Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

2 Kings 21:16

Moreover, Manasseh shed very much innocent blood until he had filled Jerusalem from one end to another; besides his sin with which he made Judah sin, in doing evil in the sight of the Lord .
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Homicide;   Israel, Prophecies Concerning;   Manasseh;   Rulers;   Thompson Chain Reference - Blood;   Innocent Blood;   Manasseh;   The Topic Concordance - Evil;   Idolatry;   Violence;   Wickedness;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Kings;   Murder;  
Dictionaries:
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Justice;   King;   Manasseh, king of judah;   Zephaniah;   Baker Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Amos, Theology of;   Gods and Goddesses, Pagan;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Manasseh;   Persecution;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Isaiah;   Kings, the Books of;   Manasseh (2);   Uzziah;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Apocrypha;   Baal;   Isaiah, Martyrdom of;   Kings, 1 and 2;   Manasseh;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Chronicles, I;   Israel;   Text, Versions, and Languages of Ot;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Manasseh ;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Manasseh;  
Encyclopedias:
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Judge;   Shebna;   Zephaniah, Book of;   The Jewish Encyclopedia - Isaiah, Ascension of;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

Shed innocent blood very much - Like the deities he worshipped, he was fierce and cruel; an unprincipled, merciless tyrant: he slew innocent people and God's prophets.

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Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on 2 Kings 21:16". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/2-kings-21.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

Compare Jeremiah 2:30; Hebrews 11:37; Isaiah 57:1-4. According to tradition, Isaiah was among the first to perish. More than a century afterward, the final judgment upon Jerusalem was felt to be in an special way the punishment of Manasseh‘s bloody persecution of God‘s people (marginal reference).

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Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on 2 Kings 21:16". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/2-kings-21.html. 1870.

Coffman Commentaries on the Bible

THE REPORT OF MANASSEH'S DEATH AND BURIAL

"Moreover Manasseh shed innocent blood very much, till he had filled Jerusalem from one end to another; besides his sin wherewith he made Judah to sin in doing that which was evil in the sight of Jehovah. Now the rest of the acts of Manasseh, and all that he did, and his sin that he sinned, are they not written in the chronicles of the kings of Judah? And Manasseh slept with his fathers, and was buried in the garden of his own house, in the garden of Uzza; and Amon his son reigned in his stead."

"According to an old Jewish legend, which is probably referred to in Hebrews 11:37, the prophet Isaiah was executed by Manasseh by being sawn in two."[17]

It is also significant that Manasseh's successor, his son, was named Amon, the same being the name of an Egyptian god. "Thebes, a capital of Egypt, was the holy city of Amon; and in his honor, they called themselves No-Amon (Nahum 3:8). He was, in some sense, the god of the wind and of certain powers of generation."[18]

"He shed innocent blood very much, ..." (2 Kings 21:16). It is significant that this is specifically mentioned here, and "It indicates some culminating horror, something not mentioned before; and these conditions are answered by supposing that the reference is to a bloody persecution of the righteous in Jerusalem."[19] Josephus mentioned that persecution.

"Setting out from a contempt of God, he barbarously slew all the righteous men that were among the Hebrews; nor would he spare the prophets, for every day he slew some of them, until Jerusalem was overflown with blood."[20]

In 2 Chronicles 33, there is a report of Manasseh's repentance, following his capture and deportation to Assyria and his subsequent return to his throne; but, since the author of Kings ignored that event, we shall also defer any discussion of it until our Commentary on Chronicles.

The report of Manasseh's death and burial "in his own house," is explained by scholars as either (1) due to the sepulchre of the kings of Judah being full, or (2) to the refusal of the people to allow such an honor to such a wicked king. We cannot see that it makes much difference. We find it difficult to accept Matthew Henry's opinion that, "Due to his repentance, and his humiliation because of the realization of all his sins, he was buried in the garden of his own house, by his own order, counting himself unworthy to be buried in the tombs of David and the other kings."[21] This is a very charitable view, but we doubt the validity of it.

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Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.
Bibliographical Information
Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on 2 Kings 21:16". "Coffman Commentaries on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/2-kings-21.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

Moreover, Manasseh shed innocent blood very much,.... Putting to death the prophets that reproved him and his people for their idolatries, and such who would not comply therewith; and it is commonly said, both by Jewish and Christian writers, that Isaiah was slain, and even sawn asunder by him; see Gill on Hebrews 11:37,

till he had filled Jerusalem from one end to another; a metaphor taken from filling a vessel brimful:

beside his sin wherewith he made Judah to sin, in doing that which was evil in the sight of the Lord; the sin of idolatry he drew them into, and even obliged them to commit.

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855
Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on 2 Kings 21:16". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/2-kings-21.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

Moreover Manasseh shed s innocent blood very much, till he had filled Jerusalem from one end to another; beside his sin wherewith he made Judah to sin, in doing [that which was] evil in the sight of the LORD.

(s) The Hebrews write that he slew Isaiah the prophet, who was his father-in-law.
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Bibliographical Information
Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on 2 Kings 21:16". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/2-kings-21.html. 1599-1645.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

Moreover Manasseh shed innocent blood — Not content with the patronage and the practice of idolatrous abomination, he was a cruel persecutor of all who did not conform. The land was deluged with the blood of good men; among whom it is traditionally said Isaiah suffered a horrid death, by being sawn asunder (see on Hebrews 11:37).

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These files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.
This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.
Bibliographical Information
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on 2 Kings 21:16". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/2-kings-21.html. 1871-8.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Moreover Manasseh shed innocent blood very much, till he had filled Jerusalem from one end to another; beside his sin wherewith he made Judah to sin, in doing that which was evil in the sight of the LORD.

Blood — The blood of those prophets and righteous men who either reproved his sinful practices, or refused to comply with his wicked commands.

His sin — His idolatry, which is called sin, by way of eminency. The tradition of the Jews is, that he caused Isaiah in particular to be sawn asunder.

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These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.
Bibliographical Information
Wesley, John. "Commentary on 2 Kings 21:16". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/2-kings-21.html. 1765.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

2 Kings 21:16 Moreover Manasseh shed innocent blood very much, till he had filled Jerusalem from one end to another; beside his sin wherewith he made Judah to sin, in doing [that which was] evil in the sight of the LORD.

Ver. 16. Moreover, Manasseh shed innocent blood very much.] This tiger laid hold with his teeth on all the excellent spirits of his time, as one (a) well saith of Tiberius Stimulatus est ab insurgente diabolo, saith an ancient, He was spurred on by that old man-slayer the devil, to murder the prophets and other godly people that disliked his sinful courses. Epiphanius saith that the prophet Isaiah suffered death under him; and the Rabbis tell us why: sc., because (1.) He said he had seen the Lord upon his throne; [Isaiah 6:1] and, (2.) Because he called the great ones of Judah princes of Sodom and rulers of Gomorrah. [Isaiah 1:10] (b) More likely it was for his bold inveighing against the sins of both the king and people, calling them {as Isaiah 57:3} witches’ children, and a bastardly brood; as "Esaias was very bold," saith St Paul. [Romans 10:20]

Till he had filled Jerusalem from one end to another.] A metaphor from vessels brim full: or from a flood that overfloweth all. And now "how was the faithful city become a harlot! it was full of judgment," sc., in good Hezekiah’s days "righteonsness lodged in it, but now murderers," Manasseh and his bloody assassins. [Isaiah 1:21]

Besides his sin.] His idolatry, whereto he first persuaded the people, and afterwards compelled them: so did Julian.

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on 2 Kings 21:16". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/2-kings-21.html. 1865-1868.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

2 Kings 21:16. Manasseh shed innocent blood Among the rest of the prophets and other innocent persons put to death by Manasseh, Isaiah is generally numbered, who is said to have been sawn asunder with a wooden saw, to which the author of the epistle to the Hebrews is thought to allude, Hebrews 11:37.

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Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on 2 Kings 21:16". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/2-kings-21.html. 1801-1803.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

Innocent blood; the blood of those prophets and righteous men who either reproved his sinful practices, or refused to comply with his wicked commands and worship.

Beside his sin, i.e. his idolatry, which is elsewhere called evil, and corruption, and here sin, by way of eminency; which is the more considerable, because it is here compared with horrid cruelty, and implied to be worse than that, and more abominable in God’s sight, because it doth more directly and immediately strike at the glory and purity of the Divine Majesty, by respect unto which all sins are to be measured. And this expression God here useth in opposition to the gross error of most men, who look upon idolatry as a small sin, as a mere mistake of the mind, as the fruit of a good intention, and as an excess proceeding from zeal in religion.

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on 2 Kings 21:16". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/2-kings-21.html. 1685.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

16.Shed innocent blood — Probably of those prophets (comp. 2 Kings 21:10) who reproved his sins and uttered the word of the Lord against him. Josephus says, “He barbarously slew all the righteous men that were among the Hebrews; nor would he spare the prophets, for he every day slew some of them, till Jerusalem was overflown with blood.” It was during the reign of Manasseh, according to Jewish tradition, that Isaiah was sawn asunder. Hebrews 11:37.

Besides his sin — That is, especially, his abominable idolatry.

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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on 2 Kings 21:16". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/2-kings-21.html. 1874-1909.

Joseph Benson's Commentary of the Old and New Testaments

2 Kings 21:16. Moreover, Manasseh shed innocent blood — The blood of those prophets, and other righteous men, who either reproved his sinful practices, or refused to comply with his wicked commands. The tradition of the Jews is, that he caused Isaiah, in particular, to be sawn asunder, and that by a wooden saw, to which the author of the epistle to the Hebrews is thought to allude, Hebrews 11:37. Besides his sin, wherewith he made Judah to sin — That is, his idolatry, which is elsewhere called evil and corruption, and here sin, by way of eminency; which is the more remarkable, because it is here compared with horrid cruelty, and implied to be worse than it, and more abominable in God’s sight, because it more directly and immediately struck at the glory and the purity of the Divine Majesty, by respect unto which all sins are to be measured.

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Benson, Joseph. "Commentary on 2 Kings 21:16". Joseph Benson's Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rbc/2-kings-21.html. 1857.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

Mouth. Chaldean, "extremity." All was full of blood, and impure idols, ver. 11. --- Besides, (absque) "without" mentioning his other scandalous sins of idolatry.

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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on 2 Kings 21:16". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/2-kings-21.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

innocent blood. Tradition says that Isaiah was one who suffered martyrdom (Jos. Ant. x. 2 Kings 3:1).

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on 2 Kings 21:16". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/2-kings-21.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

Moreover Manasseh shed innocent blood very much, till he had filled Jerusalem from one end to another; beside his sin wherewith he made Judah to sin, in doing that which was evil in the sight of the LORD.

Moreover Manasseh shed innocent blood. Not content with the patronage and the practice of idolatrous abominations, he was a cruel persecutor of all who did not conform. The land was deluged with the blood of good men, among whom, it is traditionally said, Isaiah suffered a horrid death, by being sawn asunder (see the notes at Hebrews 11:37).

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Bibliographical Information
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on 2 Kings 21:16". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/2-kings-21.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(16) Moreover Manasseh shed innocent blood . . .—The narrative is taken up again from 2 Kings 21:9. The “innocent blood” shed by Manasseh was that of the prophets of Jehovah and their followers. “As the nation fell back into the grooves of its old existence, ancient customs began to reassert their sway. The worship which the prophets condemned, and which Hezekiah had proscribed, was too deeply interwoven with all parts of life to be uprooted by royal decree, and the old prejudice of the country folk against the capital, so clearly apparent in (the pages of the prophet) Micah, must have co-operated with superstition to bring about the strong revulsion against the new reforms which took place under Hezekiah’s son, Manasseh. A bloody struggle ensued between the conservative party and the followers of the prophets, and the new king was on the side of the reaction (Robertson Smith). Talmudic tradition relates that Isaiah himself was sawn asunder in the trunk of a cedar tree in which he had taken refuge. (Comp. Hebrews 11:37. This is, perhaps, not impossible, but hardly probable. Ewald considers that Jeremiah 2:30, Psalms 141:7, and Isaiah 53, allude to the persecution of the prophets by Manasseh.

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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on 2 Kings 21:16". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/2-kings-21.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Moreover Manasseh shed innocent blood very much, till he had filled Jerusalem from one end to another; beside his sin wherewith he made Judah to sin, in doing that which was evil in the sight of the LORD.
Manasseh
24:3,4; Numbers 35:33; Deuteronomy 21:8,9; Jeremiah 2:34; 7:6; 15:4; 19:4; Matthew 23:30,31; Matthew 27:6; Luke 13:34; Hebrews 11:37
one end to another
Heb. mouth to mouth. beside his sin.
7,11; Exodus 32:21; 1 Kings 14:15,16; 2 Chronicles 33:9
Reciprocal: Exodus 20:13 - GeneralDeuteronomy 19:10 - General2 Kings 21:2 - And he did;  Ezra 9:11 - one end to another;  Psalm 10:8 - sitteth;  Psalm 106:38 - shed;  Proverbs 28:15 - so;  Jeremiah 32:31 - this city;  Jeremiah 51:5 - though;  Ezekiel 7:23 - for;  Ezekiel 8:17 - for;  Ezekiel 9:9 - and the land;  Ezekiel 11:6 - GeneralEzekiel 16:47 - thou wast;  Ezekiel 22:2 - bloody city;  Ezekiel 22:4 - that thou;  Ezekiel 24:6 - Woe;  Ezekiel 34:3 - ye kill;  Matthew 23:35 - upon;  Luke 3:20 - General

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Bibliographical Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on 2 Kings 21:16". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/2-kings-21.html.