Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

1 Kings 10:15

besides that from the traders and the wares of the merchants and all the kings of the Arabs and the governors of the country.
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Duty (Tax);   King;   Merchant;   Solomon;   Thompson Chain Reference - Business Life;   Merchants;   Trading;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Armies of Israel, the;   Ishmaelites, the;   Kings;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Sabeans;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Arabia;   King;   Solomon;   Baker Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Israel;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Arabia;   Governor;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Commerce;   Phoenice;   Solomon;   Taxes;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Arabia;   King, Kingship;   Spices;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Chapman;   Government;   Israel;   Merchantman;   Sheba, Queen of;   Solomon;   Trade and Commerce;   Tribute, Toll, Taxing;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Arabia ;   Arabians ;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Arabia;   Hiram;   Tyre;   Smith Bible Dictionary - Governor;   Taxes;  
Encyclopedias:
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Chapman;   Commerce;   Governor;   India;   King;   Mingled People (Mixed Multitude);   Solomon;   Trade;   Traffic;   Kitto Biblical Cyclopedia - Arabia;  

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

There is no mention in the original of “spice merchants.” Two classes of traders are spoken of; but both expressions are general.

Kings of Arabia - Rather, “kings of the mingled people” (compare Jeremiah 25:24). These were probably tribes half Jewish, half Arabian, on the borders of the western desert. They are regarded as Arabs by the author of Chronicles (marginal reference).

Governors - The word used here is thought to be of Aryan origin. It appears to have been a title given by the Persians to petty governors, inferior to the great satraps of provinces. We find it borne by, among others, Tatnai Ezra 5:6, Zerubbabel Haggai 1:1, and Nehemiah Nehemiah 5:14. It can scarcely have been in use among the Jews so early as Solomon, and we must therefore suppose it to have been substituted by the writer of Kings for some corresponding Semitic title. The empire of Solomon was not a state governed from a single center by an organisation of satrapies or provinces (1 Kings 4:21 note). But exceptionally, in some parts of the empire, the kings had been superseded by “governors” (compare 1 Kings 20:24).

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Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on 1 Kings 10:15". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/1-kings-10.html. 1870.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

Besides that he had of the merchantmen, and of the traffic of the spice merchants,.... What they paid him as a duty or custom for the importation of their goods:

and of all the kings of Arabia; who were subject to him, and paid him a yearly tribute, or at least made presents, see 1 Kings 4:21.

and of the governors of the country; who were viceroys or deputy governors of countries conquered by his father, and who collected tribute from the people, and paid it to him.

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855
Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on 1 Kings 10:15". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/1-kings-10.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

Beside [that he had] of the merchantmen, and of the traffick of the spice merchants, and of all the kings of Arabia, and of the governors of the f country.

(f) That is, Arabia, which for the great abundance of all things was called Happy.
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Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on 1 Kings 10:15". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/1-kings-10.html. 1599-1645.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Beside that he had of the merchantmen, and of the traffick of the spice merchants, and of all the kings of Arabia, and of the governors of the country.

Merchant-men — Heb. of the searchers; either merchants, who use to search out commodities: or, the gatherers of the king's revenues, who used to search narrowly into all wares, that the king might not be defrauded of his rights.

Spice-merchants — Or rather, of the merchants in general, as the word is often used. So this and the former particular contain both the branches of the king's revenue, what he had from the land, and what he had from the merchants and traders.

Kings — Of those parts of Arabia which were next to Canaan, which were either conquered by David, or submitted to pay tribute to Solomon. But we must not think all these to be kings of large dominions; many of them were only governors of cities, and the territories belonging to them, such as were formerly in Canaan, and were anciently called kings.

The country — Or, of the land; the land of Arabia: whereof some parts were so far conquered, that he had governors of his own over them, who were each of them to take care of the king's revenue in his jurisdiction; and part only so far, that they still had kings of their own, but such as were tributaries to him.

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Bibliographical Information
Wesley, John. "Commentary on 1 Kings 10:15". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/1-kings-10.html. 1765.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

1 Kings 10:15 Beside [that he had] of the merchantmen, and of the traffick of the spice merchants, and of all the kings of Arabia, and of the governors of the country.

Ver. 15. Besides that he had of the merchantmen] Or, Of the publicans and custom takers; Heb., Men that searched, or spied their opportunities of making the best of their commodities.

And of the traffic of the spice merchants.] Far sweeter matter to make gain of than e lotio, as Vespasian; to whom dulcis erat odor lucri ex re qualibet.

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on 1 Kings 10:15". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/1-kings-10.html. 1865-1868.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

Of the merchantmen, Heb. of the searchers, or spies, i.e. either merchants, who use to inquire and search out commodities, and all advantages of trade; or rather, the publicans or gatherers of the king’s revenues, who used to search narrowly into all wares and dealings, that the king might not be defrauded of his rights.

Of the spice merchants, or rather, of the merchants in general, as that word is oft used in Eze 27, and elsewhere. So this and the former particular contain both the branches of the king’s revenue, what he had from the land and fruits thereof, and what he had from the merchants and traders in other commodities.

Of all the kings of Arabia, to wit, of those parts of Arabia which were next to Canaan, which were either conquered by David, or submitted to pay tribute to Solomon. But we must not think all these to be kings of large dominions, but many of them only governors of cities, and the territories belonging to them, such as were formerly in Canaan, and were anciently called kings. Of the country, or, of the land, or, of that land, for there is an article in the Hebrew; i.e. either of the land of Canaan; or rather, of the land of Arabia; whereof some parts were so far conquered, that he had governors of his own over them, who were each of them to take care of the king’s revenue in his jurisdiction; and part only so far that they still had kings of their own, but such as were tributaries to him.

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on 1 Kings 10:15". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/1-kings-10.html. 1685.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

15.Merchantmen’ spice merchants — The difference between the two is difficult to determine. The rendering, spice merchant is unauthorized by any thing in the original word. But here, perhaps, the two words are used in the general sense of wholesale and retail traffickers.

All the kings of Arabia — Whose provinces bordered upon the south of Palestine, and were tributary to the kingdom of Israel. Compare 2 Chronicles 17:11 and Jeremiah 25:25, where kings of Arabia and kings of the mingled people are associated, and designated by the same word.

Governors Prefects; another name for the officers described at chap. 1 Kings 4:7. On the origin of the word, see note on 2 Kings 18:34.

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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on 1 Kings 10:15". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/1-kings-10.html. 1874-1909.

Joseph Benson's Commentary of the Old and New Testaments

1 Kings 10:15. Besides that he had of the merchant-men — Who paid custom for the goods they brought from divers countries. Hebrew, מאנשׁי התרים, meanshee hattarim, from the men, the searchers. Merchants may be so called, because they search for commodities and articles of traffic. Or rather, the gatherers of the king’s revenues are intended, who used to search narrowly into all wares, that the king might not be defrauded of his rights. Of the traffic of the spice-merchants — Or rather, of the merchants in general, as the word רכלים, rochelim, is continually used; for there is no reason why it should be confined to those that traded in spices. Of all the kings of Arabia — Who sent him presents. We must not suppose that these in general were kings of large dominions; most of them were only rulers of cities, and the territories belonging to them, such as were formerly in Canaan, and were anciently called kings. And of the governors of the country — Or, of the land, namely, the land of Arabia; some parts of which were so far conquered, that he had governors of his own placed over them, each of whom was to take care of the king’s revenue in his jurisdiction; and some parts only so far, that they still had kings of their own, but such as were tributaries to him.

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Benson, Joseph. "Commentary on 1 Kings 10:15". Joseph Benson's Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rbc/1-kings-10.html. 1857.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

Merchants: wholesale. (Menochius) --- Arabia, the desert, which was peopled by various nations. Arab means, "a mixture, or assemblage," as well as "the night, and a fruitless country." Septuagint seem to have read abor, "all the kings of the other side" the Euphrates, who were also called Arabs. See chap. iv. 24. --- Country around Judea, comprising the Phylarchs of Arabia, (Genesis xvii. 20.) and the Philistine Satraps.

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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on 1 Kings 10:15". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/1-kings-10.html. 1859.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

Beside that he had of the merchantmen, and of the traffick of the spice merchants, and of all the kings of Arabia, and of the governors of the country. Governors - [ pachowt (Hebrew #6346). The Septuagint renders it by: satrapoon]. 'Is this a foreign word, having a Semitic status constructus, and the plural pachoth? The word pechah is remarkable from its early reception into Hebrew, having become a title of some "governors" in Solomon's outlying dominions. For in that they are mentioned both here and 2 Chronicles 9:14, in union with the kings of "Arabia," as persons who supplied a yearly quantity of gold in addition to his regular revenue, and this in connection with that derived from the merchants, it is in itself probable that "the pachoth of the land" were governors set over the outlying country beyond Judea proper, (cf. 1 Kings 20:4; 2 Kings 18:24-34; Esther 8:9; Esther 9:3; Ezra 5:3; Ezra 6:6; Ezra 8:36; Nehemiah 11:7; Nehemiah 11:9; etc.) It seems to me most probable that Solomon adopted the title as it already existed in the Syrian territories; because it is not said that he placed pechahs, but that they paid him gold. Thus, the name "rajah," is continued in our Indian dominions. If pechah is connected with pashah, the history of the word would be curious' (Note by Max Muller-Pusey, 'On Daniel,' p. 566, 567).

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on 1 Kings 10:15". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/1-kings-10.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(15) The governors of the country.—The word “governor” (pechah) is supposed to be of foreign origin—possibly cognate to the Sanscrit word paksha “friend.” It is used constantly of foreign officers, or satraps: as in 1 Kings 20:24, of the Syrian officers; in 2 Kings 18:24 and Isaiah 36:9, of the Assyrians; in Jeremiah 51:23, of the Babylonians; in Esther 8:9, Nehemiah 5:14; Nehemiah 5:18; Nehemiah 12:26, &c., of the Persians. Hence it would seem to be used here, not for the officers in the land of Israel described in 1 Kings 4, but for governors (Israelite or foreign) in tributary countries: and it may possibly be a word of later origin than the age of Solomon, introduced by the compiler of the book.

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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on 1 Kings 10:15". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/1-kings-10.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Beside that he had of the merchantmen, and of the traffick of the spice merchants, and of all the kings of Arabia, and of the governors of the country.
all the kings
1 Chronicles 9:24; 2 Chronicles 9:13,14; Psalms 72:10; Isaiah 21:13; Galatians 4:25
governors
or, captains.
Reciprocal: Genesis 42:34 - traffic;  Genesis 43:11 - spices;  2 Kings 20:13 - precious things;  Isaiah 39:2 - precious things;  Jeremiah 25:24 - Arabia;  Ezekiel 27:21 - Arabia;  Acts 2:11 - Arabians;  Revelation 18:13 - cinnamon

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on 1 Kings 10:15". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/1-kings-10.html.