Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Joshua 11:1

Then it came about, when Jabin king of Hazor heard of it, that he sent to Jobab king of Madon and to the king of Shimron and to the king of Achshaph,
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Achshaph;   Armies;   Canaanites;   Confederacies;   Hazor;   Jabin;   Jobab;   Madon;   Shimron;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Achshaph;   Hazor;   Jabin;   Merom;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Amorites;   Hazor;   Joshua the son of nun;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Achshaph;   Dor;   Hazor;   Jabin;   Jobab;   Madon;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Achshaph;   Barak;   Hazor;   Jabin;   Jobab;   Madon;   Shimron Meron;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Achshaph;   Amorites;   Conquest of Canaan;   Hazor;   Jabin;   Jobab;   Joshua, the Book of;   Madon;   Merom;   Mizpah, Mizpeh;   Shimron;   Shimron-Meron;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Achshaph;   Hazor;   Israel;   Jabin;   Job;   Jobab;   Joshua;   Madon;   Shimron;   Shimron-Meron;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Achshaph ;   Egypt;   Hazor ;   Jabin ;   Jobab ;   Madon ;   Shimron ;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Hazor;   Jabin;   Journeyings of israel from egypt to canaan;   Smith Bible Dictionary - Ach'shaph;   Dor;   Ha'zor;   Ja'bin;   Jo'bab;   Ma'don;   Shim'ron;   Shim'ron-Me'ron;   Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Abel-Shittim;  
Encyclopedias:
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Achshaph;   Hazor;   Jabin;   Jobab;   Joshua (2);   Joshua, Book of;   Madon;   Palestine;   Shimron (2);   Shimron-Meron;   War;   Kitto Biblical Cyclopedia - Achshaph;   The Jewish Encyclopedia - Jobab;   Judges, Period of;   King;   Meron;   Simonias;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

Jabin king of Hazor - It is probable that Jabin was the common name of all the kings of Hazor. That king, by whom the Israelites were kept in a state of slavery for twenty years, and who was defeated by Deborah and Barak, was called by this name; see Judges 4:2, Judges 4:3, Judges 4:23. The name signifies wise or intelligent. The city of Hazor was situated above the Lake Semechon, in Upper Galilee, according to Josephus, Antiq. lib. v., c. 6. It was given to the tribe of Naphtali, Joshua 19:36, who it appears did not possess it long; for though it was burnt by Joshua, Joshua 11:11, it is likely that the Canaanites rebuilt it, and restored the ancient government, as we find a powerful king there about one hundred and thirty years after the death of Joshua, Judges 4:1. It is the same that was taken by Tiglath-pileser, together with Kadesh, to which it is contiguous; see 2 Kings 15:29. It is supposed to have given name to the Valley or Plain of Hazor or Nasor, situated between it and Kadesh, where Jonathan and Mattathias defeated the armies of Demetrius, and slew three thousand of their men, 1 Maccabees 11:63-74. It was in ancient times the metropolitan city of all that district, and a number of petty kings or chieftains were subject to its king, see Joshua 11:10; and it is likely that it was those tributary kings who were summoned to attend the king of Hazor on this occasion; for Joshua having conquered the southern part of the promised land, the northern parts seeing themselves exposed made now a common interest, and, joining with Jabin, endeavored to put a stop to the progress of the Israelites. See Calmet

Jobab king of Madon - This royal city is nowhere else mentioned in Scripture except in Joshua 12:19. The Vatican copy of the Septuagint reads Μαρων, Maron, which, if legitimate, Calmet thinks may mean Maronia or Merath in Phoenicia, to the north of Mount Libanus. The Hebrew text reads מרון Meron, Joshua 12:20, after Shimron, which is probably the same with מדון Madon, Joshua 11:19, the word having casually dropped out of the preceding place into the latter, and the ר resh and ד daleth being interchanged, which might have easily happened from the great similarity of the letters. Hence Calmet conjectures that it may be the same place with מרוז Meroz, Judges 5:23, the ז zain and final ן nun being interchanged, which they might easily, as they are so very similar.

King of Shimron - This city is supposed to be the same with Symira, in Coelosyria, joined to Maron or Marath, by Pliny and Pomponius Mela. It cannot be Samaria, as that had its name long after by Omri king of Israel. See 1 Kings 16:24.

King of Achshaph - Calmet supposes this to have been the city of Ecdippe, mentioned by Pliny, Ptolemy, Josephus, and Eusebius. The latter places it within ten miles of Ptolemais, on the road to Tyre. It fell to the tribe of Asher. See Joshua 19:26.

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Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Joshua 11:1". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/joshua-11.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

Jabin - Probably the hereditary and official title of the kings of Hazor (see Judges 4:2). The word means literally “he shall understand,” and is equivalent to “the wise” or “intelligent.”

Hazor - This name, which means “enclosed or “fortified,” belonged also to two other towns in the south of Judah (compare Joshua 15:23, Joshua 15:25). The Hazor here in question, the head of the principalities of Northern Canaan Joshua 11:10 overlooked the lake of Merom, and was afterward assigned to the tribe of Naphtali Joshua 19:36. It doubtless was one of the strongest fortresses in the north, both by nature and art. It is mentioned in Egyptian inscriptions of an early date. Its situation in the midst of a plain, though itself on a hill, rendered it especially suitable as a stronghold for people whose main reliance was on horses and chariots Joshua 11:4; Judges 4:3. Its position on the northern frontier led to its being fortified by Solomon 1 Kings 9:15. Its people were carried away captive, with those of the other cities of Naphtali, by Tiglath-Pileser 2 Kings 15:29. By the “plain of Nasor,” where (1 Maccabees 11:67) Jonathan gained a victory over the Syrians, is doubtless to be understood “the plain of Asor” (i. e. Hazor). Hazor is conjecturally identified with the modern Tell Kuraibeh.

Had heard those things - i. e. of the defeat of the southern Canaanites at Beth-horon and of the conquest of their country.

The sites of Madon, Shimron, and of Achshaph, are unknown.

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Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Joshua 11:1". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/joshua-11.html. 1870.

Coffman Commentaries on the Bible

With a format quite like that in Joshua 10, this chapter recounts the great Israelite victory over the Northern Coalition led by Jabin king of Hazor. Joshua is far from giving a detail of all the fighting that took place in the Conquest of Canaan, but, taking the over-all view, the author of this book bases the conquest upon three, and only three great campaigns:

(1) the fall of Jericho and the destruction of Ai;

(2) the defeat of the coalition under Adonizedek; and

(3) the defeat of the coalition led by Jabin.

Afterward, all of the opposition encountered by Israel was of a merely local nature. After the events of this chapter, the whole land of Palestine lay open to Israel, and there was no power in the entire area that could effectively challenge them. The great pity, of course, is that Israel desired peace so earnestly that they neglected to continue the conquest in any thorough manner. Consequently, some of the tribes did not actually "possess their possessions." Also, there was the settlement of the two and one half tribes east of Jordan, which drastically cut into the manpower available for a longer and more thorough conquest.

This third and final major campaign does not appear to have been providentially aided as in the instance of Jericho and Beth-horon, except in the commandment which God gave to Joshua to "strike now." The significance of that timeliness of the attack is evident in this comment by Cook:

"Taken by surprise and hemmed in between the mountains and the lake, the chariots and horses had no time to be deployed and no room to act effectively; and then, in all probability, the host of the coalition fell into hopeless confusion."[1]

God's command for Joshua to hock the horses may also be classed as providential aid. This rendered the horses and chariots useless either for offensive purposes, or for retreat and flight in case of defeat. Thousands of the coalition troops were accustomed to "riding in chariots," and not to the infantry-like retreat which made them extremely vulnerable to Israel's hardened and skillful attackers.

Jabin's great host which was enumerated by Josephus as being composed of, "Three hundred thousand armed footmen, ten thousand horsemen, and twenty thousand chariots,"[2] were hopelessly crowded into a restricted area, which, in fact, amounted to a trap. It appears that Jabin would never have selected this spot for a battle and that the congregation of his forces there was thought by him to be an appropriate staging area for the forthcoming battle, which Jabin no doubt thought would take place at his option and choice of the site for the conflict. Joshua's lightning-like attack caught them utterly unprepared, and the great host was cut into pieces without their having an opportunity to make any effective move against Israel.

A word about Israel's weapons is also in order here. Rea has this description:

"The chief weapon of the Israelites was the short, thrusting sword (10 or 12 inches to eighteen inches in length) protruding from a hilt fashioned like a lion's mouth (whence the metaphor, `the mouth of the sword') ... They also used scimitars (Joshua 8:18), bows and arrows (Joshua 24:12), slings with stone balls (Judges 20:16), thrusting spears or lances (Numbers 25:7,8), and hurling javelins (1 Samuel 18:10,11)."[3]

From the military viewpoint the "short sword" of Israel was the predecessor and forerunner of the famed "short sword" of the Romans which overcame the vaunted phalanx of the Macedonians and won for Rome the domination of the world for centuries. In fact, nothing could ever stand against that weapon (the short sword) until the invention of firearms.

"And it came to pass when Jabin king of Hazor heard thereof, that he sent to Jobab king of Madon, and to the king of Shimron, and to the king of Achshaph, and to the kings that were in the north, in the hill-country, and in the Arabah south of Chinneroth, and in the lowland, and in the heights of Dor on the west, to the Canaanite on the east and on the west, and the Amorite, and the Hittite, and the Perizzite, and the Jebusite in the hill-country, and the Hivite under Hermon in the land of Mizpah. And they went out, they and all their hosts with them, much people, even as the sand that is upon the seashore in multitude, with horses and chariots very many. And all these kings met together; and they came and encamped together at the waters of Merom, to fight with Israel."

"Jabin king of Hazor ..." The name Jabin, "means the intelligent one!"[4] The city of Hazor, a metropolis at that time of some 40,000 inhabitants occupied a fortified site of about 200 acres and was in the times of Joshua, "by far the largest and most famous city in Palestine."[5] It is of interest that another king bearing this same dynastic name (Jabin) ruled over a rebuilt Hazor in the times of Deborah and Barak (Judges 4:2). Of course, critical enemies of the Bible could not resist trying to make the references various and contradictory accounts of the same event, as did Holmes, who wrote: "Joshua's victory here seems inconsistent with the account in Judges, where there is no reference to Jabin, but only to Sisera."[6] Rea emphasized the irresponsibility of such assertions, declaring that, "It is rash to assert that these stories are merely varying accounts of the same event."[7] Joshua indeed burned Hazor, but, as Israel did not settle there, the Canaanites rebuilt it, and much later they defeated Israel and oppressed the people for twenty years, until Israel again destroyed it. The destruction of the city analyzed by excavators almost certainly refers to the destruction mentioned in Judges.

"Jobab king of Madon ..." "Madon was a Canaanite city on a hill overlooking Lake Tiberias."[8] It has been identified as the "mountain" from which Christ delivered the Sermon on the Mount as recorded by Matthew.

"Achshaph ..." Nothing is certainly known of the location of this place except that it was in the territory assigned to Asher (Joshua 19:25).

The various peoples solicited by Jabin to join the coalition are enumerated in Joshua 11:3,4, and, from the mention of the several racial groups that made up ancient Palestine, it seems that Jabin attempted to rally all of the Canaanites of the whole area for a war against Israel. Dummelow, however, thought that the racial groups cited here was more of a geographical than a racial identification."[9] This attempt succeeded in amassing an army of some 330,000 men, with the heaviest armour then known, namely horses and chariots.

"Hermon in the land of Mizpah ..." (Joshua 11:3). "The word Mizpah has about the same meaning that Belle View has in English, namely, "`Beautiful View.' There were several other names by which Hermon was identified, such as Shenir (as the Amorites called it), and Sirion (the name preferred by the Sidonians).[10] All of these names were similar to a name that the Indians of North America used, Shenan, meaning stars or shining, and from which our word Shenandoah (daughter of the stars) is derived. These names have been said to mean "glorious one," or "shining coat of mail," all such names being descriptions of the beautiful snow-covered Hermon with the sun shining upon it!

"The waters of Merom ..." This location was probably intended to be the staging area where full preparations for an assault upon Israel would be completed. Joshua's sudden attack frustrated that plan. "Merom lies between Lake Huleh and Lake Tiberias some ten miles west of Jordan, where copious springs feed a tributary to Jordan."[11]

Matthew Henry speaks of the tremendous confidence that must have built up in the minds of the Coalition and their leaders, due to the tremendous numbers of their armies,[12] and that may account for the element of their carelessness in the choice of a staging area in such a restricted location.

Despite the fact that many of the most accurate scholars have denied and refuted the critical assertion that the events of this chapter are a mere doublet of the various account of the same event in Judges 4, one still encounters the unsupported assertion of this error in much of the current literature. Even the Interpreter's Bible now affirms that, "It is more likely that the narratives of Joshua 11, and Judges 4, have to do with separate events."[13]

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Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.
Bibliographical Information
Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on Joshua 11:1". "Coffman Commentaries on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/joshua-11.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

And it came to pass, when Jabin king of Hazor had heard these things,.... The taking of Jericho and Ai, the defeat of the five kings, and the conquest of the southern part of the land of Canaan; he was alarmed by them, and sent to all the northern kings to join with him against Israel; and he the rather took this upon him, because as Adonizedek king of Jerusalem was the principal king in the southern part of the land, so was he in the northern part; see Joshua 11:10; Hazor fell to the tribe of Naphtali, Joshua 19:36. It was situated, as JosephusF14Antiqu. l. 5. c. 5. sect. 1. says, on the lake Samachonitis, the same with the waters of Merom, Joshua 11:5. According to AdrichomiusF15Theatrum Terrae Sanct. p. 102. , it was four miles from the castle Theron to the north, six miles from Caesarea Philippi to the southwest, and nine miles from the great sea to the east; and was, in the times of Christ, one of the ten principal cities of the region of Decapolis, in which he preached, Matthew 4:25; and is now called Antiopia; and in the Arabic version here it is called Caesarea, and, according to BuntingF16Travels of the Patriarchs, &c. p. 101. , it lay eighty miles from Jerusalem to the north:

that he sent to Jobab king of Madon; of which place we nowhere else read but in Joshua 12:19; though BrocardF17Apud Fuller's Pisgah Sight, B. 2. c. 4. p. 114. finds a place near Dan, called Madan by the Turks at this day:

and to the king of Shimron; not Samaria, as many think, for that was built by Omri, king of Israel, and had its name from Shemer, the owner of the hill on which it was built some hundreds of years after this; besides Samaria was in the tribe of Ephraim, this in the tribe of Zebulun, Joshua 19:15; and is called Shimronmeron, Joshua 12:20; and in the Jerusalem TalmudF18Megillah, fol. 70. 1. Simoniah, and here in the Septuagint version Symoson:

and to the king of Achshaph: a city which fell to the lot of the tribe of Asher, Joshua 19:25. The Septuagint calls it Aziph, as if it was the same with Achzib, or Ecdippa, now called Zib: but Achshaph and Achzib are manifestly distinguished, Joshua 19:25. Jerom saysF19De loc. Heb. fol. 88. C. D. , in his time it was a little village, and went by the name of Chasalus, eight miles from Diocaesarea, at the foot of Mount Tabor. The Arabic version adds a fourth king that Jabin sent to, called "the king of Mausel"; but we read not of any such place in the land of Canaan.

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855
Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on Joshua 11:1". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/joshua-11.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

And it came to pass, when Jabin king of Hazor had heard [those things], that he a sent to Jobab king of Madon, and to the king of Shimron, and to the king of Achshaph,

(a) The more God's power appears, the more the wicked rage against it.
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Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on Joshua 11:1". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/joshua-11.html. 1599-1645.

Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary

CONTENTS

The account of the holy war is continued in this Chapter; and in this is concluded the conquest of Canaan. In the former is related to us, the carrying on of the war in the Southern provinces of Canaan: in this, of the Northern. The kings of the North, like those of the South, join in confederacy against Joshua. The Lord encourages Joshua. He conquers them all, and destroys the Anakims.

Joshua 11:1

It is astonishing what fear possessed the minds of the nations, at the victories of Joshua. And doth not equal fear take possession of the minds of God's enemies now, when they behold the distinguishing victories of Jesus, by his grace on the hearts of sinners? What Moses sung concerning temporal mercies, surely the man of God meant yet more pointedly in the prospect of eternal mercies! See Exodus 15:14.

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Hawker, Robert, D.D. "Commentary on Joshua 11:1". "Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pmc/joshua-11.html. 1828.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

And it came to pass, when Jabin king of Hazor had heard those things, that he sent to Jobab king of Madon, and to the king of Shimron, and to the king of Achshaph,

Hazor — The chief city of those parts, verse10.

Had heard — This was a remarkable instance of the wisdom and goodness of Divine Providence, which so governed the minds of the Canaanites, that they were not all united under one king, but divided amongst many petty kings; and next, that these did not all unanimously join their counsels and forces together to oppose the Israelites at their first entrance, but quietly suffered the destruction of their brethren, thereby preparing the way for their own.

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Wesley, John. "Commentary on Joshua 11:1". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/joshua-11.html. 1765.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

Joshua 11:1 And it came to pass, when Jabin king of Hazor had heard [those things], that he sent to Jobab king of Madon, and to the king of Shimron, and to the king of Achshaph,

Ver. 1. When Jabin king of Hazor had heard those things.] In policy he should have done this sooner, before the five southern kings had been destroyed. But Jabin was an Epimetheus, a postmaster, wise after the fact; and sped accordingly. God’s holy hand was in it also, that his people might not be over matched or disheartened. Our temptations are in like sort disposed of by Christ, the great Aγωνοθετης.

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on Joshua 11:1". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/joshua-11.html. 1865-1868.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

Ver. 1. And—when Jabin king of Hazor had heard, &c.— No sooner was this king of Hazor informed of the conquests of Joshua, than he took a resolution to stop, if possible, the progress of his victorious arms, by covering the north part of the country of Canaan, of which Hazor, afterwards given to the tribe of Naphtali, was the principal city. Jabin, in all probability, was the common name of all the kings of Hazor. What inclines to this belief is, that the prince, who was subject to the Israelites for twenty years in the time of the Judges, and who was defeated by Deborah, went by this name of Jabin.

He sent to Jobab, king of Madon, &c.— This is the only place where mention is made of a king of Madon, excepting ch. Joshua 12:19. This city is entirely unknown. It was formerly held by the king of Hazor, see ver. 10. Calmet observes, that if, with the Roman edition of the LXX, we read Maron, we might find the city of Maronia or Marath, north of mount Lebanon. The name Maron is preserved ch. Joshua 12:19. I know not, says he, whether the land of Meroz, mentioned Judges 5:23 might not be the country of Maron. Shimron is the same as that called Shimron-Meron, ch. Joshua 12:20. This city afterwards belonged to the tribe of Zebulun, south of that of Naphtali. Calmet takes Shimron to be the Symira of Pliny, which lay in Caelo-Syria. It cannot be Samaria, for this city was not then in being; and its name was given it by Omri, king of Israel, 1 Kings 16:24. Achshaph afterwards belonged to the tribe of Asher, and lay north-west, towards the extremity of that tribe, ch. Joshua 19:25. Calmet is of opinion, that Achshaph was the Eedippe of Pliny, Ptolemy, Josephus, and Eusebius.

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Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on Joshua 11:1". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/joshua-11.html. 1801-1803.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

JOSHUA CHAPTER 11

The other kings and cities of Canaan gather themselves together to fight against Israel, Joshua 11:1-5. God encourages Joshua, promising him victory, Joshua 11:6. The Canaanites destroyed; their cities taken; Hazor burnt; the Anakims cut off, Joshua 11:7-21; those in Gaza, Gath, and Ashdod excepted, Joshua 11:22,23.

Hazor, the chief city of all those parts, Joshua 11:10.

Had heard those things: this was a remarkable instance of the wisdom and goodness of Divine Providence, which so governed the minds and hearts of the Canaanites, that they were not at all united under one king, but divided amongst many petty kings; and next, that these did not all unanimously join their counsels and forces together to oppose the Israelites at their first entrance, which their own wisdom and interest obliged them to do; but quietly suffered the destruction of their brethren, thereby preparing the way for their own.

Shimron, called Shimron-meron, Joshua 12:20.

Achshaph, a place in the tribe of Asher, the furthest part of the land toward the north and west.

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Joshua 11:1". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/joshua-11.html. 1685.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

1. Jabin (signifying he shall know, or he is wise ) was probably the royal title of the kings of Hazor.

Hazor was a Phenician fortified city in the north of Palestine. It was the principal city of the whole of the North, “the head of all those kingdoms.” Joshua 11:10. [After its destruction by Joshua it was rebuilt and occupied by another Jabin, who attained vast power, and for twenty years greatly oppressed Israel, (Judges 4:2-3,) but was in turn defeated by Barak. It was subsequently fortified by Solomon, (1 Kings 9:15,) but was afterward captured by Tiglath-pileser, king of Assyria. 2 Kings 15:29. Travellers are not agreed as to its site. Dr. Thomson thinks it is at the modern Hazere, about twelve miles west of the Lake Merom. Stanley locates it on an eminence just above Cesarea Philippi; Robinson at Tell Khureibeh, a rocky peak three miles west of Lake Merom; and Porter inclines to locate it a few miles south of this, on a bank of the Wady Hendaj.]

Madon was a leading city in the same vicinity, but its locality is now unknown.

Shimron, called also Shimron-Merom, (Joshua 12:20,) was the chief place in a small district afterward belonging to Zebulun, eleven miles northeast of Nazareth. Schwarz thinks that it is the same as the modern Semuniyeh, a few miles west of Nazareth.

Achshaph was in the territory of Asher. Joshua 19:25. Robinson identifies it with the ruined town now called Kasaf, ten or twelve miles northwest of Lake Merom.

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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Joshua 11:1". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/joshua-11.html. 1874-1909.

Joseph Benson's Commentary of the Old and New Testaments

Joshua 11:1. King of Hazor — This was the principal city of the northern part of Canaan, Joshua 11:10; and fell to the share of the tribe of Naphtali in the division of the land, Joshua 19:36. Jabin was the name of the king of the Canaanites in this part of the country, in future times, as well as now. Had heard — This was a remarkable instance of the wisdom and goodness of Divine Providence, which so governed the minds of the Canaanites, that they were not all united under one king but divided among many petty kings; and next, that these did not all unanimously join their counsels and forces together to oppose the Israelites at their first entrance, but quietly suffered the destruction of their brethren, thereby preparing the way for their own.

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Benson, Joseph. "Commentary on Joshua 11:1". Joseph Benson's Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rbc/joshua-11.html. 1857.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

Jabin, "the intelligent," was perhaps the common name of the kings of Asor, the most powerful city in the northern parts of the country, (ver. 10.; Calmet) not far from the Cæsarea, (Menochius) which was built by Philip, where Lais stood before. (Haydock) --- Josue burnt Asor to the ground; but it was rebuilt by the Chanaanites, and a powerful king reigned here, and subjugated the Israelites about 130 years after the death of Josue, Judges iv. 1. (Calmet) --- Being the most interested in this warfare, Jabin assembled all the petty kings of the country as far as Dor, to resist the common enemy. (Haydock) --- He was the generalissimo, (Grotius) and went to stop the progress of Josue, who had conquered the southern parts, and was making ready to march against the north.

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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on Joshua 11:1". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/joshua-11.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

when Jabin. heard. Note the stages. (1) Jericho, unresisting; (2) Ai, a sortie; (3) Gibeon, confederacy; (4) Jabin, aggressive.

Hazor. Celebrated in Judges 4:2, Judges 4:17.

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Joshua 11:1". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/joshua-11.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

And it came to pass, when Jabin king of Hazor had heard those things, that he sent to Jobab king of Madon, and to the king of Shimron, and to the king of Achshaph,

And it came to pass, when Jabin king of Hazor had heard those things. The scene of the sacred narrative is here shifted to the north of Canaan, where a still more extensive confederacy was formed among the ruling powers, to oppose the further progress of the Israelites. Jabin ('the intelligent'), which seems to have been a hereditary title (Judges 4:2), took the lead, from Hazor being the capital of the northern region (Joshua 11:10). It was situated on the borders of lake Merom. The ether cities mentioned must have been in the vicinity, though their exact position is unknown.

Madon, [Septuagint, Maroon = Merom (Joshua 11:5).] Shimron - called Shimron-meron, Joshua 12:20.

Achshaph - Ecdippa, near the Phoenician coast (Joshua 19:25).

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Bibliographical Information
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Joshua 11:1". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/joshua-11.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

XI.

JOSHUA’S NORTHERN CAMPAIGN.

(1) Jabin king of Hazor seems to have been in northern Palestine what Adonizedec, king of Jerusalem, was in the south. For the strength of this monarchy see the story in Judges 4, 5. From its formidable character when it recovered strength in the days of the judges, we may gather some notion of what it was at first.

Hazor is identified as Jebel Hadîrah, near Kedes, in Upper Galilee.

Madon, perhaps Madîn, west of the Sea of Galilee.

Shimron is identified as Simûnieh, west of Nazareth.

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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Joshua 11:1". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/joshua-11.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

And it came to pass, when Jabin king of Hazor had heard those things, that he sent to Jobab king of Madon, and to the king of Shimron, and to the king of Achshaph,
Jabin
10; 12:19; 19:36; Judges 4:2,17
he sent
10:3,4; Psalms 2:1-4; 83:1-3; Isaiah 26:11; 43:2,5-7
Madon
The LXX. read [Marón] which, if legitimate, Calmet thinks may be the same as Maronia or Marath, in Phoenicia, to the north of mount Lebanon, ch. 12:19, 20; 19:15, 25.
Shimron
Supposed to be the same with Symira, in Coele-Syria, joined to Maron or Marath by Pliny and Pomponius Mela.
Achshaph
Supposed by some to be the same as Achzib or Ecdippa; from which, however, it is distinguished in ch. 19:25, 29. It was in the northern part of the tribe of Asher.
Reciprocal: Joshua 9:1 - all the kings;  Judges 1:19 - chariots;  Judges 5:19 - kings;  1 Kings 9:15 - Hazor;  2 Kings 15:29 - Hazor

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Bibliographical Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Joshua 11:1". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/joshua-11.html.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

1.And it came to pass when Jabin, etc In this new league also we have a bright manifestation of the more than paternal care of God, in warding off dangers from his people, and also in assisting their weakness by kindness and indulgence. Had Jabin, with the confederates of whom mention is now made, openly declared himself the ally of the neighboring kings, a much more formidable war would have broken out against the Israelites, and greater solicitude and anxiety must have seized their minds. It would, indeed, have been easy for the Lord, as well to put all their forces at once to the rout, as to dissipate all fear and dread of them. He was unwilling, however, to press beyond measure his own people, who were otherwise feeble, lest the excessive numbers of the enemy should strike them with terror, and drive them to despair. He therefore kept the many nations, whose interest it was to have rushed hastily to arms, in a state of lethargy and amazement, until the chosen people had been animated by signal victories, to carry on the wars which still remained. They pillage and devastate a large territory, and leave it destitute of inhabitants and stript of resources. None of the neighboring powers, who were afterwards to act on the offensive, makes the least movement. The Israelites revisit their wives and children in safety. When they had gathered courage, and were ready for a new war, suddenly a very large army appears, composed of different nations, who had hitherto, by remaining quiet, furnished opportunity for victory. Their coming thus forward at a later period, was the same as if they had entered into a truce. Thus God not only fought for his chosen people, but by dividing the enemy, increased their strength manifold.

How formidable must the onset have been, had not the Israelites been gradually trained to confidence in battle, and at the same time experienced the manifest assistance of God? First, their numbers are compared to the sand of the sea, and then they have horses and chariots. As the Israelites were altogether destitute of cavalry, it is strange that they were not terrified at this array. Therefore they were gradually brought forward till they were able to bear it. For, in their former battles, he had only exercised them by a kind of pleasing preludes. (110) It may be added, that the Lord had, by several victories, ever and anon borne testimony to his power, that they might not think more lightly of it than was meet. Had all their enemies been routed at once, they might, indeed, have magnificently celebrated the praises of God, but they might also have easily lost the remembrance of them. It was necessary, therefore, that repeated proofs distinct and apart from each other, should be held forth to their view, lest they might attribute one victory to a stroke of fortune.

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Calvin, John. "Commentary on Joshua 11:1". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/joshua-11.html. 1840-57.