Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Job 30:28

"I go about mourning without comfort; I stand up in the assembly and cry out for help.
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Torrey's Topical Textbook - Sun, the;  
Dictionaries:
Holman Bible Dictionary - Black;   Jackal;   Job, the Book of;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Ostrich;   Sun;  
Encyclopedias:
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Color;   Cry, Crying;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

I went mourning without the sun - חמה chammah, which we here translate the sun, comes from a root of the same letters, which signifies to hide, protect, etc., and may be translated, I went mourning without a protector or guardian; or, the word may be derived from חם cham, to be hot, and here it may signify fury, rage, anger; and thus it was understood by the Vulgate: Maerens incedebam, sine furore, I went mourning without anger; or, as Calmet translates, Je marchois tout triste, mais sans me laisser aller a l'emportement; "I walked in deep sadness, but did not give way to an angry spirit." The Syriac and Arabic understood it in the same way.

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Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Job 30:28". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/job-30.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

I went mourning - Or rather, “I go,” in the present tense, for he is now referring to his present calamities, and not to what was past. The word rendered “mourning,” however (קדר qâdar ), means here rather to be dark, dingy, tanned. It literally means to be foul or turbid, like a torrent, Job 6:16; then to go about in filthy garments, as they do who mourn, Job 5:11; Jeremiah 14:2; then to be dusky, or of a dark color, or to become dark. Thus, it is applied to the sun and moon becoming dark in an eclipse, or when covered with clouds, Jeremiah 4:28; Joel 2:10; Joel 3:15; Micah 3:6. Here it refers to the fact that, by the mere force of his disease, his skin had become dark and swarthy, though he had not been exposed to the burning rays of the sun. The wrath of God had burned upon him, and he had become black under it. Jerome, however, renders it moerens, mourning. The Septuagint, “I go groaning ( στένων stenōn ) without restraint, or limit” - ἄνευ φιμοῦ aneu fimou The Chaldee translates it אוכם, “black.”

Without the sun - Without being exposed to the sun; or without the agency of the sun. Though not exposed, he had become as dark as if he had been a day-laborer exposed to a burning sun.

I stood up - Or, I stand up.

And cried in the congregation - I utter my cries in the congregation, or when surrounded by the assembled people. Once I stood up to counsel them, and they hung upon my lips for advice; now I stand up only to weep over my accumulated calamities. This indicates the great change which had come upon him, and the depth of his sorrows. A man will weep readily in private; but he will be slow to do it, if he can avoid it, when surrounded by a multitude.

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Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Job 30:28". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/job-30.html. 1870.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

I went mourning without the sun,.... So overwhelmed with grief, that he refused to have any comfort from, or any advantage by the sun; hence Mr. Broughton renders it, "out of the sun"; he did not choose to walk in the sunshine, but out of it, to indulge his grief and sorrow the more; or he went in black attire, and wrapped and covered himself with it, that he might not see the sun, or receive any relief by it: or "I go black, but not by the sun"F17בלא חמה "non propter solem", Vatablus; "non a sole", Junius & Tremellius, Drusius, Mercerus; "non ob solem", Piscator. ; his face and his skin were black, but not through the sun looking upon him and discolouring him, as in Song of Solomon 1:6; but through the force of his disease, which had changed his complexion, and made him as black as a Kedarene, or those that dwell in the tents of Kedar, Song of Solomon 1:5; and he also walked without the sun of righteousness arising on him, with healing in his wings, which was worst of all:

I stood up, and I cried in the congregation: either in the congregation of the saints met together for religious worship, where he cried unto God for help and deliverance, and for the light of his countenance, Job 30:20; or such was the extreme anguish of his soul, that when a multitude of people got about him to see him in his distressed condition, he could not contain himself, but burst out before them in crying and tears, though he knew it was unbecoming a man of his age and character; or he could not content himself to stay within doors and soothe his grief, but must go abroad and in public, and there expressed with strong cries and tears his miserable condition.

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855
Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on Job 30:28". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/job-30.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

I went mourning s without the sun: I stood up, t [and] I cried in the congregation.

(s) Not delighting in any worldly thing, no not so much as in the use of the sun.

(t) Lamenting them that were in affliction and moving others to pity them.

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Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on Job 30:28". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/job-30.html. 1599-1645.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

mourning — rather, I move about blackened, though not by the sun; that is, whereas many are blackened by the sun, I am, by the heat of God‘s wrath (so “boiled,” Job 30:27); the elephantiasis covering me with blackness of skin (Job 30:30), as with the garb of mourning (Jeremiah 14:2). This striking enigmatic form of Hebrew expression occurs, Isaiah 29:9.

stood up — as an innocent man crying for justice in an assembled court (Job 30:20).

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These files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.
This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.
Bibliographical Information
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Job 30:28". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/job-30.html. 1871-8.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

I went mourning without the sun: I stood up, and I cried in the congregation.

Without the sun — Heb. black, not by the sun. My very countenance became black, tho' not by the sun, but by the force of my disease.

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These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.
Bibliographical Information
Wesley, John. "Commentary on Job 30:28". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/job-30.html. 1765.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

Job 30:28 I went mourning without the sun: I stood up, [and] I cried in the congregation.

Ver. 28. I went mourning without the sun] Ater ambulo, sed non ob solem; I am not sun burnt, but heart burnt; black and discoloured without, because parched and dried up within by the force of my disease and my grief, wherewith I am pained, pined, and even perished.

I stood up and cried in the congregation] Which was not very handsome, but I could not hold. Rise I did, and roar I must amidst the press of people, whatever they should think of me. So Mordecai went out into the midst of the city, and cried with a loud and a bitter cry; and came even before the king’s gate, &c., Esther 4:1-2. In extreme heaviness men care not to keep decorums.

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on Job 30:28". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/job-30.html. 1865-1868.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

Job 30:28. I went mourning without the sun I go mourning, as if the sun did not shine. Houb.

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Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on Job 30:28". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/job-30.html. 1801-1803.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

I went, or, I walked hither and thither as I could. Or, I converse or appear among others.

Mourning without the sun; spending my days in mourning, without any sun-light or comfort; or so oppressed with sadness, that I did not care nor desire to see the light of the sun. Heb. black not by the sun. My very countenance is changed and become black, but not by the sun, which makes many other persons black, Song of Solomon 1:5,6; but by the force of my disease and deep melancholy, which ofttimes makes a man’s visage black and dismal. See Psalms 119:83 Lamentations 5:10. And this he repeats in plainer terms, Job 30:30, as an eminent token of his excessive grief and misery.

I stood up; either because my disease and pain made me weary of other postures; or that others might take notice of me, and be moved with pity towards me.

I cried with a loud and direful clamour, through great and sudden anguish.

In the congregation; where prudence and modesty taught me to forbear it, if extreme necessity and misery had not forced me to it.

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Job 30:28". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/job-30.html. 1685.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

28.Mourning without the sun I go blackened, but not by the heat of the sun. The blackness of his skin is due, not to the sun, but to his disease. Elephantiasis passes current as “the black leprosy.”

Congregation — Probably the indiscriminate assemblage of the people, naturally drawn together at first by the tidings of his misfortunes. This seems to have been previous to the seven days of mourning; the utter breaking down of Job is painfully indicated by this cry of despair.

 

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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Job 30:28". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/job-30.html. 1874-1909.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

Mourning. Hebrew, "blackened without the sun." (Haydock) --- Bile has disfigured my countenance, through excessive sorrow, ver. 30. The dark olive complexions of the Jews and Arabs would be more susceptible of these effects. (Calmet) --- Indignation. I have not given way to passion, though I allowed full scope to my groans. (Septuagint) (Haydock)

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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on Job 30:28". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/job-30.html. 1859.

Mark Dunagan Commentary on the Bible

Each new morning does not bring any rest, comfort, or change. The word "assembly" may infer that Job actually cried out in public.

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Dunagan, Mark. "Commentary on Job 30:28". "Mark Dunagan Commentaries on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/dun/job-30.html. 1999-2014.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

congregation = assembly.

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Job 30:28". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/job-30.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

I went mourning without the sun: I stood up, and I cried in the congregation.

Mourning - rather, I move about blackened [ qodeer (Hebrew #6937)], though not by the sun - i:e., whereas many are blackened by the sun, I am by the heat of God's wrath (so "boiled," Job 30:27); the elephantiasis covering me with blackness of skin (Job 30:30), as with the garb of mourning (Jeremiah 14:2). This striking enigmatic form of Hebrew expression occurs Isaiah 29:9.

Stood up - as an innocent man crying for justice in an assembled court (Job 30:29).

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Bibliographical Information
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Job 30:28". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/job-30.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(28) I went mourning without the sun.—Rather, I go mourning without the sun; or, according to some, “blackened, but not by the sun.” We give the preference to the other.

I stood up, and I cried in the congregation—i.e., not merely in secret, but in the face of all men.

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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Job 30:28". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/job-30.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

I went mourning without the sun: I stood up, and I cried in the congregation.
Psalms 38:6; 42:9; 43:2; Isaiah 53:3,4; Lamentations 3:1-3
Reciprocal: Psalm 38:8 - roared;  Isaiah 59:11 - mourn

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Job 30:28". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/job-30.html.