Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

2 Kings 16:9

So the king of Assyria listened to him; and the king of Assyria went up against Damascus and captured it, and carried the people of it away into exile to Kir, and put Rezin to death.
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Ahaz;   Armies;   Damascus;   Diplomacy;   Israel, Prophecies Concerning;   Kir;   Rezin;   Syria;   Tiglath-Pileser;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Assyria;   Kings;   Syria;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Damascus;   Kir;   Pekah;   Rezin;   Temple;   Tiglath-Pileser;   Urijah;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Ahaz;   Assyria;   Judah, tribe and kingdom;   Nahum;   Pekah;   Syria;   Treaty;   Baker Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Gods and Goddesses, Pagan;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Damascus;   Isaiah;   Kir;   Pekah;   Rezin;   Tiglath-Pileser Iii.;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Damascus;   Kir;   Medes;   Rezin;   Tiglath Pileser;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Assyria, History and Religion of;   Damascus;   Hezekiah;   Kir;   Tribute;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Ahaz;   Alliance;   Damascus;   Kir;   Rezin;   Tiglath-Pileser;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Ahaz ;   Assyria ;   Damascus;   Immanuel, Emmanuel ;   Kir;   Mahershalalhashbaz ;   Rezin ;   Tiglathpileser, Tilgathpilneser ;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Kir;   Pekah;   Rezin;   Smith Bible Dictionary - Alliances;   Damas'cus,;   Re'zin;   Tig'lath-Pile'ser;   Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Assyria;  
Encyclopedias:
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Ahaz;   Alliance;   Isaiah;   Kir;   Rezin;   Syrians;   Tiglath-Pileser;   Kitto Biblical Cyclopedia - Assyria;   The Jewish Encyclopedia - Cyrene;   Hoshea;   Kir;   Rezin;   Tiglath-Pileser;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

The king of Assyria hearkened unto him - It is said, 2 Chronicles 28:20, that Tilgath-pilneser distressed him, but strengthened him not.

Though he came against the Syrians, and took Damascus, and slew Rezin, yet he did not help Ahaz against the Philistines, nor did he lend him any forces to assist against Israel; and he distressed him by taking the royal treasures, and the treasures of the temple, and did him little service for so great a sacrifice. He helped him a little, but distressed him on the whole.

It appears that, about this time, Pekah king of Israel nearly ruined Judea: it is said, 2 Chronicles 28:6, that he slew one hundred thousand valiant men in one day; and that he carried away captive to Samaria two hundred thousand women and children, and much spoil; but, at the instance of the prophet Oded, these were all sent back, fed and clothed, 2 Chronicles 28:8-16.

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Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on 2 Kings 16:9". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/2-kings-16.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

The submission of Judah, which Ahaz proffered, would be of the utmost importance in connection with any projects that might be entertained of Egyptian conquests. Naturally, Damascus was the first object of attack. It was the head of the confederacy, and it lay nearest to an army descending upon Lower Syria, as all Asiatic armies would descend, from the north. It appears from an inscription of Tiglath-pileser‘s, that Rezin met him in the field, was defeated, and slain. An attack upon Pekah followed. Now probably it was that the entire trans-Jordanic region was overrun: and that the Reubenites, the Gadites, and the half-tribe of Manasseh, were carried into captivity 1 Chronicles 5:26. Megiddo and Dor appear also to have been occupied, and the Arabs of the south chastised. Tiglathpileser then returned to Damascus, where a son of Rezin had assumed the crown; he besieged and took the city, and punished Rezin‘s son with death. Tiglath-pileser appears by one of his inscriptions to have held a court at Damascus, to which it is probable that the tributary kings of the neighborhood were summoned to pay their tributes and do homage for their kingdoms. Among the tributes brought to him at this time, those of Judaea, Edom, Ammon, Moab, Gaza, Ascalon, and Tyre, are mentioned.

Kir - Kir is mentioned by Amos Amos 9:7 as the country from which the Syrians came. It is joined by Isaiah Isaiah 22:6 with Elam or Elymais. Its position can only be conjectured. Perhaps the word designates a region adjoining Elymais, in the extreme southeastern limits of Assyria.

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Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on 2 Kings 16:9". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/2-kings-16.html. 1870.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

And the king of Assyria hearkened unto him,.... Complied with his request:

for the king of Syria went up against Damascus, and took it; the metropolis of the kingdom of Syria, and so made a powerful diversion in favour of the king of Judah:

and carried the people of it captive to Kir; not Cyrene, as the Vulgate Latin version, a country belonging to Egypt, which the king of Assyria had no power over; but a place in upper Media, as JosephusF16Antiqu. l. 9. c. 12. sect. 3. relates, which belonged to the Assyrian king; see Isaiah 22:6, compared with 2 Kings 21:2, of this captivity Amos had prophesied some time before, Amos 1:5.

and slew Rezin; the king of Syria, which also was foretold in the same prophecy.

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
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Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on 2 Kings 16:9". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/2-kings-16.html. 1999.

Keil & Delitzsch Old Testament Commentary

Tiglath-pileser then marched against Damascus, took the city, slew Rezin, and led the inhabitants away to Kir, as Amos had prophesied (Amos 1:3-5). קיר, Kir, from which, according to Amos 9:7, the Aramaeans had emigrated to Syria, is no doubt a district by the river Kur ( Κῦρος, Κύῤῥος ), which taking its rise in Armenia, unites with the Araxes and flows into the Caspian Sea, although from the length of the river Kur it is impossible to define precisely the locality in which they were placed; and the statement of Josephus ( Ant . ix. 13, 3), that the Damascenes were transported εἰς τὴν ἄνω Μηδίαν, is somewhat indefinite, and moreover has hardly been derived from early historical sources (see M. v. Niebuhr, Gesch. Assurs, p. 158). Nothing is said here concerning Tiglath-pileser's invasion of the kingdom of Israel, because this has already been mentioned at 2 Kings 15:29 in the history of Pekah.

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The Keil & Delitzsch Old Testament Commentary is a derivative of a public domain electronic edition.
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Keil, Carl Friedrich & Delitzsch, Franz. "Commentary on 2 Kings 16:9". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/kdo/2-kings-16.html. 1854-1889.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

2 Kings 16:9 And the king of Assyria hearkened unto him: for the king of Assyria went up against Damascus, and took it, and carried [the people of] it captive to Kir, and slew Rezin.

Ver. 9. And carried the people of it captive to Kir.] According to Amos 1:5. This Kir some will have to be that Cyrene mentioned in Acts 2:10; others, Syromedia, which was so called from these Syrians translated thither, and Kir, that is a wall, because walled about, as it were, by the mountain Zagrus.

And slew Rezin.] And so the event of this war proved answerable to the king of Assyria’s ambition, to the king of Syria’s wickedness, and to the king of Judah’s desires; who yet enjoyed it not long; for he was afterwards distressed by the same king of Assyria who now relieved him. [2 Chronicles 28:20] So little is there got at length by such carnal combinations. It is better to trust in the Lord, &c. And here was an end of the kingdom of Damascus, as also of Hamath, [Amos 6:2] of Arpad, [Jeremiah 49:23 Isaiah 10:9; Isaiah 36:19; Isaiah 37:12-13] and other places not a few; all which were swallowed up in the greatness of the Assyrian empire, as itself is now - together with the most glorious empire of the Greeks, the renowned kingdoms of Macedonia, Peloponnesus, Epirus, Bulgaria, Egypt, Judea, &c. - swallowed up in the greatness of the Turkish empire. As for this kingdom of Damascus, it had continued for ten generations, as Nicolaus Damascenus in Josephus (a) affirmeth; and as it began in Rezon, [1 Kings 11:23-24] so in Rezin it ended. The like is observed of the Greek empire: which as it began in Constantine the Great, so it determined in Constantine Paleologus.

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on 2 Kings 16:9". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/2-kings-16.html. 1865-1868.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

2 Kings 16:9. Went up against Damascus In the time of Abraham, Damascus was in being; for it is certain, that one whom he had made free and appointed steward of his house was of Damascus, Genesis 15:2 at the time that he pursued Chedorlaomer, and the five confederate kings as far as Hoba, which lies northward of Damascus; Genesis 14:15. The Scripture says nothing more of this city till the time of David, when Hadad, who, according to Josephus, was the first that took upon him the title of king of Damascus, sending troops to the assistance of king Hadad-ezer, king of Zabah, was himself defeated by David, and his country subdued. Towards the end of Solomon's reign, Rezin recovered the kingdom of Damascus, and shook off the Jewish yoke; 1 Kings 11:23; 1 Kings 11:43. Some time after this, Asa king of Judah implored the help of Ben-hadad king of Damascus against Baasha king of Israel, 1 Kings 15:18.; and from his time the kings of Damascus were generally called Ben-hadad, till, in this last controversy with them, Ahaz called in the assistance of the king of Assyria, who killed their king, and carried his subjects into captivity, according to the prediction of Isaiah, chap. 7: and Amos, chap. 7: See Calmet.

Captive to Kir i.e. Media, as appears in Josephus. Media therefore was yet subject to Assyria, which destroys the credit of the Ctesian kings of Media, who, as he reports, having revolted from and beaten Sardanapalus, had now reigned a long time, Arbaces being the first of them; whereas Herodotus makes Dejoces the first. See chap. 2 Kings 17:6.

REFLECTIONS.—1st, Ahaz, the son of pious Jotham, degenerated greatly from the steps of his holy ancestors. The idolatry of Israel pleased him better than the pure worship of Judah; and Molech is preferred to the glorious Jehovah. He sacrifices on the high places, which his fathers, though they left them, had never used; and, as if unsatisfied with lesser abominations, made his own son pass between, or through, the fires of lustration, to the honour of his hateful idols. Note; (1.) They who provoke God to give them up, lose every natural affection, and turn monsters instead of men. (2.) The desperate wickedness of the heart of man, when left to itself, who can know?

2nd, The sin of Ahaz soon brought him into deep distress, Isaiah 7:2. His country was ravaged, Elath lost, and his capital besieged by the confederate forces of Syria and Israel. Yet, far from having recourse to God, or depending on his promises, Isaiah 7:4-16 he rather trusted in an arm of flesh; and, to engage the king of Assyria to make a diversion in his favour, robbed the house of God of the dedicated treasures, impoverished his own, and professed himself the vassal of an idolatrous Assyrian, rather than be the servant of the King of kings, who was so much better able to deliver him. The project succeeded: the king of Syria was slain, his capital taken, and his people led captive to Kir, as foretold Amos 1:5. Note; (1.) God is the last resource that a sinner will fly to. (2.) They who cast off God's government make themselves quickly the worst of slaves. (3.) When men by their wickedness involve themselves in trouble, they will scarcely stop at any fraud or injustice to extricate themselves from it.

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Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on 2 Kings 16:9". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/2-kings-16.html. 1801-1803.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

Against Damascus, the metropolis of the Syrians, and the head of that kingdom, Isaiah 7:8; as was prophesied, Amos 1:5.

Kir; not Kir of Moab, Isaiah 15:1, but a part of Media, which then was subject to the king of Assyria.

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on 2 Kings 16:9". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/2-kings-16.html. 1685.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

9.Went up against Damascus — Which was the “head,” or capital of Syria. See Isaiah 7:8.

Took it — Captured the city.

Kir — This place is mentioned again at Isaiah 22:6; Amos 1:5; Amos 9:7; but it does not appear from any of these notices whether it was a city or a district, and its locality is unknown. Some think a trace of the name still lingers in the river Kur, which rises in the mountains of Caucasus and flows into the Caspian Sea. But this seems too far north, and it is doubtful whether that region ever belonged to Assyria.

Slew Rezin — This defeat crushed for centuries the prosperity and independence of Damascus, and utterly destroyed the kingdom of Syria. A mutilated inscription now in the British Museum contains a notice of the defeat and death of this last of the Syrian kings; and among the sculptures lately discovered at Nineveh is one that is thought to be a representation of the final siege of Damascus and the captivity of its inhabitants.

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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on 2 Kings 16:9". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/2-kings-16.html. 1874-1909.

Joseph Benson's Commentary of the Old and New Testaments

2 Kings 16:9. And carried the people of it captive to Kir — Not Kir of Moab, (Isaiah 15:1,) but a part of Media, which was then subject to the king of Assyria. It is remarkable, that this taking of Damascus, and carrying the inhabitants of it captive to this place, nay, and the slaying of Rezin the king, was expressly foretold by Amos some time before it happened. See the margin.

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Benson, Joseph. "Commentary on 2 Kings 16:9". Joseph Benson's Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rbc/2-kings-16.html. 1857.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

Cyrene, not in Egypt, where he had no power, but near the river Cyrus, (Calmet) in higher Media. (Josephus) --- Hebrew, "and took it and carried the inhabitants captives to Kir," (Haydock) whence the Syrians had come originally, Amos ix. 7. Arbaces, who had dismembered Media from the Assyrians empire, was now dead, and the king of Nineve had retaken several cities, occupying Rages, &c., (Tobias i. 16., &c.) before Dejoces mounted the throne, and extended the empire of the Medes. (Usher) --- The people of Sepharvaim lived also on the borders of Media, chap. xviii. 11.

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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on 2 Kings 16:9". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/2-kings-16.html. 1859.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

And the king of Assyria hearkened unto him: for the king of Assyria went up against Damascus, and took it, and carried the people of it captive to Kir, and slew Rezin.

The king of Assyria hearkened unto him. Thus, Ahaz and his people were delivered from impending danger; but it was at an immense sacrifice, as they found afterward (see the notes at 2 Chronicles 28:20). [The Septuagint, Alexandrine, has Kureeneen; but Cyrene was in Africa.]

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Bibliographical Information
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on 2 Kings 16:9". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/2-kings-16.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(9) Went up against Damascus, and took it.—We learn from the inscriptions that Damascus stood a two years’ siege. (The Eponym-list makes Tiglath Pileser march against Damascus for two successive years, namely 733 and 732 B.C. )

Carried the people of it captive to Kir.—(Comp. Amos 1:5; Amos 9:7.) The name Kir is not found in the fragmentary remains of the annals of Tiglath Pileser. Schrader (p. 261 seq.) gives a mutilated inscription, apparently relating to the fall of Damascus.

And slew Rezin.—Sir H. Rawlinson found this fact recorded on a tablet of Tiglath Pileser’s, since unfortunately lost. In the inscription just referred to Tiglath says: “I entered the gate of his city; his chief officers alive [I took, and] on stakes I caused to lift them up” (i.e., impaled them).

Kir was the aboriginal home of the Arameans, according to Amos 9:7. It is mentioned along with Elam in Isaiah 22:6. “It has been generally identified with the district by the river Cyrus (the modern Georgia). But, besides the linguistic objection pointed out by Delitzsch (Qir cannot be equivalent to Kúr), it appears that the Assyrian empire never extended to the Cyrus. We must, therefore, consider Kir to be a part of Mesopotamia.” (Cheyne.)

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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on 2 Kings 16:9". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/2-kings-16.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

And the king of Assyria hearkened unto him: for the king of Assyria went up against Damascus, and took it, and carried the people of it captive to Kir, and slew Rezin.
A. M. 3264. B.C. 740. went up
2 Chronicles 28:5
Foretold
Amos 1:3-5
Damascus
Heb. Dammesek. Kir. Josephus informs us that this place was in Upper Media; and it is clear that it must be understood of some city or country in the dominions of the king of Assyria. It is highly probable that it was the country on the banks of the river [Kuros] Cyrus, or Kyrus, now called Kur, or Kura; and we find cities called Cyropolis, Cyrena, and Carine, mentioned by writers as lying in these parts, and a part of Media, called Syromedia, as it is thought, from the Syrians who were carried captive thither.
Isaiah 22:6; Amos 9:7
slew Rezin
Isaiah 7:16; 9:11
Reciprocal: 2 Kings 19:17 - the kings;  Isaiah 8:4 - the riches of Damascus;  Isaiah 10:9 - Samaria;  Isaiah 17:1 - Damascus is;  Isaiah 17:3 - fortress;  Isaiah 37:18 - the kings;  Amos 1:5 - the people;  Amos 3:12 - in Damascus in a couch

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on 2 Kings 16:9". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/2-kings-16.html.