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Bible Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge
Exodus 9



1The murrain of beasts.
8The plague of boils and blains.
13The message of Moses about the hail.
22The plague of hail.
27Pharaoh sues to Moses, but yet is hardened.

Verse 1
Then the LORD said unto Moses, Go in unto Pharaoh, and tell him, Thus saith the LORD God of the Hebrews, Let my people go, that they may serve me.
13; 3:18; 4:22,23; 5:1; 8:1,20; 10:3

Verse 2
For if thou refuse to let them go, and wilt hold them still,
4:23; 8:2; 10:4; Leviticus 26:14-16,23,24,27,28; Psalms 7:11,12; 68:21; Isaiah 1:20; Romans 2:8; Revelation 2:21,22; 16:9

Verse 3
Behold, the hand of the LORD is upon thy cattle which is in the field, upon the horses, upon the asses, upon the camels, upon the oxen, and upon the sheep: there shall be a very grievous murrain.
the hand
7:4; 8:19; 1 Samuel 5:6-11; 6:9; Acts 13:11
We may observe a particular scope and meaning in this calamity, if we consider it in regard to the Egyptians, which would not have existed in respect to any other people. They held in idolatrous reverence almost every animal, but some they held in particular veneration; as the ox, cow, and ram. Among these, Apis and Mnevis are well known; the former being a sacred bull, worshipped at Memphis, as the latter was at Heliopolis. A cow or heifer had the like honours at Momemphis; and the same practice seems to have been adopted in most of the Egyptian nomes. By the infliction of this judgment, the Egyptian deities sank before the God of the Hebrews. See Bryant, pp. 87-93.

Verse 4
And the LORD shall sever between the cattle of Israel and the cattle of Egypt: and there shall nothing die of all that is the children's of Israel.
8:22; 10:23; 12:13; Isaiah 65:13,14; Malachi 3:18

Verse 5
And the LORD appointed a set time, saying, To morrow the LORD shall do this thing in the land.
a set time
18; 8:23; 10:4; Numbers 16:5; Job 24:1; Ecclesiastes 3:1-11; Jeremiah 28:16,17; Matthew 27:63,64

Verse 6
And the LORD did that thing on the morrow, and all the cattle of Egypt died: but of the cattle of the children of Israel died not one.
19,25; Psalms 78:48,50

Verse 7
And Pharaoh sent, and, behold, there was not one of the cattle of the Israelites dead. And the heart of Pharaoh was hardened, and he did not let the people go.
the heart
12; 7:14; 8:32; Job 9:4; Proverbs 29:1; Isaiah 48:4; Daniel 5:20; Romans 9:18

Verse 8
And the LORD said unto Moses and unto Aaron, Take to you handfuls of ashes of the furnace, and let Moses sprinkle it toward the heaven in the sight of Pharaoh.
Take to
This was a significant command; not only referring to the fiery furnace, which was a type of the slavery of the Israelites, but to a cruel rite common among the Egyptians. They had several cities styled Typhonian, in which at particular seasons they sacrificed men, who were burnt alive; and the ashes of the victim were scattered upwards in the air, with the view, probably, that where any atom of dust was carried, a blessing was entailed. The like, therefore, was done by Moses, though with a different intention, and more certain effect. See Bryant, pp. 93-106.

Verse 9
And it shall become small dust in all the land of Egypt, and shall be a boil breaking forth with blains upon man, and upon beast, throughout all the land of Egypt.
a boil
Leviticus 13:18-20; Deuteronomy 28:27,35; Job 2:7; Revelation 16:2

Verse 10
And they took ashes of the furnace, and stood before Pharaoh; and Moses sprinkled it up toward heaven; and it became a boil breaking forth with blains upon man, and upon beast.
a boil
Deuteronomy 28:27

Verse 11
And the magicians could not stand before Moses because of the boils; for the boil was upon the magicians, and upon all the Egyptians.
7:11,12; 8:18,19; Isaiah 47:12-14; 2 Timothy 3:8,9; Revelation 16:2

Verse 12
And the LORD hardened the heart of Pharaoh, and he hearkened not unto them; as the LORD had spoken unto Moses.
4:21; 7:13,14; Psalms 81:11,12; Revelation 16:10,11; Hardness of heart is a figurative expression, denoting that insensibility of mind upon which neither judgments nor mercies make any abiding impressions; but the conscience being stupefied, the obdurate rebel persists in determined disobedience.

Verse 13
And the LORD said unto Moses, Rise up early in the morning, and stand before Pharaoh, and say unto him, Thus saith the LORD God of the Hebrews, Let my people go, that they may serve me.
1; 7:15; 8:20

Verse 14
For I will at this time send all my plagues upon thine heart, and upon thy servants, and upon thy people; that thou mayest know that there is none like me in all the earth.
send all
Leviticus 26:18,21,28; Deuteronomy 28:15-17,59-61; 29:20-22; 32:39-42; 1 Samuel 4:8; 1 Kings 8:38; Jeremiah 19:8; Micah 6:13; Revelation 18:8; 22:18
that thou

Verse 15
For now I will stretch out my hand, that I may smite thee and thy people with pestilence; and thou shalt be cut off from the earth.
3,6,16; 3:20
11:4-6; 12:29,30
cut off
14:28; 1 Kings 13:34; Proverbs 2:22

Verse 16
And in very deed for this cause have I raised thee up, for to shew in thee my power; and that my name may be declared throughout all the earth.
14:17; Psalms 83:17,18; Proverbs 16:4; Romans 9:17,22; 1 Peter 2:8,19; Jude 1:4
raised thee up
Heb. made thee stand. for to.
14:4; 15:11-16; 18:11; Joshua 2:10,11; 1 Samuel 4:8; Psalms 136:10-15
that my
1 Chronicles 16:24; Psalms 64:9; 83:17,18; Isaiah 63:12-14; Malachi 1:11,14; Romans 9:17

Verse 17
As yet exaltest thou thyself against my people, that thou wilt not let them go?
Job 9:4; 15:25,26; 40:9; Isaiah 10:15; 26:11; 37:23,24,29; 45:9; Acts 12:23; 1 Corinthians 10:22

Verse 18
Behold, to morrow about this time I will cause it to rain a very grievous hail, such as hath not been in Egypt since the foundation thereof even until now.
1 Kings 19:2; 20:6; 2 Kings 7:1,18
I will cause
This must have been a circumstance of all others the most incredible to an Egyptian; for in Egypt there fell no rain, the want of which was supplied by dews, and the overflowing of the Nile. The Egyptians must, therefore, have perceived themselves particularly aimed at in these fearful events, especially as they were very superstitious. There seems likewise a propriety in their being punished by fire and water, as they were guilty of the grossest idolatry towards these elements. Scarcely any thing could have distressed the Egyptians more than the destruction of the flax, as the whole nation wore linen garments. The ruin of their barley was equally fatal, both to their trade and to their private advantage. See Bryant, pp. 108-117.
22-25; Psalms 83:15

Verse 19
Send therefore now, and gather thy cattle, and all that thou hast in the field; for upon every man and beast which shall be found in the field, and shall not be brought home, the hail shall come down upon them, and they shall die.
and gather
Habakkuk 3:2
the hail

Verse 20
He that feared the word of the LORD among the servants of Pharaoh made his servants and his cattle flee into the houses:
Proverbs 16:16; 22:3,23; Jonah 3:5,6; Mark 13:14-16; Hebrews 11:7

Verse 21
And he that regarded not the word of the LORD left his servants and his cattle in the field.
regarded not
Heb. set not his heart unto.
7:23; 1 Samuel 4:20; *marg:; 1 Chronicles 22:19; Job 7:17; 34:14; Proverbs 24:32; *marg:; Ezekiel 40:4; Daniel 10:12

Verse 22
And the LORD said unto Moses, Stretch forth thine hand toward heaven, that there may be hail in all the land of Egypt, upon man, and upon beast, and upon every herb of the field, throughout the land of Egypt.
7:19; 8:5,16; Revelation 16:21

Verse 23
And Moses stretched forth his rod toward heaven: and the LORD sent thunder and hail, and the fire ran along upon the ground; and the LORD rained hail upon the land of Egypt.
the Lord sent
19:16; 20:18; 1 Samuel 12:17,18; Job 37:1-5; Psalms 29:3; 77:18; Revelation 16:18,21
and hail
Joshua 10:11; Job 38:22,23; Psalms 18:13; 78:47,48; 105:32,33; 148:8; Isaiah 30:30; Ezekiel 38:22; Revelation 8:7

Verse 24
So there was hail, and fire mingled with the hail, very grievous, such as there was none like it in all the land of Egypt since it became a nation.
none like
23; 10:6; Matthew 24:21

Verse 25
And the hail smote throughout all the land of Egypt all that was in the field, both man and beast; and the hail smote every herb of the field, and brake every tree of the field.
smote every
Psalms 105:33

Verse 26
Only in the land of Goshen, where the children of Israel were, was there no hail.
8:22-32; 9:4,6; 10:23; 11:7; 12:13; Isaiah 32:18,19

Verse 27
And Pharaoh sent, and called for Moses and Aaron, and said unto them, I have sinned this time: the LORD is righteous, and I and my people are wicked.
I have
10:16; Numbers 22:34; 1 Samuel 15:24,30; 26:21; Matthew 27:4
the Lord
2 Chronicles 12:6; Psalms 9:16; 129:4; 145:17; Lamentations 1:18; Daniel 9:14; Romans 2:5; 3:19

Verse 28
Intreat the LORD (for it is enough) that there be no more mighty thunderings and hail; and I will let you go, and ye shall stay no longer.
8:8,28; 10:17; Acts 8:24
mighty thunderings
Heb. voices of God.
Psalms 29:3,4
ye shall

Verse 29
And Moses said unto him, As soon as I am gone out of the city, I will spread abroad my hands unto the LORD; and the thunder shall cease, neither shall there be any more hail; that thou mayest know how that the earth is the LORD'S.
33; 1 Kings 8:22,38; 2 Chronicles 6:12,13; Ezra 9:5; Job 11:13; Psalms 143:6; Isaiah 1:15
that the earth
Deuteronomy 10:14; Psalms 24:1,2; 50:12; 95:4,5; 135:6; 1 Corinthians 10:26,28

Verse 30
But as for thee and thy servants, I know that ye will not yet fear the LORD God.
Proverbs 16:6; Isaiah 26:10; 63:17

Verse 31
And the flax and the barley was smitten: for the barley was in the ear, and the flax was bolled.
The word pishteh, flax, Mr. Parkhurst thinks may be derived from pashat, to strip, because the substance which we call flax is properly the filaments of the bark or rind of the vegetable, stripped off the stalks. From time immemorial, Egypt was celebrated for the production and manufacture of flax; and hence the linen and fine linen of Egypt, so often spoken of in scripture and ancient authors.
the barley
The Hebrew seórah, barley, in Arabic shair, and shairat, is so called from its rough, bristly beard, with which the ears are covered and defended; from saâr, to stand on end as the hair of the head: hence seâr, the hair of the head. So its Latin name hordeum is from horreo, to stand on end as the hair. Dr. Pococke has observed that there is a double seed time and harvest in Egypt; rice, India wheat, and a grain called the corn of Damascus, are sown and reaped at a very different time from wheat, barley, and flax. The first are sown in March, before the overflowing of the Nile, and reaped about October; whereas the wheat and barley are sown in November and December, as soon as the Nile has gone off, and reaped before May.
Ruth 1:22; 2:23; Amos 4:9; Habakkuk 3:17

Verse 32
But the wheat and the rie were not smitten: for they were not grown up.
not grown up
Heb. hidden, or dark.

Verse 33
And Moses went out of the city from Pharaoh, and spread abroad his hands unto the LORD: and the thunders and hail ceased, and the rain was not poured upon the earth.
29; 8:12
and the thunders
10:18,19; James 5:17,18

Verse 34
And when Pharaoh saw that the rain and the hail and the thunders were ceased, he sinned yet more, and hardened his heart, he and his servants.
8:15; Ecclesiastes 8:11
and hardened
4:21; 7:14; 2 Chronicles 28:22; 33:23; 36:13; Romans 2:4,5

Verse 35
And the heart of Pharaoh was hardened, neither would he let the children of Israel go; as the LORD had spoken by Moses.


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of Used by Permission.

Bibliography Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Exodus 9:4". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge".

Lectionary Calendar
Thursday, November 26th, 2020
the Week of Christ the King / Proper 29 / Ordinary 34
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