Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

2 Kings 23:24

Moreover, Josiah removed the mediums and the spiritists and the teraphim and the idols and all the abominations that were seen in the land of Judah and in Jerusalem, that he might confirm the words of the law which were written in the book that Hilkiah the priest found in the house of the Lord .
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Hilkiah;   Israel, Prophecies Concerning;   Josiah;   Obedience;   Sorcery;   Thompson Chain Reference - Awakenings and Religious Reforms;   Fortune Telling;   Idols;   Magic;   Reforms, Religious;   Religious;   Witchcraft;   The Topic Concordance - Paganism;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Law of Moses, the;   Zeal;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Eliakim;   Teraphim;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Jeremiah;   Josiah;   Judah, tribe and kingdom;   Magic;   Manasseh, king of judah;   Zephaniah;   Baker Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Gods and Goddesses, Pagan;   Magic;   Necromancy;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Jeremiah;   Josiah;   Teraphim;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Urim and Thummim;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Ezekiel;   Kings, 1 and 2;   Medium;   Teraphim;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Canon of the Old Testament;   Deuteronomy;   Hexateuch;   Hilkiah;   Idolatry;   Jehoiakim;   Magic, Divination, and Sorcery;   Temple;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Hilkiah ;   Josiah ;   Teraphim;   The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Raca;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Teraphim;   Witch and wizard;   Smith Bible Dictionary - Teraphim;  
Encyclopedias:
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Abomination of Desolation;   Astrology;   Bible, the;   Communion with Demons;   Familiar;   Images;   Magic;   The Jewish Encyclopedia - Aquila (Β;   Euphemism;   Teraphim;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

The workers with familiar spirits - See on 2 Kings 21:5; (note).

And the images - The teraphim. See the note on Genesis 31:19.

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Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on 2 Kings 23:24". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/2-kings-23.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

Perform - Rather, establish. Josiah saw that it was necessary, not only to put down open idolatry, but also to root out the secret practices of a similar character which were sometimes combined with the worship of Yahweh, notwithstanding that the Law forbade them (marginal references), and which probably formed, with many, practically almost the whole of their religion.

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Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on 2 Kings 23:24". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/2-kings-23.html. 1870.

Coffman Commentaries on the Bible

STILL FURTHER REFORMS ACHIEVED BY JOSIAH

"Moreover them that had familiar spirits, and the wizards, and the teraphim, and the idols, and all the abominations that were seen in the land of Judah and in Jerusalem, did Josiah put away that he might confirm the words of the law which were written in the book that Hilkiah the priest found in the house of Jehovah. And like unto him was there no king before him, that turned to Jehovah with all his heart, and with all his soul and with all his might, according to all the law of Moses, neither after him arose there any like him."

"The wizards ... did Josiah put away" (2 Kings 23:24). Snaith and other critics have ERRONEOUSLY supposed that the reforms in these verses, "fulfilled the Deuteronomic ideal,"[24] overlooking the fact that the command to put wizards to death is not in Deuteronomy but in Leviticus 20:27, additional proof that it was not the Book of Deuteronomy alone, nor a portion of it, that was found in the temple by Hilkiah, it was the entire law of Moses. Note the last phrase of 2 Kings 23:25, "according to all the law of Moses."

"That he might confirm the words of the law" (2 Kings 23:24). The marginal note gives "perform" instead of "confirm" here. (See comments on 2 Kings 23:3, above.) The RSV translates the word "establish." What is stated is that Josiah was doing all of those reforms according to the commandments of God in the Books of Moses. Josiah was the last chance Israel had, because all of his four successors - "Jehoahaz, Jehoiakim, Jehoiakin and Zedekiah were, one and all, wicked princes."[25]

Jehoahaz is the same king as Shallum (Jeremiah 22:10ff.)

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Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.
Bibliographical Information
Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on 2 Kings 23:24". "Coffman Commentaries on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/2-kings-23.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

Moreover, the workers with familiar spirits, and the wizards,.... Who were not to be allowed among the Israelites, Deuteronomy 18:10.

and the images; or teraphim: and the idols, and all the abominations; which were worshipped by the Heathens, and introduced among the Jews, and forbidden by the word of God:

that were spied in the land of Judah, and in Jerusalem, did Josiah put away; for which, it seems, diligent search was made, and wherever they were discovered were removed:

that he might perform the words of the law, which were written in the book that Hilkiah the priest found in the house of the Lord; both with respect to witchcraft and idolatry, see Leviticus 20:27.

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855
Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on 2 Kings 23:24". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/2-kings-23.html. 1999.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Moreover the workers with familiar spirits, and the wizards, and the images, and the idols, and all the abominations that were spied in the land of Judah and in Jerusalem, did Josiah put away, that he might perform the words of the law which were written in the book that Hilkiah the priest found in the house of the LORD.

Images, … — Three words noting the same thing, to shew, That all the instruments and monuments of idolatry were destroyed, as God had commanded.

Spied — All that were discovered; not only such as were in the place of worship, but such as their priests or zealots had removed, and endeavoured to hide.

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These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.
Bibliographical Information
Wesley, John. "Commentary on 2 Kings 23:24". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/2-kings-23.html. 1765.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

2 Kings 23:24 Moreover the [workers with] familiar spirits, and the wizards, and the images, and the idols, and all the abominations that were spied in the land of Judah and in Jerusalem, did Josiah put away, that he might perform the words of the law which were written in the book that Hilkiah the priest found in the house of the LORD.

Ver. 24. Moreover the workers with familiar spirits,] q.d., Josiah did all that might be done to prevent that utter devastation of his country foretold by the prophets; but the decree was even "ready to bring forth," and there was no reversing or impeding it. [Zephaniah 2:2] See 2 Kings 21:10-15.

And the images.] Heb., Teraphim; these were properly their household gods, saith Vatablus.

That were spied in the land of Judah and Jerusalem.] Here he narrowly spied out everything that was amiss, to reform it, as being his own proper dominion, and his chief charge. Latini videndum dicunt,

Aedibus in propriis quae recta aut prava gerantur.

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Bibliographical Information
Trapp, John. "Commentary on 2 Kings 23:24". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/2-kings-23.html. 1865-1868.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

The wizards; of which see on Leviticus 19:31 20:27 Numbers 22:5 Deuteronomy 18:11.

The images, and the idols, and all the abominations; three words noting the same thing, to show that till the instruments and monuments of idolatry were destroyed, as God had commanded.

That were spied, i.e. all that were discovered; not only such as were in the place and state of worship, but such as their priests or zealots had removed, and endeavoured to hide and secure.

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on 2 Kings 23:24". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/2-kings-23.html. 1685.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

24.Workers with familiar spirits’ wizards — Who seem especially to have multiplied under the reign of Manasseh. 2 Kings 21:6.

Images Teraphim. See notes on Joshua 24:14, and 1 Samuel 19:13.

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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on 2 Kings 23:24". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/2-kings-23.html. 1874-1909.

Joseph Benson's Commentary of the Old and New Testaments

2 Kings 23:24. Workers with familiar spirits, and wizards — Of which see notes on Deuteronomy 18:10-11; Leviticus 19:31; and Leviticus 20:27. And the images — Hebrew, the teraphim, images which were very ancient among idolaters. And idols — Other kinds of images. And all the abominations that were spied — All the instruments and monuments of idolatry that were discovered, were destroyed as God had commanded; not only such as were in the place of worship, but such as their priests or zealots had removed, and endeavoured to hide.

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Benson, Joseph. "Commentary on 2 Kings 23:24". Joseph Benson's Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rbc/2-kings-23.html. 1857.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

Spirits. Literally, "the pythons," Deuteronomy xviii. 11., and Numbers xxii. 5. --- Idols. Hebrew Teraphim; Protestants, "images," Genesis xxi. 19. --- Uncleannesses. Hebrew, &c., "idols."

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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on 2 Kings 23:24". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/2-kings-23.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

familiar spirits. See note on Leviticus 19:31.

images = teraphim = household gods.

idols = manufactured gods.

put = clear.

Hilkiah the priest found. See 2 Kings 22:8, &c.

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on 2 Kings 23:24". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/2-kings-23.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

Moreover the workers with familiar spirits, and the wizards, and the images, and the idols, and all the abominations that were spied in the land of Judah and in Jerusalem, did Josiah put away, that he might perform the words of the law which were written in the book that Hilkiah the priest found in the house of the LORD.

Moreover the workers with familiar spirits - (see the notes at Deuteronomy 18:11; 1 Samuel 28:7.)

And the wizards - (see the notes at Leviticus 19:31; Leviticus 20:6; Leviticus 20:27; Deuteronomy 18:11.)

And the images, [ hat

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on 2 Kings 23:24". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/2-kings-23.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(24) Moreover the workers . . .—After abolishing public idolatry, Josiah attacked the various forms of private superstition.

The workers with familiar spirits.—The necromancers (‘ôbôth; 1 Samuel 28:3 seq.). (See 2 Kings 21:6.)

Images.—See margin; and Genesis 31:19; Judges 17:5; 1 Samuel 19:13; Zechariah 10:2.

The idols.—The dunglings. Gresenius prefers to render, idol-blocks; Ewald, doll-images. (See 2 Kings 17:12.)

That were spied (seen).—A significant expression. Many idols were, doubtless, concealed by their worshippers.

Put away.—Or, put out, did away with (Deuteronomy 13:6; Deuteronomy 17:7); strictly, consumed. (See the law in Leviticus 20:27; Deuteronomy 18:9-10.)

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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on 2 Kings 23:24". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/2-kings-23.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Moreover the workers with familiar spirits, and the wizards, and the images, and the idols, and all the abominations that were spied in the land of Judah and in Jerusalem, did Josiah put away, that he might perform the words of the law which were written in the book that Hilkiah the priest found in the house of the LORD.
Moreover
"His eighteenth year ending."
the workers
21:3,6; 1 Samuel 28:3-7; Isaiah 8:19; 19:3; Acts 16:16-18; Revelation 22:15
images
or, teraphim.
Genesis 31:19; Judges 17:5; 18:17,18; Hosea 3:4
that he might
Leviticus 19:31; 20:27; Deuteronomy 18:10-12; Isaiah 8:20; Romans 3:20; James 1:25
the book
22:8-13; 2 Chronicles 34:14-19
Reciprocal: 2 Chronicles 33:6 - dealt;  Jeremiah 4:1 - put away;  Ezekiel 21:21 - images

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Bibliographical Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on 2 Kings 23:24". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/2-kings-23.html.