Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Revelation 20:13

And the sea gave up the dead which were in it, and death and Hades gave up the dead which were in them; and they were judged, every one of them according to their deeds.
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Death;   Hades;   Hell;   Judgment;   Millennium;   Resurrection;   Sea;   Scofield Reference Index - Day (of Destruction);   Death;   Thompson Chain Reference - Hades;   Hell;   Mortality-Immortality;   Resurrection;   The Topic Concordance - Death;   Hell;   Judgment;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Judgment, the;   Resurrection, the;   Sea, the;   Second Coming of Christ, the;  
Dictionaries:
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Book of life;   Hades;   Judgment;   Resurrection;   Sheol;   Baker Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Condemnation;   Hades;   Judgment, Day of;   Justice;   Providence of God;   Punishment;   Sheol;   Wages;   Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Croisade, or Crusade;   Resurrection;   CARM Theological Dictionary - Amillennialism;   Annihilationism;   Death;   Judgment;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Deep;   Judgment, the Final;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Hell;   Resurrection;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Eschatology;   Gods, Pagan;   Judgment Day;   Revelation, the Book of;   Works;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Chiliasm;   Death;   Time;   Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Day of Judgment;   Enoch Book of;   Eschatology;   Hades;   Hell;   Immortality;   Judgment;   Judgment Damnation;   Resurrection;   Sea ;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Death;   Hell;   Works;   The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Fire;   Gog;   Judge;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Judgment the day of;   Smith Bible Dictionary - Hell;   Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types - Raves;   Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Judgment;  
Encyclopedias:
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Hades;   Immortal;   Print;   Resurrection;   Revelation of John:;   Satan;   The Jewish Encyclopedia - Book of Life;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

The sea gave up the dead - Those who had been drowned in it, and those millions slain in naval contests, who had no other grave.

And death - All who died by any kind of disease. Death is here personified, and represented as a keeper of defunct human beings; probably no more than earth or the grave is meant, as properly belonging to the empire of death.

And hell - Ἁιδης, Hades, the place of separate spirits. The sea and death have the bodies of all human beings; hades has their spirits. That they may be judged, and punished or rewarded according to their works, their bodies and souls must be reunited; hades, therefore, gives up the spirits; and the sea and the earth give up the bodies.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Bibliographical Information
Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Revelation 20:13". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/revelation-20.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

And the sea gave up the dead which were in it - All that had been buried in the depths of ocean. This number in the aggregate will be great. If we include all who were swept off by the flood, and all who have perished by shipwreck, and all who have been killed in naval battles and buried in the sea, and all who have been swept away by inundations of the ocean, and all who have peacefully died at sea, as sailors, or in the pursuits of commerce or benevolence, the number in the aggregate will be immense - a number so vast that it was proper to notice them particularly in the account of the general resurrection and the last judgment.

And death and hell delivered up the dead which were in them - That is, all the dead came, from all regions where they were scattered - on the land and in the ocean - in this world and in the invisible world. “Death and hell” are here personified, and are represented as having dominion over the dead, and as now “delivering” up, or “surrendering” those who were held tinder them. On the meaning of the words used here, see the notes on Revelation 1:18; Revelation 6:8. Compare the Matthew 10:23 note; Job 10:21-22 notes; Isaiah 14:9 note. This whole representation is entirely inconsistent with the supposition that a large part of the dead had been already raised up at the beginning of the millennial period, and had been permitted, in their glorified bodies, to reign with Christ.

And they were judged, … - All these were judged - the righteous and the wicked; those buried at sea, and those buried on the land; the small and the great; the dead, in whatever world they may have been.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Bibliographical Information
Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Revelation 20:13". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/revelation-20.html. 1870.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

And the sea gave up the dead which were in it,.... Which is not to be interpreted metaphorically of the world, and the men of it, who are like the troubled sea; but literally of the sea, and of all such who have been drowned in the waters of it, as were Pharaoh and his host; or have died upon the mighty waters, and have been cast into them, and devoured by the fishes; and particular regard may be had to the men of the old world, drowned by the flood; these shall be raised from thence; the sea shall deliver them up: now this, and what is expressed in the next clause, will not be done after the judgment is set, the books are opened, and the sentence passed, but before all this, and in order to it, as the last clause of this verse shows:

and death and hell delivered up the dead which were in them; "death", which is here represented as a person, and elsewhere as a king, reigning and having power over men, signifies death in general, and every kind of death of which men have died, whether natural or violent, over whom it will now have no longer dominion, but will be obliged to deliver up all its subjects; and "hell" signifies the grave, which will now be opened, and deliver up all its prisoners, all that have been buried in the earth; see Job 26:5 the Ethiopic version adds, "and the earth delivered up them that were dead in it": but this seems unnecessary after the former:

and they were judged every man according to their works; some to greater, some to lesser punishment, as their sinful works deserved.

Copyright Statement
The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855
Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on Revelation 20:13". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/revelation-20.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

25 And the sea gave up the dead which were in it; and death and hell delivered up the dead which were in them: and they were judged every man according to their works.

(25) This is a reply or an answer to an objection: for some man will say, "But they are dead, whom the sea, death and the grave has consumed, how shall they appear before the judge?" John answers, by resurrection from death, where all things (however repugnant) shall minister and serve at the commandment of God, as in (Daniel 12:1-2).
Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on Revelation 20:13". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/revelation-20.html. 1599-1645.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

death and hellGreek,Hades.” The essential identity of the dying and risen body is hereby shown; for the sea and grave give up their dead. The body that sinned or served God shall, in righteous retribution, be the body also that shall suffer or be rewarded. The “sea” may have a symbolical [Cluver from Augustine], besides the literal meaning, as, in Revelation 8:8; Revelation 12:12; Revelation 13:1; Revelation 18:17, Revelation 18:19; so “death” and “hell” are personifications (compare Revelation 21:1). But the literal sense need hardly be departed from: all the different regions wherein the bodies and souls of men had been, gave them up.

Copyright Statement
These files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.
This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.
Bibliographical Information
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Revelation 20:13". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/revelation-20.html. 1871-8.

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

Gave up (εδωκενedōken). Just “gave” (first aorist active indicative of διδωμιdidōmi), but for the sea to give is to give up (effective aorist). Sea as well as land delivers its dead (all kinds of dead, good and bad). Swete notes that accidental deaths will not prevent any from appearing. Milligan is sure that the sea here means “the sea of the troubled and sinful world.”

Death and Hades (ο τανατος και ο αιδηςho thanatos kai ho hāidēs). “An inseparable pair” (Swete) as in Revelation 1:18; Revelation 6:8; Revelation 20:14. So in Matthew 16:18 “the gates of Hades” means the power of death. Etymologically Hades is the unseen world where all who die are as opposed to this visible world, but in actual use Hades is sometimes treated as the abode of the unrighteous (Luke 16:23). Charles thinks that this is true here, though there is nothing to show it apart from the personification of death and Hades and the casting of both into the lake of fire in Revelation 20:14. Here again “each man” (εκαστοςhekastos) receives judgment according to his deeds (Matthew 16:27; 1 Corinthians 3:13; 2 Corinthians 5:10; Romans 2:6; Romans 14:12; 1 Peter 1:17; Revelation 2:23).

Copyright Statement
The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)
Bibliographical Information
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Revelation 20:13". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/revelation-20.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

Vincent's Word Studies

The sea

As commonly understood, the sea means the literal sea, and the passage signifies that the dead contained in it shall rise. So Alford. Other interpreters, however, say that it cannot mean the literal sea. Thus Milligan argues that the symbols of the Apocalypse must always be interpreted in the same way. “Symbols,” he says, “are a form of speech, and therefore subject to the rules that regulate the interpretation of all speech … The power of that convention which links a certain sense to a certain sound in ordinary terms, is not less binding in the presence than in the absence of metaphor of any kind whatever. Thus when we read in the Apocalypse of 'the sea' as an emblem of the troubled and sinful nations of the earth, we are bound, unless forbidden by the context, to carry that interpretation through, and to understand the sea of the troubled and sinful world.”

Hell ( ὁ ᾅδης )

Rev., Hades. See on Matthew 16:18.

Copyright Statement
The text of this work is public domain.
Bibliographical Information
Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on Revelation 20:13". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/vnt/revelation-20.html. Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. 1887.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

And the sea gave up the dead which were in it; and death and hell delivered up the dead which were in them: and they were judged every man according to their works.

Death and hades gave up the dead that were in them — Death gave up all the bodies of men; and hades, the receptacle of separate souls, gave them up, to be re-united to their bodies.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.
Bibliographical Information
Wesley, John. "Commentary on Revelation 20:13". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/revelation-20.html. 1765.

Abbott's Illustrated New Testament

And hell; the grave.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Bibliographical Information
Abbott, John S. C. & Abbott, Jacob. "Commentary on Revelation 20:13". "Abbott's Illustrated New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ain/revelation-20.html. 1878.

Scofield's Reference Notes

hell

(See Scofield "Luke 16:23").

Copyright Statement
These files are considered public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available in the Online Bible Software Library.
Bibliographical Information
Scofield, C. I. "Scofield Reference Notes on Revelation 20:13". "Scofield Reference Notes (1917 Edition)". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/srn/revelation-20.html. 1917.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

13 And the sea gave up the dead which were in it; and death and hell delivered up the dead which were in them: and they were judged every man according to their works.

Ver. 13. And the sea] Those that perish in the waters, and those whose ashes were scattered upon the waters, as John Huss’s; whom after they had burnt, they beat his heart with their staves, and cast his ashes into the river. But there is a substance of the saints’ bodies preserved, by a secret influence from Christ their Head; and their dust is precious.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Trapp, John. "Commentary on Revelation 20:13". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/revelation-20.html. 1865-1868.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

By hell is meant all places where the dead are; whosoever shall be at that day in the state of the dead; the bodies of men, whether buried in the earth or sea; and the souls of men, whether they be in the place of torments or happiness, shall all be re-united to their bodies, that they may both in soul and body receive their final doom of eternal happiness, or eternal misery, accordingly as they have lived in the world; and those who shall be alive at that day, who shall be changed, ( as the apostle speaks, 1 Corinthians 15:51), are to be counted dead in the sense of this text, their change being instead of death to them. It is not said they shall be judged for their works, (though that as to the wicked is true), but

according to their works; which is true as to the elect, who though their names be written in the book of life, yet must work righteousness; and they shall have judgment of absolution, not according to the perfection, but the sincerity, of their works, done in obedience to the will of God.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Revelation 20:13". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/revelation-20.html. 1685.

Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture

смерть и ад См. пояснение к 1:18. Оба слова описывают состояние смерти. Все неправедные мертвые явятся на великий суд у белого престола, никто не избежит этого. Все могилы, содержащие тела неправедных мертвых, отдадут обновленные тела, которые пойдут в ад.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
MacLaren, Alexander. "Commentary on Revelation 20:13". Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mac/revelation-20.html.

Coffman Commentaries on the Bible

And the sea gave up the dead that were in it; and death and Hades gave up the dead that were in them; and they were judged every man according to their works.

The sea gave up the dead ... Perhaps this is included "to show the universality of the resurrection."[54] Some explain it otherwise, but this appears to be the best view of it. This general resurrection of all mankind is the only literal resurrection mentioned in the word of God; and the thought that both the wicked and the just shall rise simultaneously is too often expressed in Scripture for any student of the Bible to be deceived into believing that there are to be two resurrections separated by a thousand years, or seven resurrections, as in Scofield Bible, or any other "multiple" resurrections.

And death and Hades gave up the dead which were in them ... "Hades" here means "the grave"; and "death and Hades" are therefore synonymous, being personified in this passage, as indicated by Revelation 20:14.

ENDNOTE:

[54] A. Plummer, op. cit., p. 474.

Copyright Statement
Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.
Bibliographical Information
Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on Revelation 20:13". "Coffman Commentaries on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/revelation-20.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible

‘And the sea gave up the dead which were in it, and death and Hades gave up the dead which were in them, and they were judged every man according to his works.’

The picture is all inclusive. None have died in such a way that they cannot be reached. All are raised for judgment. To be lost at sea was considered by Israel to be a tragedy. Many considered that it prevented their resurrection, something denied here. The passage is significant in that it demonstrates that Hades is not seen as a place for all the spirits of the dead, but as a place for those buried on land, who have been laid in the earth. It is the shadowy world of the grave. Others are in the shadowy world of the depths of the sea. There is no real life there. We must look elsewhere for how men live in the after-life before the resurrection. For those who are not the true people of God that outlook is looked on as bleak. The judgment is based on how they have responded to God, how they have responded to the words of Jesus and the prophets, both old and new, how they have responded to the word of God and His law, for ‘works’ include all three (Matthew 5; Matthew 16:27; Luke 16:31; John 6:28-29). No one will have any complaint. Justice will be done.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Pett, Peter. "Commentary on Revelation 20:13". "Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible ". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pet/revelation-20.html. 2013.

Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable

This verse describes the resurrection and judgment of the unrighteous more fully. In logical sequence this verse fits in the middle of the preceding one. This resurrection results in death (cf. Revelation 20:6) whereas the previous one ( Revelation 20:4) resulted in life.

God will resurrect the bodies of all unbelievers and unite them with their spirits, even those bodies decomposed in the sea and in every other way. The special mention of death by drowning and burial at sea may be due to the fact that the ancients regarded these fates as especially abhorrent. [Note: Swete, p273.] "Death and Hades" probably refer to the state of death and the place of death. [Note: Thomas, Revelation 8-22, p433.] "Hades" is the temporary abode of unbelievers" spirits until the great white throne judgment. Hades is the unseen place where all non-Christians (believers from other dispensations and unbelievers) who die reside until their resurrection (cf. 2 Corinthians 5:8). It includes Paradise ( Luke 23:43) and Gehenna ( Luke 12:5), also called Abraham"s bosom and the place of torment and anguish ( Luke 16:22-28). It is a place of conscious torment for unbelievers ( Luke 16:23). "Hades" is the New Testament word for this place, and "Sheol" is the Old Testament word.

Another reference to judgment on the basis of deeds again stresses personal responsibility (cf. Revelation 20:12; Revelation 2:23; Matthew 16:27; Romans 2:6; Romans 14:12; 1 Peter 1:17). God will judge all people on the basis of their works ( Revelation 20:12; cf. Psalm 62:12; Matthew 25:41-46; Hebrews 4:12-13). This is also true of Christians at the judgment seat of Christ ( Romans 14:10; 1 Corinthians 3:13; 2 Corinthians 5:10).

"The White Throne Judgment will be nothing like our modern court cases. At the White Throne, there will be a Judge but no jury, a prosecution but no defense, a sentence but no appeal. No one will be able to defend himself or accuse God of unrighteousness. What an awesome scene it will be!" [Note: Wiersbe, 2:621.]

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on Revelation 20:13". "Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/dcc/revelation-20.html. 2012.

Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament

Revelation 20:13. And the sea gave up the dead which were in it; and death and Hades gave up the dead which were in them, and they were judged each one according to their works. By the ‘sea’ it is impossible to understand the ocean. The word meets us many times in the Apocalypse; but, when it is used absolutely as here, without anything to suggest a contrast to the land, it is evidently figuratively used, as the emblem of the troubled and evil world (see Revelation 13:1, Revelation 21:1). On this ground, and because associated with death and Hades, it must be regarded not as the ocean, in which many of the saints have perished, but as one of the sources whence the wicked come to judgment. Of the sense again in which ‘death’ and ‘Hades’ are to be understood we have the best illustration in chap. Revelation 6:8, where the former rides upon the pale horse and is followed by the latter. In that passage both ‘death’ and ‘Hades’ are the enemies of men; both are one of the judgments that come upon the world, so that they are not neutral powers, but powers exercising sway over the wicked, and having only the wicked under their control. This is absolutely established by the fact stated in the next verse, that both are cast into the lake of fire,—not simply brought to an end, but punished with the same punishment which had already been meted out to the dragon, the beast, and the false prophet.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Schaff, Philip. "Commentary on Revelation 20:13". "Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/scn/revelation-20.html. 1879-90.

Gary Hampton Commentary on Selected Books

The sea, whether the literal sea or a figure standing for the mass of humanity, death or the grave where the earthly remains were lain, and Hades, the waiting place of disembodied souls, will all yield their charges. All will be judged based upon the deeds they have done. (Eccelesiates ; Hebrews 4:13)

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Hampton, Gary. "Commentary on Revelation 20:13". "Gary Hampton Commentary on Selected Books". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ghc/revelation-20.html. 2014.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

hell = the grave. See Revelation 1:18; Revelation 6:8 and App-131.

every man = each one.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Revelation 20:13". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/revelation-20.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

And the sea gave up the dead which were in it; and death and hell delivered up the dead which were in them: and they were judged every man according to their works.

Death and hell - Hades. The essential identity of the dying and risen body is shown; for the sea and grave give up their dead. The body that sinned or served God shall, in righteous retribution, be the body also that shall suffer, or be rewarded. The "sea" may have a symbolical (Cluver from Augustine) meaning, as in Revelation 8:8; Revelation 12:12; Revelation 13:1; Revelation 18:17; Revelation 18:19. But the literal sense holds good: all the different regions, wherein men's bodies and souls were, gave them up.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Revelation 20:13". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/revelation-20.html. 1871-8.

Foy E. Wallace's Commentary on the Book of Revelation

3. The sea gave up the dead which were in it. "And the sea gave up the dead which were in it; and death and hell delivered up the dead which were in them: and they were judged every man according to their works"--20:13.

The symbolism continued, the reference was not to the literal sea nor to physical death. Although the principles may be applied generally, the language belongs visionally to this apocalypse, and has direct reference to the judgment of the persecuting rulers and their subjects. The use of the word sea applied to the heathen society, consistent with the employment of the symbol elsewhere in the apocalypse; as mentioned in the classification of symbols in the first chapter. There was no reference to the bodily resurrection of the dead at the general judgment. This surrender by the sea of its dead was as figurative as the first resurrection of verse six. The realm of death and hell (hades) in like figure were also said to deliver up the dead which were in them.

The words death and hades were used as a synecdoche--a figure of speech by which a part is put for the whole; the genus for the species, the name of the substance for the thing. So death and hades were used here for the subjects of the diabolical and infernal powers.

In the same symbolism that the first resurrection of verse six was described as a resurrection to a state of victory--the resurrection of a cause; the "rest of the dead" were envisioned in a resurrection of retribution--of judgment on the evil rulers and their wicked subjects who had persecuted the cause of the Lamb of God.

Copyright Statement
These files are a derivative of an electronic edition available at BibleSupport.com. Public Domain.
Bibliographical Information
Wallace, Foy E. "Commentary on Revelation 20:13". "Foy E. Wallace's Commentary on the Book of Revelation". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/foy/revelation-20.html. 1966.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

And the sea gave up the dead which were in it; and death and hell delivered up the dead which were in them: and they were judged every man according to their works.
the sea
John 5:28,29
and death
14; 6:8; Hosea 13:14; 1 Corinthians 15:50-58
hell
or, the grave.
1 Corinthians 15:55; *marg:
and they
12
Reciprocal: Genesis 3:9 - GeneralDeuteronomy 32:34 - GeneralJob 14:14 - shall he live;  Psalm 9:8 - GeneralPsalm 16:10 - my;  Isaiah 5:14 - hell;  Isaiah 26:19 - the earth;  Isaiah 59:18 - According;  Ezekiel 7:3 - will judge;  Ezekiel 7:9 - the Lord;  Ezekiel 37:12 - I will open;  Luke 16:23 - in hell;  Acts 2:27 - leave;  Acts 24:15 - that;  2 Corinthians 5:10 - receive;  Philippians 2:10 - under

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Revelation 20:13". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/revelation-20.html.

Walter Scott's Commentary on Revelation

COMING UP OF THE DEAD

Revelation 20:13. — "And the sea gave up the dead which (were)in it, and death and hades gave up the dead which were in them; and they were judged, each according to their works." Literally, the sea, "the sepulchre of buried nations," shall have to yield up its dead. Thevoice of the Son of God, for all the dead shall hear it (?John 5:28; ?John 5:29), will fathom the lowest depths of the deepest sea,and the angry billows and waves shall answer to the voice of their Creator, and yield up their dead, every one. Death, too, which claimed the body, and hades the soul — the Lord has the keys of both — shall give up their dead, every one. The emperor and peasant, the high and low, the rich and poor, have been humbled to one dead level.Now all come forth at that voice of irresistible power and majesty, and each one is judged "according to their works."

Copyright Statement
These files are a derivative of an electronic edition available at BibleSupport.com. Public Domain.
Bibliographical Information
Scott, Walter. "Commentary on Revelation 20:13". "Walter Scott's Commentary on Revelation". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/sor/revelation-20.html.

E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament

The preceding verse makes a general statement of the persons to be summoned before the judgment. "Small and great" would virtually include all human beings that ever lived. The present verse gives particulars, doubtless to impress us with the completeness of the resurrection of all persons regardless of where their bodies and spirits had been, even including the sea with its millions of ravenous creatures to feed upon the bodies of the dead. Death refers to the dead bodies and hell (from HADES), is the place where the spirits had been. Both will be reunited and brought before the judgment.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Zerr, E.M. "Commentary on Revelation 20:13". E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/znt/revelation-20.html. 1952.

Hanserd Knollys' Commentary on Revelation

Revelation 20:13

Revelation 20:13 And the sea gave up the dead which were in it; and death and hell delivered up the dead which were in them: and they were judged every man according to their works.

By sea, death, and hell, here we are to understand the places where the bodies and souls of the dead were held and kept until this day of judgement:

And they were judged every man according to their works.

that Isaiah, according to their sinful thoughts, words, and deeds. { Jude 1:6-15}

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Knollys, Hanserd. "Commentary on Revelation 20:13". "Hanserd Knollys' Commentary on Revelation". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hkc/revelation-20.html.

Ernst Hengstenberg on John, Revelation, Ecclesiastes, Ezekiel & Psalms

Revelation 20:13. And the sea gave the dead, that were therein, and death and hell gave the dead, that were therein; and they were judged every one according to their works. This verse does not advance, but supplies and completes. The words, agreeing with the close of Revelation 20:12, "and they were judged according to their works," which sounds so alarmingly for the dead, whose works can only be bad, shews that we are here again at the point, to which we had already come there. The expression of the resurrection, used also in the Gospel in regard to the ungodly, (comp. John 5:29) is here studiously shunned. After the heavenly blessedness of believers had been described in Revelation 20:6 as the first resurrection, the representation of salvation was closely connected with the resurrection. The elevation, too, of the prophetical stand-point, of itself admits of nothing, which has the character of semblance merely, or is but half. And according to the style of the Revelation the righteous partake of a double resurrection, but the wicked of none at all. This emphatic use of the resurrection, by which it is represented as the privilege of believers, is found also in the Gospel (comp. John 6:39-40, John 6:44, John 6:54), and occurs even in Luke, ch. Luke 14:14, Luke 20:35. The sea is here, as commonly in the Apocalypse, the sea of the peoples, the wicked restless world. The dead, whom the sea conceals, are those who were slain in the bloody conflict of selfishnesss against selfishness, in which they killed one another in the Cainite spirit of brotherly hatred—not Cain against Abel, but Cain against Cain, (ch. Revelation 6:4). The dead in the sea are related to those of death and hell, as in Revelation 20:4, those, who were beheaded for the testimony of Jesus, to those who had not worshipped the beast. They also belong to death and hell, but in these there are great numbers besides, who in the way of nature have died without salvation. The sea in the literal sense does not suit here. For, the number of dead persons concealed by this, is extremely small, as compared with the rest, and the mention of it would possess a sentimental aspect entirely foreign to the character of the Apocalypse. From the juxtaposition with death and hell the sea can here be referred to only as the receptacle of the lost dead. But the natural sea engulphs alike the righteous and the wicked. That the sea stands here in the figurative sense, appears also from ch. Revelation 21:1, according to which the sea cannot belong to the original constitution of things in nature, but must be a product of sin. That the symbol of the sea comes out with such unusual prominence in the Apocalypse, admits of explanation from the circumstance, that being in the island of Patmos, John was constantly within sight of the sea. Death is here not natural death merely, but what alone deserves the name, an unblessed death, the legitimate continuation, and, at the same time, the punishment of spiritual death. This is shewn by the connection of death with hell, which is found also in ch. Revelation 1:18, and Revelation 6:8; and by Revelation 20:14, which is inexplicable, if we understand by death what is commonly understood and expressed by that in the world.

Hell, Hades, is everywhere in the New Testament the place of torment for the ungodly (comp. on ch. Revelation 1:18, Revelation 6:8).

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Hengstenberg, Ernst. "Commentary on Revelation 20:13". Ernst Hengstenberg on John, Revelation, Ecclesiastes, Ezekiel & Psalms. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/heg/revelation-20.html.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

2. The final penal awardthe lake of fire, Revelation 20:13-15.

13.The sea gave up—Even while the heaven and earth are fleeing in flames before the throne, the sea surrenders the myriads who have perished in its waves. Death and hell (hades)—From three sources do the dead, body and soul, come forth. From the sea and from death (by land) come their bodies; from hell or hades, (the intermediate state of disembodied spirits,) come their souls. How unhappy here the term hell is for hades is illustrated by the fact that it was the abode of the blessed as well as of the unholy souls. It included Paradise as well as Tartarus.

Judged—Solemn and emphatic repetition of closing clause of last verse.

 

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Revelation 20:13". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/revelation-20.html. 1874-1909.

The Expositor's Greek Testament

See Pirke Aboth, iv. 32: “Let not thine imagination assure thee that the grave is an asylum” (for, like birth and life and death, judgment is appointed before the King of the kings of kings). “And the earth shall restore those that are asleep in her, and so shall the dust those that dwell therein in silence, and the secret chambers shall deliver up those souls (of the righteous, iv. 35) that were committed unto them,” 4 Esd. 7:32—reproducing, as here, Enoch li. 1, “and in those days will the earth also give back those who are treasured up within it, and Sheol also will give back that which it has received, and hell will give back that which it owes”. Also En. lxi. 5 where the restoration includes “those who have been destroyed by the desert, or devoured by the fish of the sea and by the beasts”. Evidently drowned people are supposed not to be in Hades; they wander about or drift in the ocean (Achill. Tat. ver 313), . According to the prophet’s conception (cf.Revelation 13:8; Revelation 13:14.f.) the fate of pagans must have been a foregone conclusion, when the Imperial cultus was made the test of character; in which case “the scene before the white throne is rather a final statement of judgment than a statement of final judgment” (Gilbert). But the broader allusioni to works here shows that the prophet is thinking of the general ethical judgment, which embraced issues wider than the particular historical test of the Emperor-worship.— . . ., cf. Plutarch’s (de Iside, 29) derivation of Amenthes, the Egyptian name for Hades, as “that which receives and gives”. As in Slav. En. lxv. 6 and the later Iranian Bundehesh (S. B. E. ver 123 f.), the resurrection of the body is not mentioned, though it is probably implied (cf. En. li. 1, lxii. 14 and Matthew 27:52 f.).

 

 

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Nicol, W. Robertson, M.A., L.L.D. "Commentary on Revelation 20:13". The Expositor's Greek Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/egt/revelation-20.html. 1897-1910.