Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

1 Kings 5:11

Solomon then gave Hiram 20,000 kors of wheat as food for his household, and twenty kors of beaten oil; thus Solomon would give Hiram year by year.
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Bread;   Commerce;   Contracts;   Cor;   Diplomacy;   Measure;   Temple;   Treaty;   Tyre;   Wheat;   Thompson Chain Reference - Business Life;   Contracts;   Solomon;   Wheat;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Agriculture or Husbandry;   Cedar, the;   Commerce;   Covenants;   Oil;   Temple, the First;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Hiram or Huram;   Tyre or Tyrus;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Judah, tribe and kingdom;   Lebanon;   Oil;   Phoenicia;   Solomon;   Baker Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Ezekiel, Theology of;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Cor;   Wheat;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Alliances;   Asher;   Herod;   Hiram;   Oil;   Phoenice;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Beaten Oil;   Coins;   Hiram;   Kor;   Lebanon;   Oil;   Wages;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Alliance;   Israel;   Oil;   Ships and Boats;   Solomon;   Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Oil ;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Hiram ;   Seasons;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Hiram;   Olive olive-tree;   Solomon;   Smith Bible Dictionary - Alliances;   Hi'ram,;   Weights and Measures;  
Encyclopedias:
Condensed Biblical Cyclopedia - Hebrew Monarchy, the;   International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Agriculture;   Exodus, the;   Measure;   Oil;   Phoenicia;   Solomon;   Trade;   Kitto Biblical Cyclopedia - Alliances;   The Jewish Encyclopedia - Darda;   Wisdom;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

And Solomon gave Hiram, etc. - The information in this verse of the annual stipend paid to Hiram, is deficient, and must be supplied out of 2 Chronicles 2:10. Here twenty thousand measures of wheat, and twenty measures of pure oil, is all that is promised: there, twenty thousand measures of beaten wheat, twenty thousand measures of barley, twenty thousand baths of wine, and twenty thousand baths of oil, is the stipulation; unless we suppose the first to be for Hiram's own family, the latter for his workmen. Instead of twenty measures of oil, the Syriac, Arabic, and Septuagint, have twenty thousand measures, as in Chronicles. In 2 Chron., instead of cors of oil, it is baths. The bath was a measure much less than the cor.

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Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on 1 Kings 5:11". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/1-kings-5.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

The number of measures of wheat was considerably less than Solomon‘s own annual consumption, which exceeded 32,000 cors 1 Kings 4:22; but the small amount of twenty cors of oil, which seems at first sight scarcely to match with the 20,000 cors of wheat, will not appear improbable, if we consider that the oil was to be” pure” - literally “beaten” - i. e., oil extracted from the olives by pounding, and not by means of the press.

Year by year - i. e., during all the years that Solomon was engaged in building and was helped by Hiram.

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Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on 1 Kings 5:11". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/1-kings-5.html. 1870.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

And Solomon gave Hiram twenty thousand measures of wheat for food to his household,.... This measure was the Hebrew measure "cor", or "corus", and, according to Bishop CumberlandF5Scripture Weights and Measures, c. 3. p. 86. , its contents were 17,477 solid inches; it was equal to ten ephahs, each of which held two gallons and an half, and the cor held seventy five wine gallons five pints, and somewhat more; according to someF6Vid. Scheuchzer. Physic. Sacr. p. 517. , what it held was equal to six hundred forty eight Roman pounds; so that twenty thousand of them contained 12,960,000 pounds of wheat:

and twenty measures of pure oil; squeezed out of the olives without breaking them; the same kind of measure is here expressed as before, and the quantity answered to 12,960 Roman pounds; another writerF7Van Till in Cantic. Mosis, p. 54. reckons a cor to contain 1080 Roman pounds; so that Hiram had every year 21,600 pounds of oil. In 2 Chronicles 2:10, it is twenty thousand baths of oil now not to take notice that the measures are different, a bath was but the tenth part of a cor, reference is had to different things; here the writer relates what was given to Hiram for his own family, there what was given to the workmen, where several other things are mentioned besides these:

thus gave Solomon to Hiram year by year: so long as the building lasted, and the workmen were employed; but Abarbinel thinks that he gave it to him as long as he lived, out of his great munificence and liberality.

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
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Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on 1 Kings 5:11". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/1-kings-5.html. 1999.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

food to his household — This was an annual supply for the palace, different from that mentioned in 2 Chronicles 2:10, which was for the workmen in the forests.

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These files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.
This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.
Bibliographical Information
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on 1 Kings 5:11". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/1-kings-5.html. 1871-8.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

And Solomon gave Hiram twenty thousand measures of wheat for food to his household, and twenty measures of pure oil: thus gave Solomon to Hiram year by year.

Measures — Heb. twenty cors pure oil; but in2Chronicles2:10, it is twenty thousand baths of oil. To which there is added twenty thousand measures of barley, and twenty thousand baths of wine. Either therefore, first, he speaks of several things. Or, secondly, he speaks there of what Solomon offered: for it runs thus, I will give; and here of what Hiram accepted. Or, thirdly, the barley, and wine, and twenty thousand baths of common oil, mentioned2Chronicles2:10, must be added to the twenty thousand measures of wheat, and the twenty measures of pure oil here expressed, and the whole sum is to be made up from both places; that book of Chronicles being written to supply and compleat the histories of the books of Samuel, and of the Kings.

Gave Hiram — Either, first, for sustenance to the workmen, during the years wherein they were employed in the cutting down and hewing of timber. Or, for the yearly support of the king's house, during the said time. Thus by the wise disposal of providence, one country has need of another, and is benefited by another, that there may be a mutual correspondence and dependence, to the glory of God our common Parent.

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These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.
Bibliographical Information
Wesley, John. "Commentary on 1 Kings 5:11". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/1-kings-5.html. 1765.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

1 Kings 5:11 And Solomon gave Hiram twenty thousand measures of wheat [for] food to his household, and twenty measures of pure oil: thus gave Solomon to Hiram year by year.

Ver. 11. And Solomon gave Hiram.] Here was fair and faithful dealing on both sides.

In cuius subiere locum fraudesque, delique.

Twenty thousand measures of wheat, &c.] Besides twenty thousand measures of barley, and twenty thousand baths of oil, ordinary oil for the workmen, [2 Chronicles 2:10] twenty thousand baths of wine also, not here mentioned.

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on 1 Kings 5:11". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/1-kings-5.html. 1865-1868.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

1 Kings 5:11. Twenty measures of pure oil In the parallel place, 2 Chronicles 2:10 it is twenty thousand baths of oil, which has the sanction of many of the versions, and seems the most probable reading in this place: and so in the 16th verse, instead of three hundred, it is six hundred in the Chronicles; to which reading the LXX give their authority.

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Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on 1 Kings 5:11". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/1-kings-5.html. 1801-1803.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

Twenty measures of pure oil, Heb. twenty cors

of pure oil; but in 2 Chronicles 2:10, it is twenty thousand baths of oil; to which is there added twenty thousand measures of barley, and twenty thousand baths of wine. Either therefore, first, He speaks of several things, as was now said on 1 Kings 5:9. Or, secondly, He speaks there of what Solomon offered; for it runs thus,

I will give; and here of what Hiram accepted; and accordingly Solomon gave, for it is here said

Solomon gave Hiram. Or, thirdly, The barley, and wine, and twenty thousand baths of common oil, mentioned 2Ch 2, must be added to the twenty thousand measures of wheat, and the twenty measures of pure oil, here expressed, and the whole sum is to be made up from both places; that Book of Chronicles being written to supply and complete the histories of the Books of Samuel and of the Kings.

Thus gave Solomon to Hiram year by year; either, first, For sustenance to the workmen, during the years wherein they were employed in the cutting down and hewing of the timber. Or, secondly, For the yearly support of the king’s house during the said time. And these words being left out in 2Ch 2, may seem to favour their opinion, that these places speak of divers passages, and several recompences, the one given to the king’s house, the other to the labourers, although the argument is not cogent; and this might be omitted there, either because it was sufficiently implied in the nature of the thing, or because it had been plainly expressed here.

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on 1 Kings 5:11". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/1-kings-5.html. 1685.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

11.Twenty thousand measures of wheat — Or twenty thousand cors, about 222,000 bushels.

Pure oil — Or beaten oil, the purest and finest kind, such as came from the olives by mere pounding and not by pressing. This was for Hiram’s household; but besides this, according to 2 Chronicles 2:10, he furnished Hiram’s servants, the hewers, 20,000 cors of beaten wheat, 20,000 cors of barley, 20,000 baths of wine, and 20,000 baths of oil; the last evidently common oil, not the beaten. Hence there is no discrepancy between these passages, for they refer to different things. The land of Israel abounded in grain and oil, while in this respect Phenicia was poor. Compare Acts 12:26.

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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on 1 Kings 5:11". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/1-kings-5.html. 1874-1909.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

Wheat, "ground or beaten." (Hebrew; Paralipomenon) (Haydock) --- By comparing this passage with chap. iv. 22, we may see how much the court of Solomon surpassed that of Hiram. The former consumed 90 measures of flour a day; and 20,000 of wheat sufficed for the Tyrian prince's family a whole year. --- Twenty. It is supposed by many commentators that thousand is to be supplied from the former sentence; as there seems otherwise to be no proportion between the wheat and the oil. (Piscator, &c.) --- The Septuagint, Syriac, &c., read 20,000. (Calmet) --- The Alexandrian copy has not core, but only beth, (Haydock) or "bath," which is a smaller measure, containing 29 pints and something more, (Calmet) or seven gallons, four pints, English wine measure; where the core, or chomer, consisted of 75 gallons, five pints. (Arbuthnot) (Haydock)

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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on 1 Kings 5:11". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/1-kings-5.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

gave. Not the same as 2 Chronicles 2:10. That was for Hiram"s workmen in Lebanon. This was for his royal household at Tyre.

measures. See App-51.

pure = bruised (as in a mortar), not crushed in a press.

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on 1 Kings 5:11". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/1-kings-5.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

And Solomon gave Hiram twenty thousand measures of wheat for food to his household, and twenty measures of pure oil: thus gave Solomon to Hiram year by year.

Food to his household. This was an annual supply for the palace, different from that mentioned in 2 Chronicles 2:10, which was for the workmen in the forests.

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Bibliographical Information
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on 1 Kings 5:11". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/1-kings-5.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(11) Twenty thousand measures of wheat.—This agrees well enough with the calculation in 1 Kings 4:22 of ninety measures a day—something over 32,000 a year—for Solomon’s Court, presumably greater than that of Hiram. But the “twenty measures of oil “—even of the pure refined oil—is so insignificant in comparison, that it seems best to adopt the Greek reading here (agreeing with 2 Chronicles 2:10, and with Josephus) of 20,000 baths, or 2,000 cors, of oil.

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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on 1 Kings 5:11". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/1-kings-5.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

And Solomon gave Hiram twenty thousand measures of wheat for food to his household, and twenty measures of pure oil: thus gave Solomon to Hiram year by year.
measures
Heb. cors.
4:22; *marg:; 2 Chronicles 2:10
twenty measures
"Twenty thousand baths of oil" are mentioned in Chronicles; and the Syriac, Arabic, and Septuagint also have here "twenty thousand measures." But as barley and wine are also spoken of there, it is probable that the wheat mentioned here, and the small quantity of fine oil, were intended for the use of Hiram's own family, while that in Chronicles was for his workmen.
Reciprocal: Genesis 27:28 - plenty;  Deuteronomy 8:8 - wheat;  2 Chronicles 2:15 - which my lord

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on 1 Kings 5:11". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/1-kings-5.html.