water of the well of Bethlehem, which is by the gate!
longed
Numbers 11:4,5; Psalms 42:1,2; 63:1; 119:81; Isaiah 41:17; 44:3; John 4:10,14; John 7:37
Bethlehem
Bethlehem signifies the "house of bread," and the place was likewise noted for excellent water. There Christ was born, who is the "bread of life," and who also gives us the "water of life." "The water that I shall give him shall be in him a well of water springing up into everlasting life."
John 4:14

Verse 16
And the three mighty men brake through the host of the Philistines, and drew water out of the well of Bethlehem, that was by the gate, and took it, and brought it to David: nevertheless he would not drink thereof, but poured it out unto the LORD.
the three
9; 1 Samuel 19:5; Acts 20:24; Romans 5:7; 2 Corinthians 5:14
poured it
Numbers 28:7; 1 Samuel 7:6; Lamentations 2:19; Philippians 2:17

Verse 17
And he said, Be it far from me, O LORD, that I should do this: is not this the blood of the men that went in jeopardy of their lives? therefore he would not drink it. These things did these three mighty men.
Be it far
20:20; Genesis 44:17; 1 Samuel 2:30; 26:11; 1 Kings 21:3; 1 Chronicles 11:19
the blood
Genesis 9:4; Leviticus 17:10; Psalms 72:14; Matthew 26:28; Mark 14:24; John 6:52-54
jeopardy
Judges 5:18; 1 Corinthians 15:30

Verse 18
And Abishai, the brother of Joab, the son of Zeruiah, was chief among three. And he lifted up his spear against three hundred, and slew them, and had the name among three.
Abishai
2:18; 3:30; 10:10,14; 18:2; 20:10; 1 Samuel 26:6-8; 1 Chronicles 2:16; 11:20,21
and slew them
Heb. slain.

Verse 19
Was he not most honourable of three? therefore he was their captain: howbeit he attained not unto the first three.
he attained
9,13,16; 1 Chronicles 11:25; Matthew 13:8,23; 1 Corinthians 15:41

Verse 20
And Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, the son of a valiant man, of Kabzeel, who had done many acts, he slew two lionlike men of Moab: he went down also and slew a lion in the midst of a pit in time of snow:
Benaiah
8:18; 20:23; 1 Kings 1:8,26,38; 2:29-35,46; 1 Chronicles 18:17; 27:5,6
Kabzeel
Joshua 15:21
who had done many acts
Heb. great of acts. he slew.
Exodus 15:15
lion-like men
Heb. lions of God.
1:23; 1 Chronicles 11:22-24; 12:8
slew a lion
Judges 14:5,6; 1 Samuel 17:34-37

Verse 21
And he slew an Egyptian, a goodly man: and the Egyptian had a spear in his hand; but he went down to him with a staff, and plucked the spear out of the Egyptian's hand, and slew him with his own spear.
a goodly man
Heb. a man of countenance, or sight. called.
1 Chronicles 11:23
a man of great stature
slew him.
1 Samuel 17:51; Colossians 2:15

Verse 23
He was more honourable than the thirty, but he attained not to the first three. And David set him over his guard.
more honourable
or, honourable among the thirty.
1 Chronicles 27:6
over his guard
or, over his council. Heb. at his command.
8:8; 20:23; 1 Samuel 22:14

Verse 24
Asahel the brother of Joab was one of the thirty; Elhanan the son of Dodo of Bethlehem,
Asahel
2:18; 1 Chronicles 11:26; 27:7

Verse 25
Shammah the Harodite, Elika the Harodite,
Shammah
1 Chronicles 11:27,28
Shammoth the Harorite

Verse 26
Helez the Paltite, Ira the son of Ikkesh the Tekoite,
Paltite
1 Chronicles 11:27; 27:10
Pelonite
Ira.
1 Chronicles 11:28; 27:9
Tekoite
14:2

Verse 27
Abiezer the Anethothite, Mebunnai the Hushathite,
Abiezer
1 Chronicles 11:28
Antothite
1 Chronicles 27:12
Anetothite
Mebunnai.
1 Chronicles 11:19
Sibbecai

Verse 28
Zalmon the Ahohite, Maharai the Netophathite,
Maharai
1 Chronicles 11:30; 27:13

Verse 29
Heleb the son of Baanah, a Netophathite, Ittai the son of Ribai out of Gibeah of the children of Benjamin,
Heleb
1 Chronicles 11:30
Heled
1 Chronicles 27:15
Heldai
Ittai.
1 Chronicles 11:31
Ithai

Verse 30
Benaiah the Pirathonite, Hiddai of the brooks of Gaash,
Benaiah
1 Chronicles 11:31; 27:14
Pirathonite
Judges 12:15
Hiddai
1 Chronicles 11:32
Hurai
brooks. or, valleys.
Deuteronomy 1:24; Judges 2:9

Verse 31
Abialbon the Arbathite, Azmaveth the Barhumite,
Abi-albon
1 Chronicles 11:32
Abiel
Barhumite.
1 Chronicles 11:33
Baharumite

Verse 32
Eliahba the Shaalbonite, of the sons of Jashen, Jonathan,
Jashen
1 Chronicles 11:34
Hashem, the Gizonite

Verse 33
Shammah the Hararite, Ahiam the son of Sharar the Hararite,
Shammah
1 Chronicles 11:27
Sharar
1 Chronicles 11:35
Sacar

Verse 34
Eliphelet the son of Ahasbai, the son of the Maachathite, Eliam the son of Ahithophel the Gilonite,
Eliam
11:3; 15:31; 17:23; 1 Chronicles 27:33,34

Verse 35
Hezrai the Carmelite, Paarai the Arbite,
Hezrai
1 Chronicles 11:37
Hezro

Verse 36
Igal the son of Nathan of Zobah, Bani the Gadite,
Igal
1 Chronicles 11:38
Joel

Verse 37
Zelek the Ammonite, Naharai the Beerothite, armourbearer to Joab the son of Zeruiah,
Zelek
1 Chronicles 11:39
Nahari
1 Chronicles 11:37

Verse 38
Ira an Ithrite, Gareb an Ithrite,
Ira
20:26; 1 Chronicles 2:53; 11:40

Verse 39
Uriah the Hittite: thirty and seven in all.
Uriah
11:3,6-27; 12:9; 1 Kings 15:5; 1 Chronicles 11:41; Matthew 1:6
thirty and seven in all
From the number of these officers being thirty-seven, it is almost self-evident that shalishim cannot denote the thirty, as rendered in ver. 13, etc., but some particular description of men, or officers; for it can scarcely be said, with propriety, that we have thirty-seven out of thirty; and besides, in the parallel place in 1 Chronicles, there are sixteen added!

 


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Bibliography Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 23:4". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/2-samuel-23.html.

Lectionary Calendar
Friday, October 18th, 2019
the Week of Proper 23 / Ordinary 28
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