Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Revelation 11:18

And the nations were enraged, and Your wrath came, and the time came for the dead to be judged, and the time to reward Your bond-servants the prophets and the saints and those who fear Your name, the small and the great, and to destroy those who destroy the earth."
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Fear of God;   God Continued...;   Judgment;   Righteous;   Wicked (People);   Thompson Chain Reference - Promises, Divine;   Righteous, the;   Righteous-Wicked;   Saints;   The Topic Concordance - Destruction;   Saints;   Seals;   Wrath;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Anger of God, the;   Judgment, the;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Antichrist;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Judgment;   Kingdom of god;   Singing;   Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Order;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Nebuchadnezzar;   Revelation of John, the;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Revelation, the Book of;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Anger (Wrath) of God;   Beast;   Hope;   Justification, Justify;   Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Anger;   Eschatology;   Reward;   Saints;   Thanksgiving;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Revelation, the;  
Encyclopedias:
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Retribution;   Revelation of John:;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

The nations were angry - Were enraged against thy Gospel, and determined to destroy it.

Thy wrath is come - The time to avenge thy servants and to destroy all thy enemies.

The time of the dead, that they should be judged - The word κρινειν, to judge, is often used in the sense of to avenge. The dead, here, may mean those who were slain for the testimony of Jesus, and the judging is the avenging of their blood.

Give reward unto thy servants - Who have been faithful unto death.

The prophets - The faithful teachers in the Church, the saints - the Christians.

And them that fear thy name - All thy sincere followers.

Destroy them which destroy the earth - All the authors, fomenters, and encouragers of bloody wars.

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Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Revelation 11:18". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/revelation-11.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

And the nations were angry - Were enraged against thee. This they had shown by their opposition to his laws; by persecuting his people; by slaying his witnesses; by all the attempts which they had made to destroy his authority on the earth. The reference here seems to be to the whole series of events preceding the final establishment of his kingdom on the earth; to all the efforts which had been made to throw off his government and to crush his church. At this period of glorious triumph it was natural to look back to those dark times when the “nations raged” (compare Psalm 2:1-3), and when the very existence of the church was in jeopardy.

And thy wrath is come - That is, the time when thou wilt punish them for all that they have done in opposition to thee, and when the wicked shall be cut off. There will be, in the setting up of the kingdom of God, some manifestation of his wrath against the powers that opposed it; or something that will show his purpose to destroy his enemies, and to judge the wicked. The representations in this book lead us to suppose that the final establishment of the kingdom of God on the earth will be introduced or accompanied by commotions and wars which will end in the overthrow of the great powers that have opposed his reign, and by such awful calamities in those portions of the world as shall show that God has arisen in his strength to cut off his enemies, and to appear as the vindicator of his people. Compare the notes on Revelation 16:12-16; Revelation 20:1-15, and the meaning of the sacred writer will, therefore, come up for a more distinct and full examination when we consider that chapter. See the notes on Revelation 20:4-6, Revelation 20:12-15. The purpose of the writer does not require that a detailed statement of the order of the events referred to should be made here, for it would be better made when, after another line of illustration and of symbol Revelation 11:19; Matthew 25:34-40; Revelation 21:22. That is, in the final winding-up of human affairs, God will bestow the long-promised reward on those who have been his true friends. The wicked that annoyed and persecuted them will annoy and persecute them no more; and the righteous will be publicly acknowledged as the friends of God. For the manner in which this will be done, see the details in Revelation 10:11.

And to the saints - To all who are holy - under whatever dispensation, and in whatever land, and at whatever time, they may have lived. Then will be the time when, in a public manner, they will be recognized as belonging to the kingdom of God, and as being his true friends.

And them that fear thy name - Another way of designating his people, since religion consists in a profound veneration for God, Malachi 3:16; Job 1:1; Psalm 15:4; Psalm 22:23; Psalm 115:11; Proverbs 1:7; Proverbs 3:13; Proverbs 9:10; Isaiah 11:2; Acts 10:22, Acts 10:35.

Small and great - Young and old; low and high; poor and rich. The language is designed to comprehend all, of every class, who have a claim to be numbered among the friends of God, and it furnishes a plain intimation that people of all classes will be found at last among his true people. One of the glories of the true religion is, that, in bestowing its favors, it disregards all the artificial distinctions of society, and addresses man as man, welcoming all who are human beings to the blessings of life and salvation. This will be illustriously shown in the last period of the world‘s history, when the distinctions of wealth, and rank, and blood shall lose the importance which has been attributed to them, and when the honor of being a child of God shall have its true place. Compare Galatians 3:28.

And shouldest destroy them which destroy the earth - That is, all who have, in their conquests, spread desolation over the earth and who have persecuted the righteous, and all who have done injustice and wrong to any class of people. Compare the notes on Revelation 20:13-15.

Here ends, as I suppose, the first series of visions referred to in the volume sealed with the seven seals, Revelation 5:1. At this point, where the division of the chapter should have been made, and which is properly marked in our common Bibles by the sign of the paragraph (),there commences a new series of visions, intended also, but in a different line, to extend down to the consummation of all things. The former series traces the history down mainly through the series of civil changes in the world, or the outward affairs which affect the destiny of the church; the latter - the portion still before us - embraces the same period with a more direct reference to the rise of antichrist, and the influence of that power in affecting the destiny of the Church. When that is completed Revelation 11:19; Revelation 1219, the way is prepared Revelation 2022 for the more full statement of the final triumph of the gospel, and the universal prevalence of religion, with which the book so appropriately closes. That portion of the book, therefore, refers to the same period as the one which has just been considered under the sounding of the seventh trumpet, and the description of the final state of things would have immediately succeeded if it had not been necessary, by another series of visions, to trace more particularly the history of antichrist on the destiny of the church, and the way in which that great and fearful power would be finally overcome. See the Analysis of the Book, part 5. The way is then prepared for the description of the state of things which will exist when all the enemies of the church shall be subdued; when Christianity shall triumph; and when the predicted reign of God shall be set up on the earth, Revelation 2022.

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Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Revelation 11:18". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/revelation-11.html. 1870.

Coffman Commentaries on the Bible

And the nations were wroth, and thy wrath came, and the time of the dead to be judged, and the time to give their reward to thy servants the prophets, and to the saints, and to them that fear thy name, the small and the great; and to destroy them that destroy the earth.

These terse references are to what has already taken place, as clearly indicated by the consistent use of the past tense, the great fact of the execution of those events being here the theme of perpetual thanksgiving and praise in the presence of God. Angry nations, sin, Satan, and death no longer exist.

And the nations were wroth ... The universal anger of the unrepentant and rebellious world as their vaunted civilization, rotten to its foundations with the corruption of sin, disintegrates and falls to pieces, is here extolled in the song of the redeemed. The answer to man's wrath was the coming of God's wrath upon the world.

And thy wrath came ... Is this a fitting subject for the rejoicing of the saved in glory? Indeed it is. The great error of unregenerated people is that they cannot be angry with evil. Why? Because the natural, unregenerated man, is himself evil. We may therefore set aside the opinions of those who reject this song as not being in any sense a Christian conception.

Let there be no false pity for the unrepentant. The fond hope that God might give them one more chance after death is contrary both to Scripture and to reason .... How much do we really care that right should triumph and evil be defeated? Much of the sanctimonious reaction of our age to just retribution is only blindness, a lack of hatred for Satan and his works, and a lack of concern for the glory of God.[92]

"There is an appropriateness in God's tailoring the punishment to fit the crime."[93] Judgment and recompense are not contradictory to love, but a necessary aspect of it."[94] The current misunderstanding and misrepresentation of God's love make it to be an attitude that is not even worthy of a good citizen, much less, of the God of all creation.

And the time of the dead to be judged ... This is a reference to the judgment which concluded the sixth trumpet; and this statement particularly makes it mandatory to view the end of the sixth trumpet as the final Advent of Christ and the eternal judgment of the last day.

And the time to give their reward ... All of these clauses are in the past tense, due to "thy wrath came" at the head of the verse. Some have tried to establish this as the prophetic tense, in order to construe these events as future; but there is no evidence at all that such is the case. The necessity of seeing this as a reference to the final judgment is derived from passages like 2 Timothy 4:8ff.

To thy servants the prophets ... the saints ... them that fear thy name ... small ... great ... Notice that all of God's people are included in this. The supposition of Vitringa and others "who understand this as a reference to the dead martyrs who at this time are vindicated,"[95] is refuted by this comprehensive enumeration of all classes of people, the small, the great, etc., who all receive their reward simultaneously at the "last day."

And to destroy them that destroy the earth ... The wicked also shall receive their reward simultaneously with the reward of the righteous, but apparently, somewhat afterwards. Their reward, however, is destruction. "On the same day, all those who fear the Lord receive their reward, while the destroyers are destroyed."[96] This corresponds exactly with our Saviour's own descriptive revelation of the final judgment in Matthew 25:31ff.

[92] Michael Wilcock, I Saw Heaven Opened (Downers Grove, Illinois: Inter-Varsity Press, 1975), pp. 107,108.

[93] Robert H. Mounce, op. cit., p. 231.

[94] Vernard Eller, op. cit.. p. 122.

[95] A. Plummer, op. cit., p. 294.

[96] William Hendriksen, op. cit., p. 160.

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Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.
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Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on Revelation 11:18". "Coffman Commentaries on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/revelation-11.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

And the nations were angry,.... See Psalm 99:1, which the Septuagint render, the "Lord reigns, let the nations be angry". This refers not to the times of the dragon, or the Pagan Roman emperors, who were wroth with the woman, the church, and made war with her seed; but Rome Papal, and its Gentiles, are intended; these are the nations that antichrist reigns over: and it does not so much design their anger against Christ, and his people, expressed by their anathemas, excommunications, murders; and massacres, and bloody persecutions, which could not be cause of thanksgiving to the elders; but their anger and resentment at his power and reign, at having the outward court taken from them, said to be given them, Revelation 11:2; and at their loss of power, profit, pleasure, and plenty, through the fall of Babylon, and the setting up of Christ's kingdom; and though these things will make the Gentiles, the followers of antichrist, gnash their teeth, it will occasion joy and thanksgiving among the saints:

and thy wrath is come: the time is come to make Babylon, or the Romish antichrist, to drink of the wine of the fierceness of divine wrath; as the time of the Lamb's wrath and vengeance upon Rome Pagan was come at the opening of the sixth seal, so the time of his wrath and vengeance on Rome Papal will be come at the sounding of the seventh trumpet:

and the time of the dead, that they should be judged; not the time of the wicked, who are dead in sins, while they live, and who die in their sins, not their time to be raised from the dead, in order to be judged, for they will not rise till after the thousand years are ended; nor the time of the dead in Christ, who will rise upon Christ's personal coming, at the beginning of the thousand years; but this trumpet respects not the personal coming of Christ to raise the dead, and judge the world, but his spiritual coming to reign in his churches, and judge their enemies: the time of those that were dead for Christ, whose blood had been shed in his cause, the time for the vindication of them, and avenging their blood, is now come; the souls of those under the altar had been a long time crying to God to avenge their blood on them that dwell on the earth; and now the time will be come, when God will judge his people, vindicate their cause; and when he, to whom vengeance belongs, will repay it, by pouring out the vials of his wrath on the antichristian party, by giving them blood to drink, because they are worthy; this judgment will issue in the fall and ruin both of the western and eastern antichrist.

And that thou shouldest give reward unto thy servants; not a reward of debt, but of grace; not the recompence of reward, or the reward of the inheritance in heaven; but some marks of honour and respect; some measure of happiness, peace, and joy, which Christ of his rich grace will give to his ministers and churches, and all that love him in this glorious period of time; and who are distinguished in the following manner,

the prophets, and to the saints, and them that fear thy name, small and great: by the "prophets" are meant, not the prophets of the Old Testament, but the prophets of the New; and not those extraordinary persons, who are distinguished on the one hand from apostles and evangelists, and on the other from pastors and teachers, who had an extraordinary gift of interpreting the Scriptures, and of foretelling things to come; but the ministers of the word, the two prophets or witnesses, who had prophesied in sackcloth, but shall now be clothed with salvation: and by "the saints" are designed such as were set apart by God the Father from eternity, and whose sins are expiated by the blood of Christ, and who are internally sanctified by the, Spirit of God, and externally separated from the rest of mankind, and incorporated into a Gospel church state, and are in holy fellowship one with another: and they that "fear the name" of God are such as truly love and reverence him, and worship him in Spirit and in truth, but are not members of any particular church; who yet will be taken notice of by the Lord, and a book of remembrance be written for them; so the proselytes from among the Gentiles are distinguished from the Israelites by the same character; See Gill on Acts 13:16; or rather this is a general character of both ministers and churches, since to fear the name of the Lord is a phrase that includes all religious worship, internal and external. And now all these, "small and great", whether greater or lesser believers, whether men of larger or meaner gifts and abilities, will all have the same reward, enjoy the same church privileges, partake of the same ordinances, in the purity of them, have the same communion with God, and fellowship with Christ, and one another, and share in, the same common peace, and liberty, and security from enemies: the last thing taken notice of by these elders, as matter of thanksgiving, is the destruction of antichrist.

And shouldest destroy them which destroy the earth; or "corrupt it"; meaning antichrist and his followers; who destroy the bodies, souls, and estates of men, and not only the inhabitants of the earth, but even the earth itself; for through that laziness and idleness which they spread wherever they come, a fruitful country is turned into barrenness; who corrupt the minds of men with false doctrine, idolatry, and superstition, and the bodies of women and men with all uncleanness and filthiness, with fornication, sodomy, &c. Revelation 19:2; and are the cause of their own destruction, and the destruction of others; which, upon the blowing of the seventh trumpet, will come swiftly and irrecoverably. Now will Babylon sink as a millstone into the sea, never to be seen more; both the western and eastern antichrists are intended; the former is called the son of perdition, because of his destroying others, and going into perdition himself; and the latter is called "Abaddon" and "Apollyon", which both signify a destroyer, 2 Thessalonians 1:4.

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
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Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on Revelation 11:18". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/revelation-11.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

30 And the nations were angry, and thy wrath is come, and the time of the dead, that they should be judged, and that thou shouldest give reward unto thy servants the prophets, and to the saints, and them that fear thy name, small and great; and shouldest destroy them which destroy the earth.

(30) A speech of the Hebrew language, as if to say, as Gentiles being angry, your inflamed wrath came on them, and showed itself from heaven, occasioned by their anger and fury.
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Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on Revelation 11:18". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/revelation-11.html. 1599-1645.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

the nations were angry — alluding to Psalm 99:1, Septuagint, “The Lord is become King: let the peoples become angry.” Their anger is combined with alarm (Exodus 15:14; 2 Kings 19:28, “thy rage against Me is come up into Mine ears, I will put My hook in thy nose,” etc.). Translate, as the Greek is the same. “The nations were angered, and Thy anger is come.” How petty man‘s impotent anger, standing here side by side with that of the omnipotent God!

dead  …  be judged — proving that this seventh trumpet is at the end of all things, when the judgment on Christ‘s foes and the reward of His saints, long prayed for by His saints, shall take place.

the prophets — as, for instance, the two prophesying witnesses (Revelation 11:3), and those who have showed them kindness for Christ‘s sake. Jesus shall come to effect by His presence that which we have looked for long, but vainly, in His absence, and by other means.

destroy them which destroy the earth — Retribution in kind (compare Revelation 16:6; Luke 19:27). See Daniel 7:14-18.

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These files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.
This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.
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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Revelation 11:18". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/revelation-11.html. 1871-8.

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

Were wroth (ωργιστησανōrgisthēsan). Ingressive first aorist active indicative of οργιζομαιorgizomai “became angry.” The culmination of wrath against God (Revelation 16:13.; Revelation 20:8.). Cf. Psalm 2:1, Psalm 2:5, Psalm 2:12; Psalm 99:1; Acts 4:25. John sees the hostility of the world against Christ.

Thy wrath came (ηλτεν η οργη σουēlthen hē orgē sou). Second aorist active indicative of ερχομαιerchomai the prophetic aorist again. The Dies Irae is conceived as already come.

The time of the dead to be judged (ο καιρος των νεκρων κριτηναιho kairos tōn nekrōn krithēnai). For this use of καιροςkairos see Mark 11:13; Luke 21:24. By “the dead” John apparently means both good and bad (John 5:25; Acts 24:21), coincident with the resurrection and judgment (Mark 4:29; Revelation 14:15.; Revelation 20:1-15). The infinitive κριτηναιkrithēnai is the first aorist passive of κρινωkrinō epexegetic use with the preceding clause, as is true also of δουναιdounai (second aorist active infinitive of διδωμιdidōmi), to give.

Their reward (τον μιστονton misthon). This will come in the end of the day (Matthew 20:8), from God (Matthew 6:1), at the Lord‘s return (Revelation 22:12), according to each one‘s work (1 Corinthians 3:8).

The small and the great (τους μικρους και τους μεγαλουςtous mikrous kai tous megalous). The accusative here is an anacoluthon and fails to agree in case with the preceding datives after δουναι τον μιστονdounai ton misthon though some MSS. have the dative τοις μικροιςtois mikrois etc. John is fond of this phrase “the small and the great” (Revelation 13:16; Revelation 19:5, Revelation 19:18; Revelation 20:12).

To destroy (διαπτειραιdiaphtheirai). First aorist active infinitive of διαπτειρωdiaphtheirō carrying on the construction with καιροςkairos Note τους διαπτειρονταςtous diaphtheirontas “those destroying” the earth (corrupting the earth). There is a double sense in διαπτειρωdiaphtheirō that justifies this play on the word. See Revelation 19:2. In 1 Timothy 6:5 we have those “corrupted in mind” (διαπταρμενοι τον νουνdiaphtharmenoi ton noun). God will destroy the destroyers (1 Corinthians 3:16.).

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The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)
Bibliographical Information
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Revelation 11:18". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/revelation-11.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

Vincent's Word Studies

Were angry ( ὀργίσθησαν )

See on wrath, John 3:36. Compare Psalm 2:1.

The time ( ὁ καιρὸς )

See on Matthew 12:1.

Reward ( μισθὸν )

See on 2 Peter 2:13.

Destroy ( διαφθεῖραι )

Also to corrupt.

Which destroy ( τοὺς διαφθείροντας )

Or, the destroyers.

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Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on Revelation 11:18". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/vnt/revelation-11.html. Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. 1887.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

And the nations were angry, and thy wrath is come, and the time of the dead, that they should be judged, and that thou shouldest give reward unto thy servants the prophets, and to the saints, and them that fear thy name, small and great; and shouldest destroy them which destroy the earth.

And the heathen nations were wroth - At the breaking out of the power and kingdom of God. This wrath of the heathens now rises to the highest pitch; but it meets the wrath of the Almighty, and melts away. In this verse is described both the going forth and the end of God's wrath, which together take up several ages.

And the time of the dead is come — Both of the quick and dead, of whom those already dead are far the more numerous part.

That they be judged — This, being infallibly certain, they speak of as already present.

And to give a reward — At the coming of Christ, Revelation 22:12; but of free grace, not of debt, 1. To his servants the prophets: 2. To his saints: to them who were eminently holy: 3. To them that fear his name: these are the lowest class. Those who do not even fear God will have no reward from him.

Small and great — All universally, young and old, high and low, rich and poor.

And to destroy them that destroyed the earth — The earth was destroyed by the "great whore" in particular, Revelation 19:2; 17:2,5; but likewise in general, by the open rage and hate of wicked men against all that is good; by wars, and the various destruction and desolation naturally flowing therefrom; by such laws and constitutions as hinder much good, and occasion many offences and calamities; by public scandals, whereby a door is opened for all dissoluteness and unrighteousness; by abuse of secular and spiritual powers; by evil doctrines, maxims, and counsels; by open violence and persecution; and by sins crying to God to send plagues upon the earth. This great work of God, destroying the destroyers, under the trumpet of the seventh angel, is not the third woe, but matter of joy, for which the elders solemnly give thanks. All the woes, and particularly the third, go forth over those "who dwell upon the earth;" but this destruction, over those "who destroy the earth," and were also instruments of that woe.

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Wesley, John. "Commentary on Revelation 11:18". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/revelation-11.html. 1765.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

18 And the nations were angry, and thy wrath is come, and the time of the dead, that they should be judged, and that thou shouldest give reward unto thy servants the prophets, and to the saints, and them that fear thy name, small and great; and shouldest destroy them which destroy the earth.

Ver. 18. Were angry] Sed vanae sine viribus irae; the wrath of these men turned to the glory of God.

That they should be judged] According to their prayer, and thy promise, Revelation 6:10-11.

And shouldest destroy them] God usually retaliates and proportions jealousy to jealousy, provocation to provocation, Deuteronomy 32:21; frowardness to frowardness, Psalms 18:26; contrariety to contrariety, Leviticus 26:18; Leviticus 26:21; destruction to destruction, as here. He pays them home in their own coin.

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on Revelation 11:18". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/revelation-11.html. 1865-1868.

Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament

Revelation 11:18. καὶ καιρὸς) that is, ἐστίν. For καιρὸς does not seem here to be joined with ἦλθεν (although often in other places time is both understood to be, and is said to come, and that, in one place, jointly, Psalms 102:14), since that sentence, τὰ ἔθνη ὠργίσθησαν, και ἦλθεν ὀργή σου, is now finished. In like manner, ἐστὶ is understood after the verb ἔρχομαι, ch. Revelation 22:12. In like manner, καιρὸς (namely, ἐστι) τοῦ ἄρξασθαι τὸ κρίμα, 1 Peter 4:17; πότε καιρός ἐστιν, Mark 13:33.— τῶν νεκρῶν, of the dead) of mortals and the departed. The German Exegesis quotes many passages of Scripture speaking in this manner. Add the son of Sirach, before noticed, on Jude 1:4.— κριθῆναι) This verb, equally with δοῦναι καὶ διαφθεῖραι, is spoken concerning God, and answers to the Hebrew נשפט, which is likewise spoken of God. Isaiah 66:16; Ezekiel 38:22, in the Hebrew; and Ezekiel 17:20; Ezekiel 20:35-36; Joel 3:2, in the Hebrew, and in the Septuagint, where, however, the reading is not κριθῆναι, but διακριθῆναι; and Jeremiah 2:35; Jeremiah 25:31, in which the Septuagint has κρίνομαι. There is an allusion to the wonderful συγκατάβασις (condescension) of the Supreme Judge, whereby, for the sake of showing the justice of His cause, He blends discussion [“controversy”] with His unbending judgment. ὅπως ἂν νικήσῃς ἐν τῷ κρίνεσθαί σε, Romans 3:4, note.

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Bengel, Johann Albrecht. "Commentary on Revelation 11:18". Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jab/revelation-11.html. 1897.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

And the nations were angry; those who have not been of thy true Israel, but old or modern Gentiles, they have been angry long enough.

And thy wrath is come; now it is time for thee to show thyself angry, and thou hast begun to do it.

And the time of the dead, that they should be judged; the time is come for thee to judge the cause of thy faithtful witnesses, and all those who have died in testimony to thy truth.

And that thou shouldest give reward unto thy servants the prophets; and for thee to reward such as have faithfully revealed thy will.

And to the saints; and not only them, but all thy holy ones.

And them that fear thy name, small and great; without respect to their quality in the world, be they little or great.

And shouldest destroy them which destroy the earth; the time also is come, when thou hast destroyed, or wilt destroy, that antichristian brood, which so long hath plagued the earth, and destroyed thy people in it.

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Revelation 11:18". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/revelation-11.html. 1685.

Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture

И рассвирепели язычники У них больше нет страха, но их переполняет ярость и бешенство, их враждебность проявляется в глупых попытках бороться против Христа. Но все, во что выльется человеческий бунт против Христа (16:14; 19:17-21), бесполезно и обречено.

гнев Твой Всемогущий Бог отвечает на слабую, бессильную злобу язычников (ср. Пс. 2:1-9). Двадцать четыре старца говорят о будущем гневе Божьем (20:11-15), подчеркивая его неизбежность, как будто это уже имело место. Основной темой Писания является то, что Бог однажды изольет Свой гнев на бунтующее человечество (ср. Ис. 24:17-23; 26:20, 21; 30:27-33, Иез. 38:16 и послед., 2 Фес. 1:5-10).

судить мертвых Излияние Божьего гнева включает суд над мертвыми (ср. Мф. 25:31-46; Ин. 5:25-29). Суд состоит из двух частей: 1) Бог награждает ветхозаветных святых (Дан. 12:1-3; ср. 22:12; 1Кор. 3:8; 4:5), святых восхищенной церкви (1Кор. 15:51, 52; 1Фес. 4:13-18) и святых великой скорби (20:4) и 2) Бог навсегда ввергает нераскаявшихся грешников в озеро огненное (20:15).

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MacLaren, Alexander. "Commentary on Revelation 11:18". Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mac/revelation-11.html.

Justin Edwards' Family Bible New Testament

The time of the dead, that they should be judged; probably meaning the time when the pious dead, who have been slain for Christ’s sake, shall be avenged.

Reward-thy servants-and-destroy them which destroy the earth; save his friends and destroy his enemies, especially those who had been engaged in destroying his people.

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Edwards, Justin. "Commentary on Revelation 11:18". "Family Bible New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/fam/revelation-11.html. American Tract Society. 1851.

Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible

‘And the nations were angry, and your wrath came, and the time of the dead to be judged, and the time to give their reward to your servants the prophets and to the saints and to those who fear your name, the small and the great, and to destroy those who destroy the earth.’

Now God reigns His judgment begins. The nations were angry against God, for they were facing many trials and blamed God rather than themselves, now they will face the anger of God in return, His anger at sin. The time has come for both the dead and the living to be judged.

Along with the righteous the unrighteous have also been raised so that they may face that judgment. ‘The Lord reigns, let the people tremble, he dwells between the cherubim, let the earth be moved’ (Psalms 99:1). But it is also the time when His people receive their rewards for faithful service (Romans 14:10-12; 1 Corinthians 3:10-15; 1 Corinthians 4:5). Especially mentioned with honour are the prophets. This must have special reference to the ‘two prophets’ who bore faithful witness in Jerusalem (why else are the prophets singled out?). But along with them will be God’s people (the saints) and the God-fearers (Acts 10:2; Acts 10:35; Romans 2:14-16), those who before the spread of the Gospel responded to God and believed in Him. And in contrast, those who destroyed the earth will be destroyed.

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Pett, Peter. "Commentary on Revelation 11:18". "Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible ". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pet/revelation-11.html. 2013.

Foy E. Wallace's Commentary on the Book of Revelation

Verse 18 declares that the nations were angry in fulfillment of Psalms 2:2; Psalms 2:5 and Acts 4:24-30. It represented the attitude of the heathen world toward the gospel of Christ. The day of God's wrath had come on the persecuting powers, as depicted in chapter 6:17. The time of the dead that they should be judged had come--they were dead as persecutors and as lord's of dominion over the servants of Christ, as in Isaiah 26:13; Isaiah 26:19 in reference to Israel. The time of avenging judgment had come, for the witnesses of chapter 11:7-8; and for the martyrs of chapter 6:9-11; and for "all righteous blood shed upon the earth" of Matthew 23:35. The time had come to give victory's reward unto his servants the prophets; and to the saints; and them that fear thy name. The imagery delineates the ruin of the enemies and the reward of the servants and saints of God and Christ--summed up in the phrase small and great, the full aggregation of them that fear thy name. These all, in the aggregate, were included in song of glorified elders. The Jewish rulers, aided by Roman rulers, who together contrived to destroy the earth in their opposition to the kingdom of God, by the persecutions waged were themselves destroyed. In Matthew 21:33-46, Jesus specifically pictured this end of the Jewish rulers and their state.

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Wallace, Foy E. "Commentary on Revelation 11:18". "Foy E. Wallace's Commentary on the Book of Revelation". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/foy/revelation-11.html. 1966.

Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable

The elders continue to anticipate the beginning of Messiah"s rule on earth by foreseeing the raging response of unbelieving Gentiles (cf. Revelation 16:14; Revelation 16:16; Revelation 16:19; Revelation 20:8-9; Psalm 2:1; Psalm 2:5; Psalm 2:12) and the outpouring of God"s holy wrath (cf. Matthew 3:7; Luke 3:7; Romans 2:5; Romans 2:8; Romans 5:9; 1 Thessalonians 1:10; 1 Thessalonians 5:9). They also see the judgment of the dead and the rewarding of believers. They not only give thanks that Christ reigns supremely ( Revelation 11:17) but that He judges righteously and rewards graciously ( Revelation 11:18).

"Although rewards are all of grace ( Romans 4:4), they vary according to what each has done ( 1 Corinthians 3:8)." [Note: Mounce, p232.]

"The elders in their song make no attempt to separate the different phases of judgment as they are separated in the closing chapters of Revelation. They simply sing of that future judgment as though it were one event, much on the order of other Scriptures that do not distinguish future judgments from each other (cf. Mark 4:29; John 5:25; John 5:28-29; Acts 17:31; Acts 24:21)." [Note: Thomas, Revelation 8-22, pp110-11.]

The elders distinguished two groups of believers: the Old Testament and New Testament prophets, who communicated divine Revelation, and the saints, namely, other believers. [Note: See Stanton, Kept from . . ., pp65-69.] They further described these saints as even (ascensive use of "and," Gr. kai) those who fear God"s name, both small and great (i.e, all kinds; cf. Revelation 13:16; Revelation 19:5; Revelation 19:18; Revelation 20:12). The elders also anticipated the destruction of the wicked who have been responsible for the divine judgments that have destroyed the earth. John would soon learn of the destruction of some of these destroyers, namely, Babylon, the beast, the false prophet, and Satan.

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Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on Revelation 11:18". "Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/dcc/revelation-11.html. 2012.

Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament

Revelation 11:18. contains the second part of the song of praise, defining more accurately, and apparently in three particulars, the precise nature of the moment which had arrived, and of the events which distinguish it. The first of these particulars is, The nations were roused to wrath (comp. Psalms 2:1, and especially Revelation 20:3; Revelation 20:9). Instead of being converted at the last moment, the nations are excited to fiercer rage than ever against God. They are not merely angry against Him; that they had always been. They are roused to a sudden burst of wrath. Such is the true meaning of the original; and, thus looked at, the words before us really form an epitome of chap. Revelation 20:7-9. The second particular is, Thy wrath came, the wrath of God, so much more terrible than that of the nations. The third particular occupies the remainder of the verse, and seems again to be subdivided into three parts—(1) The time of the dead to be judged. By ‘the dead’ here we are not to understand all men both good and bad, but simply the latter; the judgment spoken of is not general, it belongs to the wicked alone. This appears from the use of the word ‘judge,’ which is always employed by St. John to indicate only what is due to sin and sinners, as well as from the fact that the ‘giving reward’ immediately described is obviously not a part of the judgment, but an independent member of the group of things here spoken of. (2) And to give their reward unto thy servants the prophets, both the saints, and them that fear thy name, the small and the great. Much difficulty has been experienced by commentators in their attempts to arrange these clauses. Without dwelling on the opinions of others, we suggest that the true arrangement is to take the first class mentioned, ‘thy servants the prophets,’ as standing alone at the head of the group, and as including all those classes afterwards referred to. All God’s people are prophets. As we have seen in the previous part of the chapter, they are ‘witnesses’ who ‘prophesy;’ they proclaim the Word of God to a sinful world (comp. Revelation 11:3). These prophets are then divided into two classes, ‘the saints,’ and ‘they that fear God’s name.’ The two classes appear to be mentioned upon the principle of which we have already had several illustrations, that objects are beheld by the Seer in two aspects, the one taken from the sphere of Jewish, the other from that of Gentile, thought. ‘Saints,’ or consecrated ones, was the name for all true Israelites. ‘They that fear God’ was, as we see in the Acts of the Apostles, the appellation constantly applied to Gentile Proselytes. No distinction is indeed drawn between a Jewish and a Gentile portion of the Church. Both are really one, but they may be, and are, viewed under a double aspect. The last clause, ‘the small and the great,’ then applies to all who have been mentioned. While, therefore, the ‘dead’ are ‘judged,’ the children of God, the members of His believing Church, receive their ‘reward.’ (3) And to destroy them which destroy the earth, where the lex talionis is again worthy of notice.

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Schaff, Philip. "Commentary on Revelation 11:18". "Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/scn/revelation-11.html. 1879-90.

Gary Hampton Commentary on Selected Books

Worldly nations had shown their anger by killing God"s messengers and rejoicing at their deaths. The elders here rejoice that, in response to man"s wrath, God has brought his wrath and judged all people. The righteous were first rewarded and then the wicked revealed.

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Hampton, Gary. "Commentary on Revelation 11:18". "Gary Hampton Commentary on Selected Books". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ghc/revelation-11.html. 2014.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

is come = came. See Isaiah 26:20, Isaiah 26:21.

time. Greek. kairos. See App-195.

dead. App-139.

judged. App-122. See Revelation 20:12-15. John 5:24. Romans 8:1.

that Thou shouldest = to.

reward = the reward.

servants. App-190.

prophets. App-189. See Hebrews 11:32.

saints. See Revelation 13:7, Revelation 13:10; Revelation 14:12; Revelation 16:6. This special term for O.T. saints is found in Daniel 7:18, &c. See Acts 9:13.

small . . . great = the small . . . the great.

shouldest = to.

destroy = are destroying. They are found in Ch. Revelation 18:19, Revelation 18:20.

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Revelation 11:18". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/revelation-11.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

And the nations were angry, and thy wrath is come, and the time of the dead, that they should be judged, and that thou shouldest give reward unto thy servants the prophets, and to the saints, and them that fear thy name, small and great; and shouldest destroy them which destroy the earth.

The nations were angry - alluding to Psalms 99:1 [cf. note, Raagaz (Hebrew #7264)]; Septuagint, 'The Lord is become King: let the peoples become wroth;' rage combined with alarm (Exodus 15:14; 2 Kings 19:26-28). Translate, 'the nations were wroth, and thy wrath is come.' How impotent is man's wrath side by side with that of Omnipotence!

Dead ... be judged. Therefore this seventh trumpet is at the end of all things, when the judgment on Christ's foes, and reward of His servants, long prayed for, shall take place.

The prophets - for instance, the two prophesying witnesses (Revelation 11:3), and those who showed them kindness for Christ's sake. Jesus shall effect by His presence what we have looked for long, but vainly, in His absence. Destroy them which destroy the earth - retribution in kind (cf. Revelation 16:6; Luke 19:27; Daniel 7:14-18, notes).

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Revelation 11:18". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/revelation-11.html. 1871-8.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

And the nations were angry, and thy wrath is come, and the time of the dead, that they should be judged, and that thou shouldest give reward unto thy servants the prophets, and to the saints, and them that fear thy name, small and great; and shouldest destroy them which destroy the earth.
the nations
2,9,10; 17:12-15; 19:19,20; Psalms 2:1-3; Isaiah 34:1-10; 63:1-6; Ezekiel 38:9-23; Joel 3:9-14; Micah 7:15-17; Zechariah 14:2,3
and thy
6:15-17; 14:10; 15:1,7; 16:1-21; 19:15
and the time
6:10,11; 20:4,5,12,15; Isaiah 26:19-21; Daniel 7:9,10; 12:1,2; Hebrews 9:27
and that
22:12; Matthew 5:12; 2 Thessalonians 1:5-7; Hebrews 11:25,26
and them
19:5; Psalms 85:9; 103:11; 115:13,14; 147:11; Ecclesiastes 8:12; 12:13; Luke 1:50
shouldest
13:10; 18:6,16-24; 19:19,21; Daniel 7:26; 8:25; 11:44,45
which destroy
or, which corrupt.
Reciprocal: 1 Chronicles 16:33 - because;  Esther 9:1 - though it was turned;  Psalm 7:7 - So;  Psalm 45:4 - right;  Psalm 58:10 - righteous;  Psalm 76:10 - Surely;  Psalm 94:13 - until the pit;  Psalm 96:13 - he cometh;  Psalm 110:5 - in the day;  Ecclesiastes 3:17 - for;  Isaiah 10:26 - his rod;  Isaiah 45:24 - and all;  Jeremiah 6:28 - corrupters;  Jeremiah 26:5 - my;  Ezekiel 32:9 - vex;  Daniel 8:19 - the last;  Joel 3:2 - will plead;  Micah 7:16 - nations;  Malachi 4:2 - that fear;  Acts 26:22 - witnessing;  2 Thessalonians 1:6 - GeneralRevelation 6:2 - and he went;  Revelation 6:17 - the great;  Revelation 13:7 - and power;  Revelation 13:16 - both;  Revelation 14:7 - Fear;  Revelation 16:6 - for they are

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Revelation 11:18". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/revelation-11.html.

E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament

Nations were angry. That is that part of them that still wished to profit by the deception of the people. Thy wrath is come means that God"s vengeance had come upon the apostate church for abusing His word. The time of the dead also hath come, meaning the dead whose souls John saw under the altar ( Revelation 6:9). They cried for vengeance or judgment and were told that "their time" would come. Now that time has come and God has judged the apostate church by separating her from the advantages of temporal power. At the same time He gave reward to his faithful servants by having His word placed again in their hands. Destory them which destroy the earth refers to the same evil men described before who planned to destroy (corrupt in the margin) the earth.

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Zerr, E.M. "Commentary on Revelation 11:18". E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/znt/revelation-11.html. 1952.

Hanserd Knollys' Commentary on Revelation

Revelation 11:18

Revelation 11:18 And the nations were angry, and thy wrath is come, and the time of the dead, that they should be judged, and that thou shouldest give reward unto thy servants the prophets, and to the saints, and them that fear thy name, small and great; and shouldest destroy them which destroy the earth.

The effect of Christ's execution of his kingly power and government, as King of Nations, whom they should fear { Jeremiah 10:7-10} is as here followeth,

The nations were angry.

Or as David prophetically expounds it. { Psalm 2:1-3} The heathen rage, the kings of the earth (who from the rise to the ruin of the beast, give their kingdom, their power and strength unto him) { Revelation 17:13-17} set themselves, and the rulers take counsel together against the Lord, and against his anointed, saying, Let us break their bands asunder, and cast away their cords from us. This opposition of the kings, rulers and counsellors, will provoke the Lord to be angry against them, as here followeth.

And thy wrath is come.

So David prophesied { Psalm 2:5} Then shall HE speak to them in his wrath, and vex them in his hot displeasure. Such a dispensation was very terrible to the kings, and princes, and captains, and people of the Roman pagan empire { Revelation 6:15-17} And the kings of the earth, and the great men, and the rich men, and the chief captains, and the mighty men, and every bondman, and every free Prayer of Manasseh, hid themselves in the dens, and in the rocks of the mountains. And said to the mountains and rocks, fall on us, and hide us from the face of him that sitteth on the throne, and from the wrath of the Lamb; for the great day of his wrath is come, and who shall be able to stand? And so will this day of Christ's great indignation be when his wrath shall come upon the kings, the rulers, the counsellors, the captains, and the people of the Roman papal empire, and anti-Christian kingdoms of this world { Revelation 17:15} And he saith unto me, the waters which thou sawest, where the whore sitteth, are peoples, and multitudes, and nations, and tongues. And. { Revelation 16:11-21} The effect of Christ's wrath will be their utter destruction, as here followeth;

And to destroy them that destroy the earth, kai diafyeirai touv diafyeirontav thn ghn and the time of the dead that they should be judged.

This is another effect that will follow upon Christ's coming to set up his kingdom on earth, when He shall take unto himself his kingly power, and hath reigned, till God hath put all his enemies under his feet, then the time will come, when the dead shall be judged, and all the saints shall be rewarded by the Lord Jesus Christ.

The dead that are to be judged in contradistinction to the saints, that are to be rewarded, are all persons without Christ (when He comes to judgement;) whether they be then living in their sins (and yet dead in trespasses and sins) { Ephesians 2:1; Ephesians 2:5; Ephesians 2:11-12} or dead for their sins, dying without Christ. For Christ shall judge the quick and the dead, at his appearing, and his kingdom. { 2 Timothy 4:1}

And that thou shouldest give the reward, etc.

Revelation 22:12 And behold I come quickly, and my reward is with me; to give every man according to his work shall be. Read those scriptures, Romans 2:6-10; 1 Corinthians 3:8; Matthew 16:27.

Unto thy servants the prophets, and to the saints, and them that fear thy name, small and great.

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Knollys, Hanserd. "Commentary on Revelation 11:18". "Hanserd Knollys' Commentary on Revelation". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hkc/revelation-11.html.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

18.Nations were angry—On the side of antichrist they will rally in arms against God and the Lamb.

Wrath is come—In the terrible carnage of Revelation 19:11-21, and the fire from heaven of Revelation 20:9.

JudgedRevelation 20:11.

 

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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Revelation 11:18". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/revelation-11.html. 1874-1909.

The Expositor's Greek Testament

Revelation 11:18. . = defiant rage (cf.Revelation 16:11), not the mere terror of Revelation 6:17, at the messianic . The prophets are as usual the most prominent of the . If the after is retained, it is epexegetic (as in Genesis 4:4, Galatians 6:16), not a subtle mark of division between Jewish and Gentile Christians (Vólter) or (in a Jewish source) saints and proselytes. The same interpretation (for . cf. Introd. § 6) must be chosen, if is omitted (as, e.g., by Bousset and Baljon), but the evidence is far too slight to justify the deletion.— . “When Nero perished by the justest doom/Which ever the destroyer yet destroyed” (Byron). Contrast the exultant tone of this retrospective thanksgiving with the strain of foreboding which is sounded in Revelation 12:12 before the actual conflict.

 

 

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Nicol, W. Robertson, M.A., L.L.D. "Commentary on Revelation 11:18". The Expositor's Greek Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/egt/revelation-11.html. 1897-1910.