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Bible Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge
Exodus 30

 

 

Introduction
1The altar of incense.
11The ransom of souls.
17The brazen laver.
22The holy anointing oil.
34The composition of the incense.

Verse 1
And thou shalt make an altar to burn incense upon: of shittim wood shalt thou make it.
The Samaritan inserts the first ten verses of this chapter after ver
32 of chap. 26.
an altar
7,8,10; 37:25-28; 40:5; Leviticus 4:7,18; 1 Kings 6:20; 2 Chronicles 26:16; Revelation 8:3
to burn incense
Where so many sacrifices were offered, it was essentially necessary to have some pleasing perfume to counteract the disagreeable smells that must have arisen from the slaughter of so many animals, the burning of so much flesh, the sprinkling of the blood. No blood was ever sprinkled on this altar, except once a year, on the grand day of expiation. It was called also the golden altar (Nu 4:11); and the incense was as constantly burnt on it every day, as the morning and evening sacrifice of a lamb was burnt on the brazen altar.

Verse 2
A cubit shall be the length thereof, and a cubit the breadth thereof; foursquare shall it be: and two cubits shall be the height thereof: the horns thereof shall be of the same.
the horns
27:2

Verse 3
And thou shalt overlay it with pure gold, the top thereof, and the sides thereof round about, and the horns thereof; and thou shalt make unto it a crown of gold round about.
overlay it
25:11,24
top
Heb. roof. sides. Heb. walls.

Verse 4
And two golden rings shalt thou make to it under the crown of it, by the two corners thereof, upon the two sides of it shalt thou make it; and they shall be for places for the staves to bear it withal.
rings
25:12,14,27; 26:29; 27:4,7
two corners
Heb. ribs.

Verse 5
And thou shalt make the staves of shittim wood, and overlay them with gold.
25:13,27

Verse 6
And thou shalt put it before the vail that is by the ark of the testimony, before the mercy seat that is over the testimony, where I will meet with thee.
vail
26:31-35; 40:3,5,26; Matthew 27:51; Hebrews 9:3,4
before the mercy seat that is over the testimony
The words [lpny hkprt ashr `l h`dt] liphney haccapporeth asher âl haaiduth, "before the mercy-seat that is over the testimony," are thought to be a repetition of the preceding clause, [lpn` hprkt 'sha `l 'rn h`dt] liphney happarocheth asher âl aron haaiduth, "before the vail that is by the ark of the testimony; the word [hprkt] ,] happarocheth, "the vail," being corrupted, by transposing the letters into [hkprt] ,] hacapporeth, "the mercy-seat," and the word ['rn] ,] aron, "ark," omitted. This repetition, as Dr. Kennicott observes, places the altar of incense before the mercy-seat, and consequently in the Holy of Holies! Now this could not be, as the altar of incense was attended every day, and the Holy of Holies entered only once in the year. The five words which appear to be a repetition are wanting in twenty-six of Kennicott's and Rossi's MSS. and in the Samaritan Text.
25:21,22; Leviticus 16:13; 1 Chronicles 28:11; Hebrews 4:16; 9:5
I will
36; 29:42,43; Numbers 17:4

Verse 7
And Aaron shall burn thereon sweet incense every morning: when he dresseth the lamps, he shall burn incense upon it.
sweet incense
Heb. incense of spices.
dresseth
27:20,21; 1 Samuel 2:28; 3:3; 1 Chronicles 23:13; Luke 1:9; Acts 6:4

Verse 8
And when Aaron lighteth the lamps at even, he shall burn incense upon it, a perpetual incense before the LORD throughout your generations.
lighteth
or, setteth up. Heb. causeth to ascend. at even. Heb. between the two evens.
12:6; *marg:
a perpetual
Romans 8:34; 1 Thessalonians 5:17; Hebrews 7:25; 9:24

Verse 9
Ye shall offer no strange incense thereon, nor burnt sacrifice, nor meat offering; neither shall ye pour drink offering thereon.
Leviticus 10:1

Verse 10
And Aaron shall make an atonement upon the horns of it once in a year with the blood of the sin offering of atonements: once in the year shall he make atonement upon it throughout your generations: it is most holy unto the LORD.
Aaron
29:36,37; Leviticus 16:18,29,30; 23:27; Hebrews 1:3; 9:7,22,23,25
sin offering
Leviticus 16:5,6

Verse 12
When thou takest the sum of the children of Israel after their number, then shall they give every man a ransom for his soul unto the LORD, when thou numberest them; that there be no plague among them, when thou numberest them.
takest
38:25,26; Numbers 1:2-5; 26:2-4; 2 Samuel 24:1
their number
Heb. them that are to be numbered. a ransom.
Numbers 31:50; 2 Chronicles 24:6; Job 33:24; 36:18; Psalms 49:7; Matthew 20:28; Mark 10:45; 1 Timothy 2:6; 1 Peter 1:18,19
no plague
2 Samuel 24:2-15; 1 Chronicles 21:12,14; 27:24

Verse 13
This they shall give, every one that passeth among them that are numbered, half a shekel after the shekel of the sanctuary: (a shekel is twenty gerahs:) an half shekel shall be the offering of the LORD.
a shekel is
Leviticus 27:25; Numbers 3:47; Ezekiel 45:12
an half shekel
38:26; Matthew 27:24; *Gr:

Verse 14
Every one that passeth among them that are numbered, from twenty years old and above, shall give an offering unto the LORD.
from twenty
Numbers 1:3,18,20; 14:29; 26:2; 32:11

Verse 15
The rich shall not give more, and the poor shall not give less than half a shekel, when they give an offering unto the LORD, to make an atonement for your souls.
rich
Job 34:19; Proverbs 22:2; Ephesians 6:9; Colossians 3:25
give more
Heb. multiply. give less than. Heb. diminish. an atonement.
12; Leviticus 17:11; Numbers 31:50; 2 Samuel 21:3

Verse 16
And thou shalt take the atonement money of the children of Israel, and shalt appoint it for the service of the tabernacle of the congregation; that it may be a memorial unto the children of Israel before the LORD, to make an atonement for your souls.
appoint
38:25-31; Nehemiah 10:32,33
a memorial
12:14; Numbers 16:40; Luke 22:19

Verse 18
Thou shalt also make a laver of brass, and his foot also of brass, to wash withal: and thou shalt put it between the tabernacle of the congregation and the altar, and thou shalt put water therein.
a laver
31:9; 38:8; Leviticus 8:11; 1 Kings 7:23,38; 2 Chronicles 4:2,6,14,15; Zechariah 13:1; Titus 3:5; *Gr:; 1 John 1:7
put it
40:7,30-32

Verse 19
For Aaron and his sons shall wash their hands and their feet thereat:
40:31,32; Psalms 26:6; Isaiah 52:11; John 13:8-10; 1 Corinthians 6:9-11; Titus 3:5; Hebrews 9:10; 10:22; Revelation 1:5,6

Verse 20
When they go into the tabernacle of the congregation, they shall wash with water, that they die not; or when they come near to the altar to minister, to burn offering made by fire unto the LORD:
die not
12:15; Leviticus 10:1-3; 16:1,2; 1 Samuel 6:19; 1 Chronicles 13:10; Psalms 89:7; Acts 5:5,10; Hebrews 12:28,29

Verse 21
So they shall wash their hands and their feet, that they die not: and it shall be a statute for ever to them, even to him and to his seed throughout their generations.
a statute
28:43

Verse 23
Take thou also unto thee principal spices, of pure myrrh five hundred shekels, and of sweet cinnamon half so much, even two hundred and fifty shekels, and of sweet calamus two hundred and fifty shekels,
thee principal
37:29; Psalms 45:8; Proverbs 7:17; Song of Solomon 1:3,13; 4:14; Jeremiah 6:20; Ezekiel 27:19,22
pure myrrh
Myrrh is a white gum, issuing from the trunk and larger branches of a thorny tree resembling the acacia, growing in Arabia, Egypt, and Abyssinia. Its taste is extremely bitter; but its smell, though strong, is agreeable; and it entered into the composition of the most costly ointments among the ancients. The epithet deror, rendered pure, properly denotes fluid, from the Arabic darra, to flow; by which is meant the finest and most excellent kind, called stacte, which issues of itself from the bark without incision.
cinnamon
Kinnamon bosem, odoriferous or spicy cinnamon, is the bark of the canella, a small tree of the size of a willow growing in the island of Ceylon.
sweet calamus
Kenaih bosem, calamus aromaticus, or odoriferous cane, is a reed growing in Egypt, Syria, and India, about two feet in height, bearing from the root a knotted stalk, quite round, containing in its cavity a soft white pith. It is said to scent the air while growing; and when cut down, dried, and powdered, makes an ingredient in the richest perfumes.

Verse 24
And of cassia five hundred shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary, and of oil olive an hin:
cassia
Psalms 45:8
the shekel
Numbers 3:47; Ezekiel 45:12
hin
29:40; Leviticus 19:36; Numbers 15:5

Verse 25
And thou shalt make it an oil of holy ointment, an ointment compound after the art of the apothecary: it shall be an holy anointing oil.
apothecary
or, perfumer.
1 Chronicles 9:30
an holy
37:29; Numbers 35:25; Psalms 89:20; 133:2; Hebrews 1:9

Verse 26
And thou shalt anoint the tabernacle of the congregation therewith, and the ark of the testimony,
40:9-15; Leviticus 8:10-12; Numbers 7:1,10; Isaiah 61:1; Acts 10:38; 2 Corinthians 1:21,22; 1 John 2:20,27

Verse 29
And thou shalt sanctify them, that they may be most holy: whatsoever toucheth them shall be holy.
whatsoever
29:37; Leviticus 6:18; Matthew 23:17,19

Verse 30
And thou shalt anoint Aaron and his sons, and consecrate them, that they may minister unto me in the priest's office.
anoint
29:7-37; 40:15; Leviticus 8:12,30; Numbers 3:3
consecrate
28:3; 29:9,35

Verse 31
And thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel, saying, This shall be an holy anointing oil unto me throughout your generations.
an holy
37:29; Leviticus 8:12; 21:10; Psalms 89:20

Verse 32
Upon man's flesh shall it not be poured, neither shall ye make any other like it, after the composition of it: it is holy, and it shall be holy unto you.
man's
Leviticus 21:10; Matthew 7:6
it is
25,37,38

Verse 33
Whosoever compoundeth any like it, or whosoever putteth any of it upon a stranger, shall even be cut off from his people.
compoundeth
38; Luke 12:1,2; Hebrews 10:26-29
a stranger
29:33
cut off
12:15,19; Genesis 17:14; Leviticus 7:20,21; 17:4,9; 19:8; 23:29; Numbers 9:13

Verse 34
And the LORD said unto Moses, Take unto thee sweet spices, stacte, and onycha, and galbanum; these sweet spices with pure frankincense: of each shall there be a like weight:
unto thee
23; 25:6; 37:29
stacte
Heb. nataph. The Jews and others suppose it to be what was afterwards called the balm of Jericho, or Gilead.
onycha
The word shechaileth is generally allowed to denote onycha, (nail-fish, from its form,) as it is rendered by the LXX. and Vulgate. It is the shell of the purpura, and of the whole class of murex; and serves as the basis of the principal perfumes in India.
galbanum
Chelbenah, (probably from chalay, milk or gum, and lavan, white,) is the gummy, resinous juice of an umbelliferous plant, the bubon gumniferum of Linnæus, growing in Syria, Persia, and Africa. It rises with a ligneous stalk from eight to ten feet, and is garnished with leaves at every joint. The top of the stalk is terminated by an umbel of yellow flowers which are succeeded by oblong channelled seeds, which have a thin membrane or wing on their border. When any part of the plant is broken, there issues out a little thin juice, of a cream colour, of a fat, tough substance, like gum ammoniac, composed of many small, shining grains, of a strong, piercing smell and a sharp, warm taste.
frankincense
Leviticus 2:1,15; 5:11; 24:7; 1 Chronicles 9:29,30; Nehemiah 13:5; Song of Solomon 3:6; Matthew 2:11

Verse 35
And thou shalt make it a perfume, a confection after the art of the apothecary, tempered together, pure and holy:
perfume
Proverbs 27:9; Song of Solomon 1:3; 3:6; John 12:3
after the
tempered
Heb. salted.
Leviticus 2:13

Verse 36
And thou shalt beat some of it very small, and put of it before the testimony in the tabernacle of the congregation, where I will meet with thee: it shall be unto you most holy.
the testimony
16:34
where I will
6; 25:22; 29:42,43; Leviticus 16:2

Verse 37
And as for the perfume which thou shalt make, ye shall not make to yourselves according to the composition thereof: it shall be unto thee holy for the LORD.
ye shall
32,33
it shall
29:37; Leviticus 2:3

Verse 38
Whosoever shall make like unto that, to smell thereto, shall even be cut off from his people.
be cut off

 


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Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Exodus 30:4". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/exodus-30.html.

Lectionary Calendar
Wednesday, October 23rd, 2019
the Week of Proper 24 / Ordinary 29
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