Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Job 1:6

Now there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before the Lord , and Satan also came among them.
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Satan;   Thompson Chain Reference - Adversary;   Satan-Evil Spirits;   Serpent;   Tempter;   The Topic Concordance - Blessings;   Defense;   Devil/devils;   Evil;   Fear;   Uprightness;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Devil, the;   Titles and Names of the Devil;  
Dictionaries:
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Angels;   Satan;   Son of god;   Baker Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Heaven, Heavens, Heavenlies;   Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Angel;   Greatness of God;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Accuser;   Angel;   Devil;   Satan;   Son of God;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Accuser;   Angels;   Devil;   Micaiah;   Satan;   Son of God;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Affliction;   Children (Sons) of God;   Council, Heavenly;   Devil;   Job, the Book of;   Nephilim;   Prophecy, Prophets;   Sons of God;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Angel;   Children (Sons) of God;   Devil;   Sin;   Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Angels;   Angels (2);   Demon, Demoniacal Possession, Demoniacs;   Devil ;   Names and Titles of Christ;   Psalms (2);   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Heaven;   Michael the Archangel;   Sons of God;   The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Judas;   Satan;   Smith Bible Dictionary - Sa'tan;   Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types - Devil;   Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Child;  
Encyclopedias:
Condensed Biblical Cyclopedia - Sons of God;   International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Accuser;   Angel;   Children of God;   Job, Book of;   Satan;   Sons of God (Old Testament);   Kitto Biblical Cyclopedia - Accuser;   The Jewish Encyclopedia - Angelology;   Atonement, Day of;   Job;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

There was a day when the sons of God - All the versions, and indeed all the critics, are puzzled with the phrase sons of God; האלהים בני beney haelohim, literally, sons of the God, or sons of the gods. The Vulgate has simply filii dei, sons of God. The Septuagint, οἱ αγγελοι του θεου, the angels of God. The Chaldee, מלאכיא כתי kittey malachaiya, troops of angels. The Syriac retains the Hebrew words and letters, only leaving out the demonstrative ה he in the word האלהים haelohim, thus, (Syriac) baney Elohim . The Arabic nearly copies the Hebrew also, (Arabic) banoa Iloheem ; to which, if we give not the literal translation of the Hebrew, we may give what translation we please. Coverdale (1535) translates it, servauntes of God. The Targum supposes that this assembly took place on the day of the great atonement, which occurred once each year. And there was a day of judgment in the beginning of the year; and the troops of angels came, that they might stand in judgment before the Lord. But what are we to make of this whole account? Expositions are endless. That of Mr. Peters appears to me to be at once the most simple and the most judicious: "The Scripture speaks of God after the manner of men, for there is a necessity of condescending to our capacities, and of suiting the revelation to our apprehension. As kings, therefore, transact their most important affairs in a solemn council or assembly, so God is pleased to represent himself as having his council likewise; and as passing the decrees of his providence in an assembly of his holy angels. We have here, in the case of Job, the same grand assembly held, as was before in that of Ahab, 1 Kings 22:6-23; the same host of heaven, called here the sons of God, presenting themselves before Jehovah, as in the vision of Micaiah they are said to stand on his right hand and on his left. A wicked spirit appearing among them, here called Satan or the adversary, and there a lying spirit; both bent on mischief, and ready to do all the hurt they were permitted to do; for both were under the control of his power. The imagery is just the same; and the only difference is in the manner of the relation. That mentioned above, Micaiah, as a prophet, and in the actual exercise of his prophetic office, delivers, as he received it, in a vision. "I saw the Lord sitting on his throne, and all the Host of Heaven standing by him, on his right hand and on his left, and there came forth a Lying Spirit, and stood Before the Lord, and said," 1 Kings 22:19-22. The other, as a historian, interweaves it with his history; and tells us, in his plain narrative style, "There was a day when the sons of God came to Present themselves Before the Lord, and Satan came also among them." And this he delivers in the same manner as he does, There was a man in the land of Uz, whose name was Job.

"The things delivered to us by these two inspired writers are the same in substance, equally high, and above the reach of human sight and knowledge; but the manner of delivering them is different, each as suited best to his particular purpose. This, then is the prophetical way of representing things, as to the manner of doing them, which, whether done exactly in the same manner, concerns us not to know; but which are really done: and God would have them described as done in this manner, to make the more lively and lasting impression on us. At the same time, it must not be forgotten that representations of this kind are founded in a well-known and established truth, viz., the doctrine of good and bad angels, a point revealed from the beginning, and without a previous knowledge of which, the visions of the prophets could scarcely be intelligible." See Genesis 28:10-15.

And Satan came also - This word also is emphatic in the original, השטן hassatan, the Satan, or the adversary; translated by the Septuagint ὁ Διαβολος . The original word is preserved by the Chaldee, Syriac, and Arabic; indeed, in each of them the word signifies an adversary. St. Peter, 1 Peter 5:8, plainly refers to this place; and fully proves that השטן hassatan, which he literally translates ὁ αντιδικος, the Adversary, is no other than ὁ Διαβολος, the Devil, or chief of bad demons, which he adds to others by way of explanation. There are many διαμονες, demons, mentioned in Scripture, but the word Satan or devil is never found in the originals of the Old and New Testaments in the plural number. Hence we reasonably infer, that all evil spirits are under the government of One chief, the Devil, who is more powerful and more wicked than the rest. From the Greek Διαβολος comes the Latin Diabolus, the Spanish Diablo, the French Diable, the Italian Diavolo, the German Teuffel, the Dutch Duivel, the Anglo-Saxon and the English Devil, which some would derive from the compound The - Evil; ὁ πονηρος, the evil one, or wicked one.

It is now fashionable to deny the existence of this evil spirit; and this is one of what St. John ( Revelation 2:24;) calls τα βαθη του σατανα, the depths of Satan; as he well knows that they who deny his being will not be afraid of his power and influence; will not watch against his wiles and devices; will not pray to God for deliverance from the evil one; will not expect him to be trampled down under their feet, who has no existence; and, consequently, they will become an easy and unopposing prey to the enemy of their souls. By leading men to disbelieve and deny his existence, he throws them off their guard; and is then their complete master, and they are led captive by him at his will. It is well known that, among all those who make any profession of religion, those who deny the existence of the devil are they who pray little or none at all; and are, apparently, as careless about the existence of God as they are about the being of a devil. Piety to God is with them out of the question; for those who do not pray, especially in private, (and I never met with a devil-denier who did), have no religion of any kind, whatsoever pretensions they may choose to make.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Bibliographical Information
Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Job 1:6". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/job-1.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

Now there was a day - Dr. Good renders this, “And the day came.” Tindal.” Now upon a time.” The Chaldee paraphrasist has presumed to specify the time, and renders it, “Now it happened in the day of judgment (or scrutiny, דדינא ביומא ), “in the beginning of the year,” that hosts of angels came to stand in judgment before yahweh, and Satan came.” According to this, the judgment occurred once a year, and a solemn investigation was had of the conduct even of the angels. In the Hebrew there is no intimation of the frequency with which this occurred, nor of the time of the year when it happened. The only idea is, that “the sons of God” on a set or appointed day came to stand before God to give an account of what they had done, and to receive further orders in regard to what they were to do. - This is evidently designed to introduce the subsequent events relating to Job. It is language taken from the proceedings of a monarch who had sent forth messengers or ambassadors on important errands through the different provinces of his empire, who now returned to give an account of what they had observed, and of the general state of the kingdom. Such a return would, of course, be made on a fixed day when, in the language of the law, their report would be “returnable,” and when they would be required to give in an account of the state of the kingdom. If it be said that it is inconsistent with the supposition that this book was inspired to suppose such a poetic fiction, I reply,

(1) That it is no more so than the parables of the Savior, who often supposes cases, and states them as real occurrences, in order to illustrate some important truth. Yet no one was ever led into error by this.

(2) It is in accordance with the language in the Scripture everywhere to describe God as a monarch seated on his throne, surrounded by his ministers, and sending them forth to accomplish important purposes in different parts of his vast empire.

It is not absolutely necessary, therefore, to regard this as designed to represent an actual occurrence. It is one of the admissible ornaments of poetry; - as admissible as any other poetic ornament. To represent God as a king is not improper; and if so, it is not improper to represent him with the usual accompaniments of royalty, - surrounded by ministers, and employing angels and messengers for important purposes in his kingdom. This supposition being admitted, all that follows is merely in “keeping,” and is designed to preserve the verisimilitude of the conception. - This idea, however, by no means militates against the supposition that angels are in fact really employed by God in important purposes in the government of his kingdom, nor that Satan has a real existence, and is permitted by God to employ an important agency in the accomplishment of his purposes toward his people. On this verse, however, see the Introduction, Section 1, (4).

The sons of God - Angels; compare Job 38:7. The whole narrative supposes that they were celestial beings.

Came to present themselves - As having returned from their embassy, and to give an account of what they had observed and done.

Before the Lord - Before יהוה yehovâh On the meaning of this word, see the notes at Isaiah 1:2. A scene remarkably similar to this is described in 1 Kings 22:19-23. Yahweh is there represented as “sitting on his throne, and all the host of heaven standing by him on his right hand and on his left.” He inquires who would go and persuade Ahab that he might go up and fall at Ramoth-gilead? “And there came forth a spirit and stood before the Lord, and said, I will persuade him.” This he promised to do by being “a lying spirit in the mouth of all his prophets.”

And Satan came also among them - Margin, “The adversary” came “in the midst of them.” On the general meaning of this passage, and the reasons why Satan is introduced here, and the argument thence derived respecting the age and authorship of the book of Job, see the Introduction, Section 4, (4). The Vulgate renders this by the name “Satan.” The Septuagint: ὁ διάβολος ho diabolos - the devil, or the accuser. The Chaldee, סטנא saṭenā' “Satan.” So the Syriac. Theodotion, ὁ ἀντικείμενος ho antikeimenos - “the adversary.” The word rendered “Satan” שׂטן śâṭân is derived from שׂטן śâṭan “Satan,” to lie in wait, to be an adversary, and hence, it means properly an adversary, an accuser. It is used to denote one who “opposes,” as in war 1 Kings 11:14, 1 Kings 11:23, 1 Kings 11:25; 1 Samuel 29:4; onc who is an adversary or an accuser in a court of justice Psalm 109:6, and one who stands in the way of another; Numbers 22:22, “And the angel of yahweh stood in the way for an adversary against him” לה לשׂטן leśâṭân lôh “to oppose him.”

It is then used by way of eminence, to denote the “adversary,” and assumes the form of a proper name, and is applied to the great foe of God and man - the malignant spirit who seduces people to evil, and who accuses them before God. Thus, in Zechariah 3:1-2, “And he showed me Joshua the priest standing before the angel of the Lord, and Satan standing at his right hand to resist him. And the Loan said unto Satan, The Lord rebuke thee, O Satan;” compare Revelation 12:10, “Now is come salvation - for the accuser ὁ κατηγορῶν ho katēgorōn - that is, Satan, see Revelation 12:9) of our brethren is cast down, which accused them before our God day and night.” - The word does not often occur in the Old Testament. It is found in the various forms of a verb and a noun in only the following places. As a verb, in the sense of being an adversary, Psalm 71:13; Psalm 109:4, Psalm 109:20, Psalm 109:29; Zechariah 3:1; Psalm 38:20; as a noun, rendered “adversary” and “adversaries,” 1 Kings 5:4; 1 Kings 11:14, 1 Kings 11:23, 1 Kings 11:25; Numbers 22:22, Numbers 22:32; 1 Samuel 29:4; 2 Samuel 19:22; rendered “Satan,” 1 Chronicles 21:1; Psalm 109:6; Job 1:6-9, Job 1:12; Job 2:1-4, Job 2:6-7; Zechariah 3:2; and once rendered “an accusation,” Ezra 4:6.

It was a word, therefore, early used in the sense of an adversary or accuser, and was applied to anyone who sustained this character, until it finally came to be used as a proper name, to denote, by way of eminence, the prince of evil spirits, as the adversary or accuser of people. An opinion has been adopted in modern times by Herder, Eichhorn, Dathe, Ilgen, and some others, that the being here referred to by the name of Satan is not the malignant spirit, the enemy of God, the Devil, but is one of the sons of God, “a faithful, but too suspicious servant of yahweh.” According to this, God is represented as holding a council to determine the state of his dominions. In this council, Satan, a zealous servant of yahweh, to whom had been assigned the honorable office of visiting different parts of the earth, for the purpose of observing the conduct of the subjects of yahweh, makes his appearance on his return with others.

Such was the piety of Job, that it had attracted the special attention of yahweh, and he puts the question to Satan, whether in his journey be had remarked this illustrious example of virtue. Satan, who, from what he has observed on earth, is supposed to have lost all confidence in the reality and genuineness of the virtue which man may exhibit, suggests that he doubts whether even Job serves God from a disinterested motive; that God had encompassed him with blessings, and that his virtue is the mere result of circumstances; and that if his comforts were removed he would be found as destitute of principle as any other man. Satan, according to this, is a suspicious minister of yahweh, not a malignant spirit; he inflicts on Job only what he is ordered to by God, and nothing because he is himself malignant. Of this opinion Gesenius remarks (Lexicon), that it “is now universally exploded.”

An insuperable objection to this view is, that it does not accord with the character usually ascribed to Satan in the Bible, and especially that the disposition attributed to him in the narrative before us is wholly inconsistent with this view. He is a malignant being; an accuser; one delighting in the opportunity of charging a holy man with hypocrisy, and in the permission to inflict tortures on him, and who goes as far in producing misery as he is allowed - restrained from destroying him only by the express command of God. - In Arabic the word Satan is often applied to a serpent. Thus, Gjauhari, as quoted by Schultens, says, “The Arabs call a serpent Satan, especially one that is conspicuous by its crest, head, and odious appearance.” It is applied also to any object or being that is evil. Thus, the Scholiast on Hariri, as quoted by Schultens also, says, “Everything that is obstinately rebellious, opposed, and removed from good, of genii, human beings, and beasts, is called Satan.” - The general notion of an adversary and an opponent is found everywhere in the meaning of the word. - Dr. Good remarks on this verse, “We have here another proof that, in the system of patriarchal theology, the evil spirits, as well as the good, were equally amenable to the Almighty, and were equally cited, at definite periods, to answer for their conduct at his bar.”

Rosenmuller remarks well on this verse, “It is to be observed, that Satan, no less than the other celestial spirits, is subject to the government of God, and dependent on his commands (compare Job 2:1) where Satan equally with the sons of God (אלהים בן bên 'ĕlohı̂ym ) is said to present himself before God (לחהיצב lehı̂tyatsēb that is, λειτουργεῖν leitourgein ), to minister. Yahweh uses the ministry of this demon (hujus daemonis) to execute punishment, or when from any other cause it seemed good to him to send evil upon men. But he, although incensed against the race of mortals, and desirous of injuring, is yet described as bound with a chain, and never dares to touch the pious unless God relaxes the reins. Satan, in walking round the earth, could certainly attentively consider Job, but to injure him he could not, unless permission had been given him.”

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Bibliographical Information
Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Job 1:6". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/job-1.html. 1870.

Coffman Commentaries on the Bible

THAT CONVERSATION BETWEEN GOD AND SATAN

"Now it came to pass on the day when the sons of God came to present themselves before Jehovah, that Satan also came among them. And Jehovah said unto Satan, Whence comest thou? Then Satan answered Jehovah, and said, From going to and fro in the earth, and from walking up and down in it. And Jehovah said unto Satan, Hast thou considered my servant Job? for there is none like him in the earth, a perfect and upright man, one that feareth God, and turneth away from evil. Then Satan answered Jehovah, and said, Doth Job fear God for naught? Hast not thou made a hedge about him, and about his house, and about all that he hath, on every side? thou hast blessed the work of his hands, and his substance is increased in the land. But put forth thy hand now, and touch all that he hath, and he will renounce thee to thy face. And Jehovah said unto Satan, Behold, all that he hath is in thy power: only upon himself put not forth thy hand. So Satan went forth from the presence of Jehovah."

See our chapter introduction for the location of this scene, not in heaven, but upon earth when God's people were assembled for worship.

"Jehovah ... Jehovah ... Jehovah ... Jehovah ... Jehovah ... Jehovah ... Jehovah" (Job 1:6-12). Seven times in six verses, the covenant name of God appears in this passage, thundering the message that the "sons of God" here are those in covenant relationship with the Eternal. Note that [~'Elohiym] (God) is used twice in the preceding paragraph. Are the holy angels within any such covenant relationship? Absolutely, NO! How blind the critics are to this passage! Dummelow noted that the use of the Tetragrammaton here is thought by some, "To be a slip on the part of the author![6] How could anybody make "a slip" seven times in six verses? Our own opinion is that we have proof here, as Dummelow wrote, that, "The Tetragrammaton (Jehovah) may have been much older than Moses."[7] This writer fully believes that the name Jehovah is indeed much older than Moses. (See my excursus on the Tetragrammaton (Y-H-W-H), beginning on p. 32 of my commentary on Exodus.)

"Satan here has ready access to heaven."[8] See chapter introduction for many reasons why such a comment is erroneous.

"The sons of God ... are divine beings who shared in the nature of divinity."[9] Rowley enunciated the same error, "Sons of God means superhuman, or celestial beings."[10] "To interpret these words thus is to suppose that the very same words in Genesis 6:1-3 teach that angels intermarried with men producing a race of giants, despite the fact that the Christ himself declared that angels "Neither marry nor are given in marriage" (Matthew 22:30). The true meaning of Sons of God is found in Romans 8:14. How are they sons of God? "They are born of God, born of water and the Spirit". In short, they are followers and worshippers of God; and so were those mentioned in Genesis 6:1-3, and in this passage before us. To suppose that the Holy Spirit in this passage was speaking of angels is ridiculous. Did He not know the word angels? If that is what he meant, why did not the Holy Spirit write angels? This student of God's Word has had his fill, and more, of the speculations of commentators who presume to tell us what the Holy Spirit meant, instead of what he said.

Rawlinson, usually quite accurate, misses it here, stating that, " Job 1:7 teaches that Satan, therefore, is not, like most of his fallen angels, "reserved in chains under darkness to the judgment of the last day (Jude 1:1:6)."[11] However, this very passage teaches that Satan is chained. (See more on the chaining of Satan under Job 1:12). He could not even touch Job, without God's permission; and, even after the Lord gave him permission to destroy Job's possessions, he was not allowed to touch the person of Job (Job 1:12).

"Doth Job fear God for naught?" (Job 1:9). Satan's implication here is that Job's motive for serving God was purely selfish. Atkinson raises the question, "Why do we serve God? Is it merely for what we can get out of it"?[12] Some of the comments on this are quite inadequate. It is true that genuine faith does not serve God merely for the temporal blessings that most certainly do accompany it, and which Satan himself freely admitted in the next verse. But in spite of this, it is a profound fact that the ultimate reward in heaven, after the present life is ended, is a valid motive for serving God. Christ himself admonished righteousness, saying, "For great is your reward in heaven" (Matthew 5:12). Yet, even the hope of heaven is not the highest motive. The Lord revealed that there are three basic motives for serving God, namely, (1) The love of God, (2) the hope of heaven, and (3) the fear of hell. Quite understandably, Satan was careful not to mention the other two motives! But we wonder why so many writers do not mention them.

"Hast thou not made a hedge about him?" (Job 1:10). Oh yes, even the devil admitted in this instance that serving God is certainly rewarded in this life also, at least, in the vast majority of instances; and it would doubtless be true invariably, if mankind had not chosen to become servants of the devil. In this verse, for once, the devil was speaking the truth. How mighty is God's protection and blessing of the faithful, even in this life; and even though Satan's interference brought great calamity and grief upon Job, read the rest of the story! "Job did not serve God for something he could gain by it."[13] This is typical of the comments on Job which appear to us as totally inadequate. This comment would have been true if the author of it had said that, "Job did not serve God merely for what he can gain by it in this life." Job had the eye of faith upon the eternal world, confident in the resurrection of the dead and the appearance of the blessed Redeemer (Job 19:25). To leave this consideration out of the Book of Job is to miss the point of it completely.

"In Eden, Satan disparaged God to man; but here he disparages man to God."[14]

"All that he hath is in thy power" (Job 1:12). Some scholars have even taken the position that it was really a very mean and inconsiderate old God who would thus have turned Job over to the devil. Such an attitude is merely the blindness of unbelief. It was not God who gave Satan dominion over Adam and his posterity, making him, in fact, "The god of this world" (2 Corinthians 4:4); but it was Adam himself. The human family in the person of their great progenitors rejected the benign and glorious government of heaven and willfully became the servants of Satan. Thus Satan's implied request for power to afflict Job was, in a sense, within his prerogative as mankind's chosen ruler.

Could not God have prevented it? Indeed, he could have. Why then, did he allow it? "God allowed it; because Job's sufferings, unknown to him, would stand forever before men and angels, as a trophy of the saving might of God, and an exhibition of that divine wisdom (and faithfulness) which is the archetype and foundation of human wisdom."[15]

"Against himself put forth not thy hand" (Job 1:12). Note also that Satan could not even touch Job's property without God's permission. Yes, indeed, Satan is bound. That does not mean that Satan is inactive, but merely that his activity is limited to the earth, where he awaits the judgment; and, even upon earth, he is by no means free to act without God's permission.

REGARDING THE BINDING OF SATAN

(1) The proof that Satan is bound is resident in the fact of each and every person who is saved by obeying the gospel. "How can one enter into the house (the earth) of the strong man (Satan) and spoil his goods (save a sinner from hell), except he first bind the strong man (Satan)? and then he will spoil his goods" (Matthew 12:29). No person whomsoever would ever be saved if Satan were not bound.

(2) Satan cannot tempt even the weakest child of God beyond that which he is able to bear (1 Corinthians 10:12). This reveals a definite limitation (or binding) of Satan's activity.

(3) In this passage, Satan was definitely chained (a) to the extent that he had been unable to touch Job in all the days of his prosperity, (b) in the fact that he could never have destroyed Job's wealth without God's permission, (c) to the extent that in this first test, he was not permitted to touch the person of Job, and (d) to the extent that, even after God allowed him to afflict Job's body, in the second test, Satan was, even then, forbidden to take Job's life. The same limitation of Satan's hatred of any and all of God's children is indicated by the fact that Satan was not allowed to sift (test) the apostle Peter without Jesus' specific permission (Luke 22:31). What is the chain that restrains Satan? It is the Word of God.

(4) It is revealed in Revelation 20:1-3 that Satan is bound "for a thousand years," the same being only another designation of the current dispensation of the love of Christ. (See our extensive comments on this passage in Vol. 12 of my New Testament series, pp. 454-460.)

Copyright Statement
Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.
Bibliographical Information
Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on Job 1:6". "Coffman Commentaries on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/job-1.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

Now there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before the Lord,.... This is generally understood of the angels, as in Job 38:7 who may be thought to be so called, because of their creation by the father of spirits, and their likeness to God in holiness, knowledge, and wisdom, and being affectionate and obedient to him; as also on account of the grace of election, and confirmation in Christ bestowed upon them, as well as because, in their embassies and messages to men, they represent God, and so may be called gods, and children of the Most High, for a like reason the civil magistrates are, Psalm 82:6 to which may be added, their constituting with the saints the family of God in heaven and earth: these, as they stand before God, and at his right hand and left, as the host of heaven, in which posture Micaiah saw them in vision, 1 Kings 22:19, so they may be said to go forth from standing before the Lord of all the earth into the several parts of all the world, to do the will and work of God assigned them, Zechariah 6:5 and then, having done their work, return again, and present themselves before the Lord, to give an account of what they have done, and to receive fresh orders from him, being ready to do his pleasure in everything he shall command them, which is what is here supposed; though some think these were only the company or band of angels which were set as a guard about Job, his person, family, and substance, who now appeared before the Lord, to give an account of him, his affairs, and circumstances, as required of them:

and Satan came also among them; which word signifies an "adversary", as in 1 Kings 11:14 but does not design here a man adversary, as there, or one that envied Job's prosperity, as Saadiah Gaon thinks, but an evil spirit, the old serpent, the devil, as in Revelation 12:9 who is an implacable and bitter enemy to men, especially to Christ and his people; and so has this name from his hatred of them, and opposition to them: OrigenF11Contr. Cels. l. 6. observes, that this word, translated into the Greek language, is αντικειμενος, an "adversary"; but R. LeviF12In Ioc. derives it from שטה, "to decline" or "turn aside"; and so Suidas saysF13In voce σατανας. , Satan, in the Hebrew language, is an apostate; and TheodoretF14In 2 Reg. Quaest. 37. mentions both, that it signifies either an adversary or an apostate; the first derivation is best: knowing the end of the above meeting, that it was with respect to Job, and therefore he came with an intent to contradict what they should say of him, and to accuse him before God; he came among them as one of them, transforming himself into an angel of light, as he sometimes does; or he came, being sent for, and obliged to come to give an account of himself, and of what he had been doing in the world, in order to be reproved and punished: but though the stream of interpreters run this way, I cannot say I am satisfied with it; for, setting aside the passages in this book in question, angels are nowhere called "the sons of God"; for besides, this being denied of them in the sense that Christ is, they are represented as servants, yea, as servants to the sons of God, ministering spirits to the heirs of salvation; they call themselves the fellow servants of the saints, and of their brethren, but do not say that they are sons of the same family, or fellow heirs, or their brethren, Hebrews 1:5, moreover, they always stand in the presence of God, and behold his face, be they where they will, Matthew 18:10 nor is there any particular day assigned them for the service of God; for though they are under the moral law, so far as it is suitable to their nature, yet not under the ceremonial law, to which the observance of days belonged; and besides, they have no rest night nor day, but continually serve God, and glorify him, saying, Holy, holy, holy, Lord God Almighty: and if this presentation of themselves to God is supposed to be in heaven, as where else should it be? it is not possible that Satan could come among them; he is fallen from heaven, being cast down from thence, nor can he, nor ever will he, be able to find a place any more there, see Luke 10:18 it seems better therefore to understand this of the people of God, of professors of religion, who, earlier than the times of Job, were distinguished from the men of the world by this character, "the sons of God", Genesis 6:2, such that were truly godly being so by adopting grace, and which was made manifest by their regeneration by the Spirit of God, and by their faith in Christ, and all were so by profession: now these assembled themselves together, to present themselves, their bodies and souls, before the Lord, which was but their reasonable service; as to pray unto him, and praise him, to offer sacrifice, and perform every religious exercise enjoined in those times; the apostle uses the like phrase of the saints' social worship, Romans 12:1 now for this there was a "day"; though I very much question whether any sabbath, or much less a seventh day sabbath, was as yet instituted; but inasmuch as men agreed together to call on the name of the Lord, or to worship him in a social way, Genesis 4:26 as it was necessary that a place should be appointed to meet at, so a time fixed by consent and agreement; even as now, the seventh day sabbath being abrogated, Christians agree to meet on the first day of the week, called the Lord's day, in imitation of the apostles of Christ; and on one of these days thus fixed and agreed on was the above meeting, at which Satan came among them, as he frequently does in the assembly of the saints, to do what mischief he can; by snatching away the word from inattentive hearers, and by directing the eye to such objects, and putting such things into the mind, as divert from the service of God; or by suggesting to the saints themselves, that what is attended to does not belong to them, with many other things of the like kind: the Targum interprets this day of the day of judgment, at the beginning of the year, and the sons of God of angels, as do other Jewish writers.

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Gill, John. "Commentary on Job 1:6". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/job-1.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

Now there was a day when the k sons of God came to present themselves l before the LORD, and Satan m came also among them.

(k) Meaning the angels, who are called the sons of God because they are willing to execute his will.

(l) Because our infirmity cannot comprehend God in his majesty, he is set forth to us as a King, that our capacity may be able to understand that which is spoken of him.

(m) This declares that although Satan is an adversary to God, yet he is compelled to obey him, and do him all homage, without whose permission and appointment he can do nothing.

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Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on Job 1:6". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/job-1.html. 1599-1645.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

Job 1:6-12. Satan, appearing before God, falsely accuses Job.

sons of God — angels (Job 38:7; 1 Kings 22:19). They present themselves to render account of their “ministry” in other parts of the universe (Hebrews 1:14).

the LordHebrew, Jehovah, the self-existing God, faithful to His promises. God says (Exodus 6:3) that He was not known to the patriarchs by this name. But, as the name occurs previously in Genesis 2:7-9, etc., what must be meant is, not until the time of delivering Israel by Moses was He known peculiarly and publicly in the character which the name means; namely, “making things to be,” fulfilling the promises made to their forefathers. This name, therefore, here, is no objection against the antiquity of the Book of Job.

Satan — The tradition was widely spread that he had been the agent in Adam‘s temptation. Hence his name is given without comment. The feeling with which he looks on Job is similar to that with which he looked on Adam in Paradise: emboldened by his success in the case of one not yet fallen, he is confident that the piety of Job, one of a fallen race, will not stand the test. He had fallen himself (Job 4:19; Job 15:15; Judges 1:6). In the Book of Job, Satan is first designated by name: “Satan,” Hebrew, “one who lies in wait”; an “adversary” in a court of justice (1 Chronicles 21:1; Psalm 109:6; Zechariah 3:1); “accuser” (Revelation 12:10). He has the law of God on his side by man‘s sin, and against man. But Jesus Christ has fulfilled the law for us; justice is once more on man‘s side against Satan (Isaiah 42:21); and so Jesus Christ can plead as our Advocate against the adversary. “Devil” is the Greek name - the “slanderer,” or “accuser.” He is subject to God, who uses his ministry for chastising man. In Arabic, Satan is often applied to a serpent (Genesis 3:1). He is called prince of this world (John 12:31); the god of this world (2 Corinthians 4:4); prince of the power of the air (Ephesians 2:2). God here questions him, in order to vindicate His own ways before angels.

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Job 1:6". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/job-1.html. 1871-8.

Keil & Delitzsch Old Testament Commentary

6 Now there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before Jehovah; and Satan came also in the midst of them.

The translation “it happened on a day” is rejected in Ges. §109, rem. 1, c .

(Note: The references to Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar have been carefully verified according to the English edition published by Bagster and Sons, London. - Tr.)

The article, it is there said, refers to what precedes - the day, at the time; but this favourite mode of expression is found at the beginning of a narrative, even when it cannot be considered to have any reference to what has preceded, e.g., 2 Kings 4:18. The article is used in the opposite manner here, because the narrator in thought connects the day with the following occurrence; and this frees it from absolute indefiniteness: the western mode of expression is different. From the writer assigning the earthly measure of time to the place of God and spirits, we see that celestial things are represented by him parabolically. But the assumptions on which he proceeds are everywhere recognised in Scripture; for (1.) האלהים בּני, as the name of the celestial spirits, is also found out of the book of Job (Genesis 6:2; cf. Psalms 29:1; Psalms 59:7; Daniel 3:25). They are so called, as beings in the likeness of God, which came forth from God in the earliest beginning of creation, before this material world and man came into existence (Job 28:4-7): the designation בּני points to the particular manner of their creation. (2.) Further, it is the teaching of Scripture, that these are the nearest attendants upon God, the nearest created glory, with which He has surrounded himself in His eternal glory, and that He uses them as the immediate instruments of His cosmical rule. This representation underlies Genesis 1:26, which Philo correctly explains, διαλέγεται ὁ τῶν ὅλων πατὴρ ταῖς ἑαυτοῦ δυνάμεσιν ; and in Psalms 59:6-8, a psalm which is closely allied to the book of Job, קהל and סוד, of the holy ones, is just the assembly of the heavenly spirits, from which, as ἄγγελοι of God, they go forth into the universe and among men. (3.) It is also further the teaching of Scripture, that one of these spirits has withdrawn himself from the love of God, has reversed the truth of his bright existence, and in sullen ardent self-love is become the enemy of God, and everything godlike in the creature. This spirit is called, in reference to God and the creature, השּׂטן,er, from the verb שׂטן, to come in the way, oppose, treat with enmity, - a name which occurs first here, and except here occurs only in Zechariah 3:1-10 and 1 Chronicles 21:1. Since the Chokma turned, with a decided preference, to the earliest records of the world and mankind before the rise of nationalities, it must have known the existence of this God-opposing spirit from Gen. 2f. The frequent occurrence of the tree of life and the way of life in the Salomonic Proverbs, shows how earnestly the research of that time was engaged with the history of Paradise: so that it cannot be surprising that it coined the name השּׂטן for that evil spirit. (4.) Finally, it agrees with 1 Kings 22:19-22; Zechariah 3:1, on the one hand, and Rev. 12 on the other, that Satan here appears still among the good spirits, resembling Judas Iscariot among the disciples until his treachery was revealed. The work of redemption, about which his enmity to God overdid itself, and by which his damnation is perfected, is during the whole course of the Old Testament history incomplete.

Herder, Eichhorn, Lutz, Ewald, and Umbreit, see in this distinct placing of Satan in relation to the Deity and good spirits nothing but a change of representations arising from foreign influences; but if Jesus Christ is really the vanquisher of Satan, as He himself says, the realm of spirits must have a history, which is divided into two eras by this triumph. Moreover, both the Old and New Testaments agree herein, that Satan is God's adversary, and consequently altogether evil, and must notwithstanding serve God, since He makes even evil minister to His purpose of salvation, and the working out of His plan in the government of the world. This is the chief thought which underlies the further progress of the scene. The earthly elements of time, space, and dialogue, belong to the poetic drapery.

Instead of על התיצּב, לפני is used elsewhere (Proverbs 22:29): על is a usage of language derived from the optical illusion to the one who is in the foreground seeming to surpass the one in the background. It is an assembly day in heaven. All the spirits present themselves to render their account, and expecting to receive commands; and the following dialogue ensues between Jehovah and Satan: -

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Keil, Carl Friedrich & Delitzsch, Franz. "Commentary on Job 1:6". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/kdo/job-1.html. 1854-1889.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Now there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before the LORD, and Satan came also among them.

A day — A certain time appointed by God.

The sons — The holy angels, so called, chap38:7; Daniel 3:25,28, because of their creation by God, for their resemblance of him in power, and dignity, and holiness, and for their filial affection and obedience, to him.

Before — Before his throne, to receive his commands, and to give him an account of their negotiations. But you must not think that these things are to be understood literally; it is only a parabolical representation of that great truth, that God by his wise and holy providence governs all the actions of men and devils: It being usual with the great God to condescend to our shallow capacities, and to express himself, as the Jews phrase it, in the language of the sons of men. And it is likewise intimated, that the affairs of earth are much the subject of the counsels of the unseen world. That world is dark to us: but we lie open to it.

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Wesley, John. "Commentary on Job 1:6". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/job-1.html. 1765.

Scofield's Reference Notes

sons of God

This scene is in heaven. Cf. Job 2:1-7.

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Scofield, C. I. "Scofield Reference Notes on Job 1:6". "Scofield Reference Notes (1917 Edition)". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/srn/job-1.html. 1917.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

Job 1:6 Now there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before the LORD, and Satan came also among them.

Ver. 6. Now there was a day] Haply that day wherein Job’s children were feasting their last. The Rabbis say the first day of the year, and some say the Sabbath day; but who told them so? This is to intrude into things which they have not seen, Colossians 2:18, and whereof there is neither proof nor profit. Certain it is, that as God hath before all beginnings decreed all things, so he hath set and assigned the times or seasons which he hath put in his own power, Acts 1:7, when everything shall come to pass as himself hath appointed. Now then, saith Beza, the time being come which he prefixed for the actual accomplishing of that he had decreed concerning Job, he revealed the same to Satan (being before altogether ignorant thereof), as whom he had appointed to be the chief instrument in executing his will and purpose.

The sons of God] i.e. The elect angels, called the sons of God here and elsewhere; not because they are so by eternal generation, as Christ alone; nor by adoption and regeneration, as the saints, John 1:12; but by creation (as Adam is called the son of God, Luke 3:38) and resemblance: for they are made in God’s image, and are like him as his children, both in their substance, which is incorporeal, and in their excellent properties, which are life and immortality, blessedness and glory; wherein we shall one day be their equals, Luke 20:36.

Came to present themselves] This is spoken in a low language, for our better apprehension, by allusion to the custom of earthly princes, and their attendants and officers coming to give an account, or receive directions. The angels are never absent from God, Luke 1:19, but yet employed by him in governing the world, Ezekiel 1:1-28., and guarding the saints, Hebrews 1:14. This the heathens hammered at, for both Plutarch and Proculus, the Platonist, say, that the angels do πορθμευειν, travel between heaven and earth, carrying the commands of God to men, and the desires of men to God, Iussa divina ferentes ad homines, et hominum vota ad deos.

And Satan came also among them] That old man slayer (envying Job’s holiness and happiness, as much as the good angels rejoiced in it and promoted it; for he was seen of angels of both sorts) would needs make one among those sons of God, not without God’s overruling power; although he regarded not so much God’s authority as wanted an opportunity and licence to do mischief. In reference to this history, George Marsh, martyr, in a certain letter of his, writeth thus to his friend: The servants of God cannot at any time come and stand before God, that is, lead a godly life, and walk innocently, but Satan comes also among them; that is, he daily accuseth, findeth fault, vexeth, persecuteth, and troubleth the godly, &c. Yet unless God do permit him, he can do nothing at all, not so much as enter into a filthy hog. But we are more of price than many hogs before God (Acts and Mon. fol. 1423).

Before the Lord] Or by, or near, the Lord. But can Satan come into the presence of God? Surely no otherwise (saith Mr Caryl, a grave divine) than a blind man can come into the sun: he cometh into the sun, and the sun shineth upon him, but he sees not the sun. Satan comes so into the presence of God, that he is always seen of God; he is never so in the presence of God as to see God.

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on Job 1:6". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/job-1.html. 1865-1868.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

Job 1:6. Now there was a day It came to pass on the day when, &c. Heath. Thus denoting some determinate time, when the sons of God, i.e. the angels, (called the sons of God, because they were like unto God, in being immortal, see Luke 20:36.) came to present themselves. The verb להתיצב lehithiatseb, rendered present themselves, expresses the attendance and assiduity of ministers appearing before their king to receive his commands. This account of the angels and Satan's appearing before God, must be understood as a prophetical representation, similar to that in 1 Kings 22:19. The scripture speaks of God after the manner of men; for there is a necessity of condescending to our capacities, and of suiting the revelation to our apprehensions. As kings, therefore, transact their most important affairs in a solemn council or assembly, so God is pleased to represent himself as having his council likewise, and as passing the decrees of his providence in an assembly of his holy angels. We have here, in the case of Job, the same grand assembly held, as was before in that of Ahab, 1 Kings 22 the same host of heaven, called here the sons of God, presenting themselves before Jehovah; as in the vision of Micaiah, they are said to stand on his right hand, and on his left. A wicked spirit appeared among them, here called שׂטן Satan, or the adversary, and there a lying spirit; bent on mischief both, and ready to do all the hurt that they were able, or as far as God would give them leave; but, nevertheless, both under the control of his power, and suffered to go thus far and no farther, as might best serve the wise ends of his justice and his providence. The imagery, in short, is just the same; similis διατυπωσις, as Grotius observes: and the only difference is in the manner of the relation. Micaiah, as a prophet, and in the actual exercise of his prophetic office, delivers it as he received it, that is, as in vision. I saw the Lord sitting on his throne, &c. The other, as an historian, interweaves it with the history, and tells us, in the same plain narrative stile, There was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before the Lord, as he does, There was a man in the land of Uz, whose name was Job. The things delivered to us by these two sacred writers are in substance the same, equally high, and above the reach of mere human sight and knowledge: but the manner of delivering them is different; by each as suited best their several purposes, and both, no doubt, by inspiration and direction of Almighty God. This, then, is the prophetical way of representing things, as to the manner of doing them; which, whether done exactly in the same manner or not, concerns not us to know, but which are really done; and God would have them described as done in this manner, to make the more lively and more lasting impression on us. At the same time it must not be forgotten, that representations of this kind are founded in a well-known and established truth, I mean the doctrine of angels good and bad: a point revealed, no doubt, from the beginning; and without a previous knowledge whereof, the visions of the prophets could scarcely be intelligible: see Genesis 28. We would just observe, that from the prophetical stile being used by the writer of this book, we have reason to conclude, that he must have been a prophet, i.e. an inspired person; for, otherwise, a man of that sense and piety which the book shews him to be, would never presume to counterfeit the prophetic stile, or usurp a privilege or character which did not belong to him. See Peters, p. 121 who, in his 89th and following pages, has largely endeavoured to disprove what Bishop Warburton observes respecting the word Satan. See 1 Kings 22:21 and the note on the next chapter of this book, Job 1:7.

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Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on Job 1:6". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/job-1.html. 1801-1803.

Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary

(6) ¶ Now there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before the LORD, and Satan came also among them.

I cannot detain the Reader of this humble Commentary with a large and circumstantial account of what the scripture relates concerning the great enemy of souls, neither of the work and agency of the devil, as there set forth in his devices for the destruction of men. I take for granted that my Reader is too well established by grace, in the perfect conviction both of the reality of his person, and of the malice of his designs, to need any observation on these points. That he hath, from the first seduction of Adam in the garden to the present hour, had access to the hearts of men, is a truth too sad to be thought on, but with sorrow; and too true, but to be lamented with tears. It is his devilish work and delight to seduce sinners to their ruin. He filled the heart of Judas to betray Christ, and of Ananias to lie unto the Holy Ghost; and to lead poor sinners captive at his will. 2 Timothy 2:26; Acts 5:3. No doubt as he is a vanquished foe, all that he is permitted to exercise upon the minds of God's people, as the case of Job, is only to afford thereby a larger opportunity for the manifestation of God's sovereign grace, Jesus's victory, and his peoples happiness.

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Hawker, Robert, D.D. "Commentary on Job 1:6". "Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pmc/job-1.html. 1828.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

There was a day, i.e. a certain time appointed by God.

The sons of God, i.e. the holy angels, so called Job 38:7 Daniel 3:25,28, because of their creation by God, as Adam also was, Luke 3:38, and for their great resemblance of him in power, and dignity, and holiness, and for their filial affection and obedience to him.

Before the Lord, i.e. before his throne, to receive his commands, and to give him an account of their negotiations. Compare 1 Kings 22:19 Zechariah 4:14 Luke 1:19. But you must not think that these things were really done, and that Satan was mixed with the holy angels, or admitted into the presence of God in heaven, to maintain such discourses as this with the blessed God, or that he had formal commission and leave to do what follows; but it is only a parabolical representation of that great truth, that God by his wise and holy providence doth govern all the actions of men and devils to his own ends; it being usual with the great God to condescend to our shallow capacities, and to express himself, as the Jews phrase it, in the language of the sons of men, i.e. in such manner as men use to speak and may understand.

Satan came also among them; being forced to come, and give up his account.

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Job 1:6". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/job-1.html. 1685.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

6.Now there was a day — Rather, Now it came to pass on the day, perhaps some fixed time when the sons of God came together; “a sabbath day,” says Lightfoot, 2:110. Greswell (Fasti Catholici, Job 1:18) adduces Psalms 89:29, and Deuteronomy 11:21, in illustration of his speculation, that it may be not merely in the language of analogy, or of accommodation to human ideas, that inspiration itself speaks of the days of heaven, or gives us reason to conclude that even in heaven, as well as on earth, the lapse of time is measured and numbered by days of some kind or other. In keeping with this, the Chaldee paraphrast has presumed to specify the day: “Now it happened in the day of judgment, (or scrutiny,) in the beginning of the year, that hosts of angels came to stand in judgment before Jehovah, and Satan came.”

The sons of God — Septuagint, “angels of God.” Targum, “crowds of angels.” (See Job 38:7.) The sons of God are unquestionably angels, beings of some one of the several gradations of the intelligent and holy universe. Ephesians 1:21. The sons of God, bene Elohim, were in existence when “the foundations of the earth were laid,” and united in celebrating the laying of its corner-stone with “shouts of joy.” The peculiar designation of sons of God may point to a close relationship or a similarity of nature with Him, somewhat like that existing between child and parent among us. These sons of Deity may differ more from angels, who bear other titles, than from our own race, who, under the ennobling influences of grace, are called sons of God. (Genesis 6:2; Hosea 1:10; Romans 8:14.) Satan, though ruined by sin, was still in essential nature a son of God, and may have had at that time certain primordial rights (not then withdrawn, Luke 10:18; John 12:31; Revelation 12:9) to appear with these sons before God. Christ, par excellence, is called “Son of God,” the only-begotten of the Father, because he alone of all beings has oneness of nature with God. (See note on Genesis 6:2.) At a period not far from the time of Job the doctrine of angelic ministry had been plainly revealed. The ascent and descent of the angels upon Jacob’s ladder emblemed forth their tireless activity. They “rest not day and night.” Revelation 4:8. Before the Lord Elohim — in the next verse Jehovah. (See note on Job 1:21 and on Genesis 2:4.) They “take their stand” (Carey) before Jehovah, probably to engage in praise and adoration, and perhaps at the same time, to render account for their actions, and receive new commissions and behests. That these “sons of God” should be called upon at stated times to give account of their deeds is not an unreasonable thought for us — a race upon whom the sense of responsibility is stamped; and who will be summoned to undergo our ordeal at the close of life.

And Satan — See Excursus I, p. 33.

Came also among them — The expression, “in the midst of them,” does not imply constraint or obligation to appear with the sons of God, nor friendliness of association, but savours rather of intrusion and unexpectedness of appearance. The form of the question, “Whence art thou [just now] coming?” (the imperfect expressing the immediate present; thus Zockler and Davidson) favours such a view, inasmuch as the question seemingly arrests Satan in the act of making his approach. Whatever may have been the privileges of Satan at that time, (Job 1:6,) the scene smacks of effrontery, and makes clear the distinction of the evil from the good, and their irreconcilable antagonism. See Excursus II, p. 34.

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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Job 1:6". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/job-1.html. 1874-1909.

Joseph Benson's Commentary of the Old and New Testaments

Job 1:6. Now there was a day — A certain time appointed by God; when the sons of God came — The Targum says, Troops of angels, the LXX., Angels of God; the holy angels are called sons of God, (Job 38:7, and Daniel 3:25; Daniel 3:28,) because of their creation by God, their resemblance of him in power, dignity, and holiness, and their filial affection and obedience to him. To present themselves before the Lord — Before his throne, to receive his commands, and to give him an account of their ministrations. The verb להתיצב, lehithjatseb, here rendered to present themselves, expresses the attendance and assiduity of ministers appearing before their king to receive his instructions, or give an account of their negotiations. This must be understood as a parabolical representation, similar to that in 1 Kings 22:19. The Scripture speaks of God after the manner of men, condescending to our capacities, and suiting the revelation to our apprehensions. As kings, therefore, transact their most important affairs in a solemn council or assembly, so God is pleased to represent himself as having his council likewise and as passing the decrees of his providence in an assembly of his holy angels. We have here, in the case of Job, the same grand assembly held as was before in that of Ahab, 1 Kings 22 : the same host of heaven, called here the sons of God, presenting themselves before Jehovah, as in the vision of Micaiah they are said to stand on his right hand and on his left: a wicked spirit appearing among them, here called Satan, or the adversary, and there a lying spirit, both bent on mischief, and ready to do all the hurt that they were able, as far as God would give them leave; but, nevertheless, both under the control of his power, and suffered to go as far as might best serve the wise ends of his justice and his providence, and no further. The imagery, in short, is just the same; and the only difference is in the manner of the relation. Micaiah, as a prophet, and in the actual exercise of his prophetic office, delivers it as he received it, that is, in a vision: I saw the Lord sitting on his throne, &c. The other, as an historian, interweaves it with the history, and tells us, in the plain narrative style, There was a day, &c. And this parabolical or prophetical way of representing what is a great and most important truth, namely, that God, by his wise and holy providence, governs all the actions of men and devils, is used that it may make a more lively and lasting impression on our minds. At the same time it must not be forgotten that representations of this kind are founded in a well-known and established truth, namely, that there are angels, both good and bad, that they are interested in the affairs of men; a point revealed, no doubt, from the beginning. And that the affairs of earth are much the subject of the counsels of the unseen world, to which we lie open, though that world is in a great measure concealed from us. And such representations may also be intended to discover to us, in part, at least, the causes of many of those things which happen on earth, and which appear to us unaccountable, namely, that they arise from our having some connection with, or relation to, other orders of beings through the universe, on whose account, and through whose ministry, many things may happen to us, which otherwise would not. Thus the dreadful calamities and afflictions which befell Job, in such quick succession, are utterly unaccountable according to the ordinary course of human things, and seem almost without reason, if he were considered merely as a human being, having no connection with, relation to, or influence upon, any world but this, or any order of beings but those among whom he lived; but are easily accounted for if brought on him by invisible agents, through divine permission, and certainly answered a most wise and grand purpose, if intended to show to superior beings, whether good or evil, to what a degree of steady and invincible piety and fidelity to God his grace can raise creatures formed out of the clay, and dwelling in flesh. It is but just to observe here, that some commentators adopt a different interpretation of this verse, understanding by the sons of God presenting themselves before the Lord, the people of God meeting together for religious worship on earth. Dr. Lightfoot’s comment is, “On a sabbath day, when the professors of the true religion were met together, in the public assembly, Satan was invisibly there among them;” namely, to distract and disturb them in their worship, and observe their infirmities and defects, that he might have matter of accusation against them. But what we have stated above seems to be the most probable sense of the passage.

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Benson, Joseph. "Commentary on Job 1:6". Joseph Benson's Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rbc/job-1.html. 1857.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

The sons of God. The angels, (Challoner) as the Septuagint express it. (Calmet) --- Satan also, &c. This passage represents to us in a figure, accommodated to the ways and understandings of men, 1. The restless endeavours of satan against the servants of God. 2. That he can do nothing without God's permission. 3. That God doth not permit him to tempt them above their strength: but assists them by his divine grace in such manner, that the vain efforts of the enemy only serve to illustrate their virtue and increase their merit. (Challoner) --- A similar prosopopeia occurs, 3 Kings xxii. 19., and Zacharias i. 10. (Calmet) --- Devils appear not in God's sight, but sometimes in presence of angels, who represent God. (St. Athanasius, q. 8. ad Antioc, (Worthington) or some ancient author.) --- The good angels can make known their orders to them, Zacharias iii. 1., and Jude 9. Both good and bad spirits may be considered as the ministers of God. (Calmet) --- They appear in judgment; though the latter could not see the Lord.

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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on Job 1:6". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/job-1.html. 1859.

Mark Dunagan Commentary on the Bible

"Now there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before the Lord": The "sons of God" in this verse are angels (38:7), and the term "present" means literally to "station" themselves, that is to report on their activities. Clearly God governs the universe and in this council session, the agenda includes a reporting session in which the angels give an accounting for their delegated roles as watchers (Deuteronomy 4:13,17,23) and protectors (Zechariah 1:10ff; 6:5ff). "Deists, who contend that God created the universe, wound it like a watch, and left it running, are refuted. God pays infinite attention to His universe and guarantees its moral order" (McKenna p. 37).

"And Satan also came among them": The term "Satan" means "the accuser" and he will certainly play that role in this chapter. "This portion of the story is a stumbling block to scholars and readers alike. What is Satan doing in heaven? Does God take bets on His people? Is He party to human suffering?" (McKenna p. 36). Yet such questions should not cause anyone to stumble, for the book will reveal the answers. First, God is not threatened by Satan"s presence. Satan is permitted to enter and permitted to speak, yet Satan is clearly under God"s ultimate authority, his power is limited (1:12). Please note that Satan is allowed to object and argue with God-yet only in this life (Matthew 25:41).

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Dunagan, Mark. "Commentary on Job 1:6". "Mark Dunagan Commentaries on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/dun/job-1.html. 1999-2014.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

sons of God = the angels. Compare Job 38:7, and see App-23.

present themselves = take their stations.

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4.

Satan = the Adversary.

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Job 1:6". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/job-1.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

Now there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before the LORD, and Satan came also among them.

Sons of God - angels (Job 37:7; 1 Kings 22:19). Psalms 29:1, margin, "Sons of the mighty." Called also "saints" (Job 5:1): and "angels" or messengers (Job 4:18). "Sons of God" implies their birth from, and likeness to, God: whence man unfallen is similarly designated (Genesis 1:26-27; Genesis 6:2). "Saints" implies their entire consecration, and relative, though not absolute (Job 4:18; Job 15:15), perfection. "Angels" implies their function, in which respect also God's human messengers resemble them, and therefore receive the same name (Malachi 2:7; Galatians 4:14). They present themselves to render account of their "ministry" (Hebrews 1:14) in other parts of the universe, and to receive God's commands: so their attitude is standing before Yahweh, who sits on His throne (Zechariah 6:5; cf. Proverbs 22:29).

The Lord - Hebrew, YAHWEH (Hebrew #3068) (Jehovah) - the self-existing God, faithful to His premises. God says (Exodus 6:3) that He was not known to the patriarchs by this name. But, as the name occurs previously in Genesis 2:7-9, etc., what must be meant is, not until the time of delivering Israel by Moses was He known peculiarly and publicly in the character which the name means, namely, making things to be, fulfilling the promises made to their forefathers. This name, therefore, here is no objection against the antiquity of the Book of Job.

Satan. The tradition was widely spread that he had been the agent in Adam's temptation. Hence, his name is given without comment. The feeling with which he looks on Job is similar to that with which he looked on Adam in Paradise: emboldened by his success in the case of one not yet fallen, he is confident that the piety of Job, one of a fallen race, will not stand the test. He had fallen himself (Job 4:18; Job 15:15; Jude 1:6). In the book of Job first Satan is designated by name: Satan, in Hebrew [ Saataan (Hebrew #7854)], an adversary in a court of justice (1 Chronicles 21:1; Psalms 109:6; Zechariah 3:1). The accuser (Revelation 12:10). He has gotten the law of God on his side by man's sin, and against man. But Jesus Christ has fulfilled the law for us, so that justice is once more on man's side against Satan (Isaiah 42:21); and so Jesus Christ can plead as our advocate against the adversary (Romans 8:33). Devil the Greek name-the slanderer, or accuser. He is subject to God, who uses his ministry for chastising man. In Arabic Satan is often applied to a serpent (Genesis 3:1). He is called Prince of this world (John 12:31); the God of this world (2 Corinthians 4:4); Prince of the power of the air (Ephesians 2:2). God here questions him in order to vindicate His own ways before angels.

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Job 1:6". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/job-1.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(6) Sons of God.—Comp. Job 38:7, Genesis 6:2; Genesis 6:4; and for the sense comp. 1 Kings 22:19. The phrase probably means the angels; or at all events an incident in the unseen spiritual world is referred to simultaneous with a corresponding one on earth. (Comp. 1 Corinthians 11:10.) In the latter sense, a solemn thought is suggested by it to those who join in the public worship of God.

Satan.—The word appears in the Old Testament as the name of a specific person only here and in Zechariah 3:2, and possibly in 1 Chronicles 21:1 and Psalms 109:6. If this psalm is David’s, according to the inscription, no reliance can be placed on speculations as to the late introduction of a belief in Satan among the Jews, nor, therefore, on any as to the lateness of these early chapters of Job. Precisely the same word is used, apparently as a common name, in the history of Balaam (Numbers 22:22; Numbers 22:32), also in 1 Samuel 29:4, and 1 Kings 5:4; 1 Kings 11:14; 1 Kings 11:23; 1 Kings 11:25, where it can hardly be otherwise. Here only and in Zechariah it is found with the definite article “the adversary.” The theory of the personality of the evil one must largely depend upon the view we take of these and other passages of Scripture as containing an authoritative revelation.

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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Job 1:6". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/job-1.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Now there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before the LORD, and Satan came also among them.
Now
2:1
the sons
38:7; Daniel 3:25; Luke 3:38
came to
Psalms 103:20; Matthew 18:10
Satan
Heb. the adversary.
1 Kings 22:19; 1 Chronicles 21:1; Zechariah 3:1; Revelation 12:9,10
came also
John 6:70
among them
Heb. in the midst of them.
Reciprocal: Deuteronomy 31:14 - presented;  1 Kings 22:21 - General2 Chronicles 18:20 - there came;  Isaiah 6:2 - stood;  Zechariah 6:5 - go;  Zechariah 6:7 - the bay;  Matthew 4:10 - Satan;  Mark 4:15 - Satan;  Hebrews 1:14 - ministering;  1 Peter 5:8 - your

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Job 1:6". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/job-1.html.