Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

2 Kings 23:22

Surely such a Passover had not been celebrated from the days of the judges who judged Israel, nor in all the days of the kings of Israel and of the kings of Judah.
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Israel, Prophecies Concerning;   Josiah;   Passover;   Thompson Chain Reference - Feast;   Feasts;   Hebrew;   Passover;   Unleavened Bread;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Feast of the Passover, the;   Zeal;  
Dictionaries:
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Jeremiah;   Zephaniah;   Baker Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Gods and Goddesses, Pagan;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Jeremiah;   Josiah;   Pentateuch;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Ezekiel;   Festivals;   Kings, 1 and 2;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Canon of the Old Testament;   Hexateuch;   Hilkiah;   Idolatry;   Passover and Feast of Unleavened Bread;   Temple;   Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Passover (I.);   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Josiah ;   The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Raca;  
Encyclopedias:
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Josiah;   The Jewish Encyclopedia - Aquila (Β;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

Surely there was not holden such a passover - Not one on purer principles, more heartily joined in by the people present, more literally consecrated, or more religiously observed. The words do not apply to the number present, but to the manner and spirit. See the particulars and mode of celebrating this passover in 2 Chronicles 35:1-18 (note).

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Bibliographical Information
Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on 2 Kings 23:22". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/2-kings-23.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

The details of the Passover are given by the author of Chronicles (the marginal reference). Its superiority to other Passovers seems to have consisted:

(1) in the multitudes that attended it; and

(2) in the completeness with which all the directions of the Law were observed in the celebration. Compare Nehemiah 8:17.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Bibliographical Information
Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on 2 Kings 23:22". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/2-kings-23.html. 1870.

The Biblical Illustrator

2 Kings 23:22

Surely there was not holden such a Passover.

Sincerity of repentance

There is something very striking and melancholy in these words. The children of Israel celebrated their last Passover, all being together, and in such a manner as had not been known since the earlier and better days of their possession of the promised land. It was, in fact, the last repentance of God’s people, and a lively repentance it seems to have been, to judge from outward tokens. But, alas! it did not continue. Three times already before this, God’s people had publicly repented, under the direction of pious princes, which were Jehoshaphat, Jehoash, Hezekiah. But now the appointed punisher of their sins was openly manifested to their sight in the terrible King of Babylon. And like the sick man with death before his eyes, they made earnest protestations of repentance and amendment if God would spare them, and sealed them with the celebration of the Sacrament of the Paschal Supper. Here, then, is before us the example of a fourth publicly professed repentance, and as ineffectual as the three that went before. Should it not lead us to take very close and scrutinising views of repentance, and to conclude that there must be something in it besides the present feeling of shame and sorrow, however sharp and lively that may be? There must be some abiding feeling in it, which shame and sorrow naturally are not. For the very sense of them drives us to rid ourselves of them by all means. What then can that be? What does God demand beyond the broken heart? Nothing, if it be indeed broken in His name. But here lies the question. Which does the man think most of, his own personal danger, or God’s damaged glory? Which does he lament most, his own loss, or God’s rejected love? Has he renounced the sinful selfishness of his nature? A man may keep this, and yet be overwhelmed with shame and sorrow; he may retain this, and yet manifest the most lively outward marks of repentance. So did Israel; and was led by it into his sins again, and they led him to the final judgment which came upon his head. Here is the cause of so many apparent repentances in the course of a man’s life. Selfish sorrow, selfish shame have wrung his heart, and terrified his conscience. But he has not gone beyond self. He has seen, indeed, the miserable disorder which his sins have wrought in himself in body and in mind. But has he looked out and up to see the miserable disorder which they have also wrought in God’s work of love; how they have obscured the brightness of His glory, how they have shaken the faith of His Church, as far as His sphere extends; and who shall tell how far it extends? Here is the principle that is so commonly wanting; here is that which Israel lacked, the heavenly spirit, and not the earthly dregs only. When the heart has thus been lifted out of itself, divested of its earthliness and carnality, and has risen into heaven to see the majesty which it has affronted, the love which it has rejected, the glory which it has blasphemed, and thence also looks down again upon the scenes of its sin and mischief amongst God’s works and people, and sees them with a clear and sharp eye, and lively and enlightened conscience, as becomes a look from above--then, and not until then, a real repentance has taken place. Such repentance will abide in its effects. In such the heart of the man is changed, so that he has foregone his old appetites, and, therefore, is out of the way of temptation from his old sins. Even though it should force itself upon his sight, he will not allow it to gain his attention, but turn away from it with a stern watchfulness against its ensnaring deceitfulness. He sees in it the art of the enemy of the God whom he serves, of the Redeemer whom he loves, of the Holy Spirit whose guidance he follows. And such repentance, therefore, is both the first and the last. But Israel, we see, made at least four several professions of repentance; and so have many done since. The more frequent they have been, of course the less sincere they have been. And such repentances are more a proof of the folly and selfishness of the man, than of any right and spiritual feeling. They are but the sorrow for having come in for the penalty of his sin at last. And, as soon as the infliction shall have been removed, he is ready to sin again. And, indeed, after each successive fit, he is but the more ready, because he wishes to drown the voice of conscience, which exclaims against his yielding again to the old temptation; and it is drowned amid his shouts of enjoyment, until the hour of penalty comes round again; then the note is that of lamentation again. Why, what affronting of the majesty of God Almighty is here! So little can the penitent himself depend upon a repentance which does not begin until God’s judgment is at hand. How can a heart which he has taught to cheat him continually, and which, at all events, has never been diligently schooled in spiritual discernment; how shall this, at a moment, too, of such confusion, at a time, too, when it is so deeply interested in coming to the more joyful conclusion; how can it, with any certainty, distinguish the sorrow and fear which arose from the love of self, now that he is in Such danger, from the love of God, now that He is resorted to after long forgetfulness? Wilt it not be too glad to mistake the fear for the love? Will not, indeed, the fear most certainly be there? All this tells us, what a broken reed men lean upon who trust in a last sickness to any feeling of repentance which they have not felt and cherished in the time of their health. Then judgment was far off, and God was sought therefore from love rather than from fear. Health is the time of strength, for the spirit no less than for the body. Let health, then, be the season of true repentance, and sickness will be the season of comfort, and the hour of death the season of well-founded hope. (R. W. Evans, B. D.)

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Exell, Joseph S. "Commentary on "2 Kings 23:22". The Biblical Illustrator. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tbi/2-kings-23.html. 1905-1909. New York.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

Surely there was not holden such a passover from the days of the judges that judged Israel,.... As the king commanded; the people obeyed and kept the passover, according to the law of the Lord; the manner of its being kept is not here recorded, but is at large in 2 Chronicles 35:1 where it is observed there had not been such an one from the days of Samuel, the last of the judges; so that the days of the judges here mean the last days of them:

nor in all the days of the kings of Israel, nor of the kings of Judah; since the division of the kingdoms; for as for the kings of Israel, they kept it not; and though it was observed in the times of Hezekiah king of Judah, yet not universally, and by some in their uncleanness; for it is a mistake of Clemens of AlexandriaF23Stromat. l. 1. p. 328. , that it was not kept in the times between Samuel and Josiah; in the days of David and Solomon it might be kept by greater numbers, but not with such purity, and with such cheerfulness and joy of heart, or with so many other sacrifices attending it, or so exactly agreeable to the law of God, and with such munificence and liberality; the king, and the chief of the priests and Levites, providing out of their own substance for the people and their brethren.

Copyright Statement
The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855
Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on 2 Kings 23:22". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/2-kings-23.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

Surely there was not holden q such a passover from the days of the judges that judged Israel, nor in all the days of the kings of Israel, nor of the kings of Judah;

(q) For the multitude and zeal of the people with the great preparation.
Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on 2 Kings 23:22". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/2-kings-23.html. 1599-1645.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Surely there was not holden such a passover from the days of the judges that judged Israel, nor in all the days of the kings of Israel, nor of the kings of Judah;

Such a passover — Celebrated with such solemn care, and great preparation, and numerous sacrifices, and universal joy of all good men; which was much the greater, because of their remembrance of the former wicked and miserable times under Manasseh, and Amon; and the good hopes they now had of the happy establishment of their nation, and the true religion; and of the prevention of God's judgments denounced against them.

Judges — Or, from the days of Samuel, the last of the judges; as it is expressed2Chronicles35:18. None of the kings had taken such care to prepare themselves, the priests, and people, and accurately to observe all the rites, and diligently to purge out all uncleanness, and to renew their covenant with God. And undoubtedly God was pleased to recompense their zeal in destroying idolatry with uncommon tokens of his presence and favour. All this concurred to make it such a passover as had not been, even in the days of Hezekiah.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.
Bibliographical Information
Wesley, John. "Commentary on 2 Kings 23:22". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/2-kings-23.html. 1765.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

2 Kings 23:22 Surely there was not holden such a passover from the days of the judges that judged Israel, nor in all the days of the kings of Israel, nor of the kings of Judah;

Ver. 22. Surely there was not holden such a passover,] viz., For concourse of people, and solemnity of the service. Tremellius rendereth it thus: Although there was not holden such a passover as this, viz., with such preparation, devotion, and reformation of religion; yet, [2 Kings 23:26] "God turned not away from his wrath," &c., as being implacably bent and unchangeably resolved upon their utter ruin.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Trapp, John. "Commentary on 2 Kings 23:22". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/2-kings-23.html. 1865-1868.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

2 Kings 23:22. Surely there was not holden such a passover, &c.— These words, taken in a literal sense, must denote that this passover, which was celebrated by two tribes only, was more numerous and more magnificent, than all those that were observed in the days of David and Solomon, in the most happy and flourishing states of the Jewish monarchy, and when the whole twelve tribes were met together to solemnize that feast. It may not be amiss therefore to allow, that in these expressions there is a kind of auxesis or exaggeration not unusual in sacred as well as in profane authors: for, nothing is more common than to say, never was so much splendour and magnificence seen, when we mean no more than that the thing we speak of, was very splendid and magnificent: unless we suppose with some, that a preference is given to this passover above all the rest, on account of the exact observation of the rites and ceremonies belonging to it, which at other times were performed according to custom, and several things either altered or omitted; whereas at this, every thing was performed according to the prescribed form of the law, from which, since the finding of the authentic copy of it before mentioned, Josiah enjoined them not to vary a tittle. See Calmet and Le Clerc.

REFLECTIONS.—1st, To avert, if possible, the threatened wrath, Josiah, with earnest solicitude, seeks the reformation of the people.

1. In a general assembly of the elders, priests, prophets, and people, convened on purpose for the occasion, he himself, as it seems, read in their ears the words of the book found in the house of the Lord, that it might more deeply engage their attention.

2. The book of the covenant being rehearsed, the tenor of which was, that on their fidelity they were assured of God's blessing, the king, to encourage and engage the people, solemnly, as in the presence of God, declared his purpose of walking after the Lord, in all the ways of his instituted worship, and observing all his commandments moral, judicial, and ceremonial; and this with all simplicity and sincerity, trusting in God to enable him to perform what was so plainly his duty, and so greatly his desire. The people join the king in his engagement, and, promising all fidelity, stand to the covenant. Note; (1.) A good and great example is very influential. (2.) Jesus our king, is our covenant-head; faith in him is now our security. (3.) God's people are bound to him, not so much by bonds of vows and promises, as by better bonds of divine love.

2nd, In consequence of his solemn engagements, Josiah without delay set himself to remove all the abominations contrary to the book of the law, which were found in the land.

1. He began with Judah and Jerusalem; where, shocking to tell! the most gross and strange monuments of idolatry remained. To purge the house of the Lord was his first concern: thence he fetched all the vessels which had been consecrated to and employed in the service of Baal and Astoreth, and the hosts of heaven; and having burnt them, he carried their ashes to Beth-el, that hated beginning of idolatry, which now he would make a dunghill, and lay there the filth and off-scouring of all these abominations. The idolatrous priests, (for such there will be, when court-favour follows Baal's worship,) he put down, destroying all the high places where they offered incense, which, though Hezekiah had ruined, his wicked successors had restored. These were degraded from their office; and though they had a portion with the priests for their maintenance, they were no more suffered to approach the altars of the Lord. The images of their false deities he stamped to powder, and, to render them more loathsome, cast the dust on the graves of their worshippers, as a reproach to their memory, and in contempt to their idols; whilst he dug up the bones of the priests, and scattered them upon the high places, where they had used to sacrifice. Topheth he defiled, making it a burying-place. The horses which had been dedicated to the sun, he took away, and burnt the chariots. His own house also he thoroughly purged: the altar of Ahaz, which was on the roof, and those which Manasseh had made, he beat to powder, and threw the dust into the brook Kidron. Throughout Judah, he put away all wizards and workers with familiar spirits; and in short, every abomination that he found, after the strictest search made according to the word of the Lord, he utterly abolished. Note; True conversion to God makes thorough work, casting away every weight, and the sin which doth most easily beset us.

2. He proceeded to carry the reformation that he had begun in Judah, into the cities of Israel. The altar at Beth-el he defiled; and, after sacrificing the idolatrous priests, and burning the bones of dead men upon it, destroyed it, with the high place and the grove adjoining. And as he did at Beth-el, he did in the other cities of Samaria, utterly rooting out every monument of idolatry. Note; Though God's word be long ere it be fulfilled, whether it be promise or threatening, the accomplishment is sure.

3. The land being thus cleansed from idols, and the people, according to their engagements, returning in truth to the worship of God; a solemn passover is proclaimed and kept, with such exactness and conformity to the divine institution, with such delight and joy, that since the days of the judges, even under the best of their kings, no such passover had been observed. Note; They who are faithful in the covenant, will be happy to partake of the seals of it. Neglect of the table of the Lord, is a sure mark of the continuing apostacy of the heart from God.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on 2 Kings 23:22". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/2-kings-23.html. 1801-1803.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

Such a passover, i.e. celebrated with such solemn care, and great preparation, and numerous sacrifices. 2 Chronicles 35:7-9, and universal joy of all good men; which was much the greater, because of their remembrance of the former wicked and miserable times under Manasseh and Amon; and the good hopes they now had of the happy establishment of their nation, and the true religion; and of the prevention of God’s judgments denounced against them.

From the days of the judges, or, from the days of Samuel, the last of the judges, as it is expressed, 2 Chronicles 35:8. None of the kings had taken such care to prepare themselves, the priests, and people, and accurately to observe all the rites, and diligently to purge out all uncleanness, and to renew their covenant with God, so solemnly as Josiah now did.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on 2 Kings 23:22". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/2-kings-23.html. 1685.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

22.There was not holden such a passover — Not that Israel had utterly failed to observe any passover from the days of the Judges to this time, for we are expressly told in 2 Chronicles 30 that Hezekiah held a passover, though it was not strictly according to the direction of the law, and it is not supposable that a Festival so prominent in the Israelitish cultus as this had been neglected under David, and Solomon, and other pious kings. But no such a passover had been held, none so strictly conformed in all things to the very letter of the law of Moses.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on 2 Kings 23:22". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/2-kings-23.html. 1874-1909.

Joseph Benson's Commentary of the Old and New Testaments

2 Kings 23:22. Surely there was not holden such a passover, &c. — Celebrated with such solemn care, and great preparation, and numerous sacrifices, and universal joy of all good men; which was much the greater, because of their remembrance of the former wicked and miserable times under Manasseh and Amon; and the good hopes they now had of the happy establishment of their nation, and the true religion; and of the prevention of God’s judgments denounced against them. From the days of the judges — Or, of Samuel, the last of the judges; as it is expressed 2 Chronicles 35:18. None of the kings had taken such care to prepare themselves, the priests, and people, and so accurately to observe all the rites, and diligently to purge out all uncleanness, and to renew their covenant with God. And undoubtedly God was pleased to recompense their zeal in destroying idolatry, with uncommon tokens of his presence and favour. All this concurred to make it such a passover as had not been even in the days of Hezekiah. For in his passover many communicated who were not cleansed according to the purification of the sanctuary, and the Levites were permitted to do the work of the priests.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Benson, Joseph. "Commentary on 2 Kings 23:22". Joseph Benson's Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rbc/2-kings-23.html. 1857.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

No such, is all respects. (Haydock) --- The number of paschal lambs was certainly greater when all Israel was assembled; but the other victims presented by the king and his officers during the octave is here noticed, (2 Paralipomenon xxxv. 7.; Menochius) as they are also styled the Phase; (Haydock) and this explains John xviii. 28. (Tirinus) --- Neither ought we to push these expressions too far, as they only mean, that this solemnity was very great. See ver. 25., and chap. xviii. 5. (Calmet)

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on 2 Kings 23:22". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/2-kings-23.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

not holden such. Compare Hezekiah"s passover, of which the same is said (2 Chronicles 30:26). Both statements true. Hezekiah"s greater than any before it. Josiah"s greater than Hezekiah"s. See the details (2 Chronicles 35:1-19). There were larger numbers, and the law was more exactly followed. Hezekiah"s passover kept just before the dispersion of Israel. Josiah"s passover kept just before the captivity of Judah.

judges that judged. Figure of speech Polyptoton.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on 2 Kings 23:22". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/2-kings-23.html. 1909-1922.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(22) Surely there was not holden . . .—For there was not holden (a passover) like this passover. This and the next verse constitute a parenthetic remark, in which the historian emphasises the phrase, “As it is written in this book of the covenant.” No passover, from the time of the Judges onward had been celebrated in such strict conformity to the prescriptions of the Law. The LXX. omits the particle of comparison: ὅτι οὐκ ἐγενήθη τὸ πασχα τοῦτο. On the ground of this difference, and the one mentioned in the Note on 2 Kings 23:21, Thenius thinks it not improbable that the text of Kings has been altered to bring into harmony with the account in Chronicles about the restoration of the feast of the passover by Hezekiah—a weighty inference from such slight data. The chronicler repeats this very verse at the close of his narrative of Josiah’s passover (2 Chronicles 35:18).

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on 2 Kings 23:22". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/2-kings-23.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Surely there was not holden such a passover from the days of the judges that judged Israel, nor in all the days of the kings of Israel, nor of the kings of Judah;
Surely
2 Chronicles 35:18,19
of the kings
2 Chronicles 30:1-3,13-20; 35:3-17
Reciprocal: Acts 13:20 - he gave

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on 2 Kings 23:22". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/2-kings-23.html.