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Bible Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge
Deuteronomy 23



1Who may or may not enter into the congregation.
9Uncleanness is to be avoided in the host.
15Of the fugitive servant.
17Of filthiness.
18Of abominable sacrifices.
19Of usury.
21Of vows.
24Of trespasses.

Verse 1
He that is wounded in the stones, or hath his privy member cut off, shall not enter into the congregation of the LORD.
Leviticus 21:17-21; 22:22-24; Galatians 3:28
shall not enter
It is evident that his law was not meant to exclude such Israelites either from the common benefits of civil society, or any essential religious advantages; but merely to lay them under a disgraceful distinction. This would tend to discourage parents from thus treating their children; a practice which was exceedingly common in those ages and countries. To this they were induced by the custom which prevailed, of employing such in the houses of the great and the courts of princes; so that they often rose to the highest posts of honour and authority. Some expositors therefore consider the phrase, "shall not enter into the congregation of the Lord," as meaning, that they should be incapable of bearing any office in that government which was placed over the people of God, who must thus enter a protest against this custom, and deliver selfish parents from this temptation.
2,3,8; Nehemiah 13:1-3; Isaiah 56:3,4; Lamentations 1:10

Verse 2
A bastard shall not enter into the congregation of the LORD; even to his tenth generation shall he not enter into the congregation of the LORD.
Isaiah 57:3; Zechariah 9:6; John 8:41; Hebrews 12:8

Verse 3
An Ammonite or Moabite shall not enter into the congregation of the LORD; even to their tenth generation shall they not enter into the congregation of the LORD for ever:
These nations were subjected for their impiety, wickedness, and enmity to Israel, (ver. 4, 5,) to peculiar disgrace; and on this account were not permitted to hold any office among the Israelites. This did not, however, disqualify them from becoming proselytes; for Ruth, who was a Moabitess, was married to Boaz, and became one of the progenitors of our Lord.
Ruth 4:6,10-22; Nehemiah 4:3,7; 13:1,2,23; Isaiah 56:3

Verse 4
Because they met you not with bread and with water in the way, when ye came forth out of Egypt; and because they hired against thee Balaam the son of Beor of Pethor of Mesopotamia, to curse thee.
Because they met
2:28,29; Genesis 14:17,18; 1 Samuel 25:11; 1 Kings 18:4; Isaiah 63:9; Zechariah 2:8; Matthew 25:40; Acts 9:4
because they hired
Numbers 22:5,7,17; Nehemiah 13:2

Verse 5
Nevertheless the LORD thy God would not hearken unto Balaam; but the LORD thy God turned the curse into a blessing unto thee, because the LORD thy God loved thee.
Numbers 22:35; 23:5-12,16-26; 24:9; Micah 6:5; Romans 8:31; 2 Corinthians 4:17
because the
7:7,8; 33:3; Psalms 73:1; Jeremiah 31:3; Ezekiel 16:8; Malachi 1:2; Romans 9:13; 11:28; Ephesians 2:4,5

Verse 6
Thou shalt not seek their peace nor their prosperity all thy days for ever.
Thou shalt
2 Samuel 8:2; 12:31; Ezra 9:12; Nehemiah 13:23-25
Heb. good.

Verse 7
Thou shalt not abhor an Edomite; for he is thy brother: thou shalt not abhor an Egyptian; because thou wast a stranger in his land.
he is thy
Genesis 25:24-26,30; Numbers 20:14; Obadiah 1:10-12; Malachi 1:2
because thou
10:19; Genesis 45:17,18; 46:7; 47:6,12,27; Exodus 22:21; 23:9; Leviticus 19:34; Psalms 105:23; Acts 7:10-18

Verse 8
The children that are begotten of them shall enter into the congregation of the LORD in their third generation.
enter into
1; Romans 3:29,30; Ephesians 2:12,13
third generation
2,3; Exodus 20:5,6

Verse 9
When the host goeth forth against thine enemies, then keep thee from every wicked thing.
Joshua 6:18; 7:11-13; Judges 20:26; 2 Chronicles 19:4; 20:3-13; 31:20,21; 32:1-22; Luke 3:14; Revelation 19:11-14

Verse 10
If there be among you any man, that is not clean by reason of uncleanness that chanceth him by night, then shall he go abroad out of the camp, he shall not come within the camp:
Leviticus 15:16; Numbers 5:2,3; 1 Corinthians 5:11-13

Verse 11
But it shall be, when evening cometh on, he shall wash himself with water: and when the sun is down, he shall come into the camp again.
when evening
Leviticus 11:25; 15:17-23
cometh on
Heb. turneth toward. wash himself.
Leviticus 14:9; 15:5,11,13; 22:6; Psalms 51:2,7; Ezekiel 36:25; Matthew 3:11; Luke 11:38,39; Ephesians 5:26,27; Hebrews 9:9,10; 10:22; 1 Peter 3:21; Revelation 1:5

Verse 12

In such a vast camp as that of the Israelites (see Numbers 1:1 and Numbers 2:1), and indeed, as Scheuchzer remarks, in every well regulated camp, cleanliness is considered as indispensably necessary.

Verse 13
And thou shalt have a paddle upon thy weapon; and it shall be, when thou wilt ease thyself abroad, thou shalt dig therewith, and shalt turn back and cover that which cometh from thee:
wilt ease thyself
Heb. sittest down. cover that.
Ezekiel 24:6-8

Verse 14
For the LORD thy God walketh in the midst of thy camp, to deliver thee, and to give up thine enemies before thee; therefore shall thy camp be holy: that he see no unclean thing in thee, and turn away from thee.
Genesis 17:1; Leviticus 26:12; 2 Corinthians 6:16
unclean thing
Heb. nakedness of any thing.

Verse 15
Thou shalt not deliver unto his master the servant which is escaped from his master unto thee:
1 Samuel 30:15; Obadiah 1:14; Philemon 10:19

Verse 16
He shall dwell with thee, even among you, in that place which he shall choose in one of thy gates, where it liketh him best: thou shalt not oppress him.
shall dwell
Isaiah 16:3,4; Luke 15:15-24; Titus 3:2,3
liketh him best
Heb. is good for him. thou shalt not.
Exodus 22:21; 23:9; Jeremiah 7:6; Zechariah 7:10; Malachi 3:5; James 2:6

Verse 17
There shall be no whore of the daughters of Israel, nor a sodomite of the sons of Israel.
There shall be, etc
The prohibition in the text, like many others, has no direct application to practices that were common among the Israelites at that time; but was intended to guard them against the enormities which were practised among the surrounding nations.
22:21,29; Leviticus 19:29; Proverbs 2:16
or, sodomitess.
Romans 1:26
Genesis 19:4,5; Judges 19:22; 1 Kings 14:24; 15:12; 22:46; 2 Kings 23:7; Romans 1:27,28; 1 Corinthians 6:9; 1 Timothy 1:10

Verse 18
Thou shalt not bring the hire of a whore, or the price of a dog, into the house of the LORD thy God for any vow: for even both these are abomination unto the LORD thy God.
Ezekiel 16:33
Psalms 22:16; Proverbs 26:11; Isaiah 56:10,11; Matthew 7:6; Philippians 3:2; 2 Peter 2:22; Revelation 22:15
any vow
21; 12:6; Leviticus 7:16; Psalms 5:4-6; Isaiah 61:8; Habakkuk 1:13; Malachi 1:14

Verse 19
Thou shalt not lend upon usury to thy brother; usury of money, usury of victuals, usury of any thing that is lent upon usury:
Exodus 22:25; Leviticus 25:35-37; Nehemiah 5:1-7; Psalms 15:5; Ezekiel 18:7,8,13,16-18; Ezekiel 22:12; Luke 6:34,35

Verse 20
Unto a stranger thou mayest lend upon usury; but unto thy brother thou shalt not lend upon usury: that the LORD thy God may bless thee in all that thou settest thine hand to in the land whither thou goest to possess it.
a stranger
14:21; 15:3; Leviticus 19:33,34
that the
15:10; Proverbs 19:17; Isaiah 1:19; Luke 14:14; 1 Corinthians 15:58

Verse 21
When thou shalt vow a vow unto the LORD thy God, thou shalt not slack to pay it: for the LORD thy God will surely require it of thee; and it would be sin in thee.
18; Genesis 28:20; 35:1-3; Leviticus 27:2-34; Numbers 30:2-16; Psalms 56:12; 66:13,14; Psalms 76:11; 116:18; Ecclesiastes 5:4,5; Jonah 1:16; 2:9; Nahum 1:15

Verse 23
That which is gone out of thy lips thou shalt keep and perform; even a freewill offering, according as thou hast vowed unto the LORD thy God, which thou hast promised with thy mouth.
That which
Numbers 30:2; Judges 11:30,31,35; 1 Samuel 1:11; Psalms 66:13,14; 116:18; Proverbs 20:25; Ecclesiastes 5:4,5
hast vowed
1 Samuel 14:24; Jeremiah 44:25-27; Mark 6:22,23; Acts 23:12,21

Verse 24
When thou comest into thy neighbour's vineyard, then thou mayest eat grapes thy fill at thine own pleasure; but thou shalt not put any in thy vessel.
thou mayest
Romans 12:13; 1 Corinthians 10:26; Hebrews 13:5

Verse 25
When thou comest into the standing corn of thy neighbour, then thou mayest pluck the ears with thine hand; but thou shalt not move a sickle unto thy neighbour's standing corn.
then thou mayest
Matthew 12:1,2; Mark 2:23; Luke 6:1,2


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of Used by Permission.

Bibliography Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Deuteronomy 23:4". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge".

Lectionary Calendar
Thursday, October 29th, 2020
the Week of Proper 25 / Ordinary 30
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