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Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Revelation 20:15

And if anyone's name was not found written in the book of life, he was thrown into the lake of fire.


Adam Clarke Commentary

Written in the book of life - Only those who had continued faithful unto death were taken to heaven. All whose names were not found in the public registers, who either were not citizens, or whose names had been erased from those registers because of crimes against the state, could claim none of those emoluments or privileges which belong to the citizens; so those who either did not belong to the new and spiritual Jerusalem, or who had forfeited their rights and privileges by sin, and had died in that state, were cast into the lake of fire.

This is the way in which God, at the day of judgment, will proceed with sinners and apostates. Reader, see that thy name be written in the sacred register; and, if written in, see that it never be blotted out.


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Bibliography
Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Revelation 20:15". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/revelation-20.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

And whosoever - All persons, of all ranks, ages, and conditions. No word could be more comprehensive than this. The single condition here stated, as being what would save any from being cast into the lake of fire, is, that they are “found written in the book of life.” All besides these, princes, kings, nobles, philosophers, statesmen, conquerors; rich men and poor men; the bond and the free; the young and the aged; the frivolous, the vain, the proud, and the sober; the modest and the humble, will be doomed to the lake of fire. Unlike in all other things, they will be alike in the only thing on which their eternal destiny will depend - that they have not so lived that their names have become recorded in the book of life. As they will also be destitute of true religion, there will be a propriety that they shall share the same doom in the future world.

Written in the book of life - See the notes on Revelation 3:5.

Was cast into the lake of fire - See the notes on Matthew 25:41. That is, they will be doomed to a punishment which will be well represented by their lingering in a sea of fire forever. This is the termination of the judgment - the winding up of the affairs of men. The vision of John here rests for a moment on the doom of the wicked, and then turns to a more full contemplation of the happy lot of the righteous, as detailed in the two closing chapters of the book.

Section e. - Condition of things referred to in Revelation 20:11-15;

(1) There will be a general resurrection of the dead - of the righteous and the wicked. This is implied by the statement that the “dead, small and great,” were seen to stand before God; that “the sea gave up the dead which were in it”; that “Death and Hades gave up their dead.” All were there whose names were or were not written in the book of life.

(2) there will be a solemn and impartial judgment. How long a time this will occupy is not said, and is not necessary to be known - for time is of no consequence where there is an eternity of devotion - but it is said that they will be all judged “according to their works” - that is, strictly according to their character. They will receive no arbitrary doom; they will have no sentence which will not be just. See Revelation 22:11.

(4) the wicked will be destroyed, in what may be properly called the “second” death. As remarked in the notes, this does not mean that this death will in all respects resemble the first death, but there will be so many points of resemblance that it will be proper to call it “death.” It does not mean that they will be “annihilated,” for “death” never implies that. The meaning is, that this will be a cutting off from what is properly called “life,” from hope, from happiness, and from peace, and a subjection to pain and agony, which it will be proper to call “death” - death in the most fearful form; death that will continue for ever. No statements in the Bible are more clear than those which are made on this point; no affirmation of the eternal punishment of the wicked “could be” more explicit than those which occur in the sacred Scriptures. See the Matthew 25:46 note, and 2 Thessalonians 1:9 note.

(5) this will be the end of the woes and calamities produced in the kingdom of God by sin. The reign of Satan and of Death, so far as the Redeemer‘s kingdom is concerned, will be at an end and henceforward the church will be safe from all the arts and efforts of its foes. Religion will be triumphant, and the affairs of the universe be reduced to permanent order.

(6) the preparation is thus made for the final triumph of the righteous - the state to which all things tend. The writer of this book has conducted the prospective history through all the times of persecution which awaited the church, and stated the principal forms of error which would prevail, and foretold the conflicts through which the church would pass, and described its eventful history to the millennial period, and to the final triumph of truth and righteousness; and now nothing remains to complete the plan of the work but to give a rapid sketch of the final condition of the redeemed. This is done in the two following chapters, and with this the work is ended.


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Bibliography
Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Revelation 20:15". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/revelation-20.html. 1870.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

And whosoever was not found written in the book of life,.... Upon the opening of it, Revelation 20:12 as all that worship the beast, and wonder after him, Revelation 13:8 and all wicked men, everyone of them:

was cast into the lake of fire; where are the devil, beast, and false prophet, Revelation 19:20. It is a saying of R. IsaacF13Tosaphta in Zohar in Gen. fol. 78. 2. ,

"woe to the wicked, who are not written בפתקא, "in the book", for they shall perish in hell for ever and ever:'

and in the Targum on Ezekiel 13:9 it is said of the false prophets,

"that בכתב חיי עלמא, "in the writing of eternal life" (or in the book of eternal life), which is written for the righteous of the house of Israel, they shall not be written.'

There seems to be some allusion in the phrase used here, and in the preceding verse, and elsewhere in this book, to the lake Asphaltites, a sulphurous lake, where Sodom and Gomorrah stood, which the Jews call the salt sea, or the bituminous lake; and whatsoever was useless, or rejected, or abominable, or accursed, they used to say, to show their rejection and detestation of it, let it be cast into the sea of salt, or the bituminous lake; thus, for instance,

"any vessels that had on them the image of the sun, or of the moon, or of a dragon, יוליכם לים המלח, "let them cast them into the salt sea", or bituminous lakeF14T. Bab. Avoda Zara, fol. 42. 2. Vid. ib. fol. 49. 1. &. 53. 1. & 71. 2. & Nazir, fol. 24. 2. & 26. 1, 2. Bava Metzia, fol. 52. 2. Temura, fol. 22. 2. & Meila, fol. 9. 2. & 10. 1. .'


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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rightes Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855

Bibliography
Gill, John. "Commentary on Revelation 20:15". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/revelation-20.html. 1999.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

The blissful lot of the righteous is not here specially mentioned as their bliss had commenced before the final judgment. Compare, however, Matthew 25:34, Matthew 25:41, Matthew 25:46.


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These files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.
This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.

Bibliography
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Revelation 20:15". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/revelation-20.html. 1871-8.

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

If any was not found written in the book of life(ει τις ουχ ευρετη εν τηι βιβλωι της ζωηςei tis ouch heurethē en tēi biblōi tēs zōēs). Condition of first class with ειei and the first aorist passive indicative of ευρισκωheuriskō In this short sentence the doom is told of all who are out of Christ, for they too follow the devil and the two beasts into the lake of fire (the counterpart of the Gehenna of fire, Matthew 5:22). There is no room here for soul sleeping, for an intermediate state, for a second chance, or for annihilation of the wicked. In Daniel 12:2 there is a resurrection to death as well as to life and so in John 5:29; Acts 24:15.


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The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)

Bibliography
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Revelation 20:15". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/revelation-20.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

Vincent's Word Studies

And whosoever ( εἴ τις )

Lit., if any. So Rev.


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Bibliography
Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on Revelation 20:15". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/vnt/revelation-20.html. Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. 1887.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

15 And whosoever was not found written in the book of life was cast into the lake of fire.

Ver. 15. And whosoever] As those priests were cashiered that could not prove their pedigree, Ezra 2:62-63.


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Bibliography
Trapp, John. "Commentary on Revelation 20:15". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/revelation-20.html. 1865-1868.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

The book of life: See Poole on "Revelation 20:12".


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Bibliography
Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Revelation 20:15". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/revelation-20.html. 1685.

Cambridge Greek Testament for Schools and Colleges

15. καὶ εἴ τις.… May either be a parallel to Galatians 2:16 or a reference to ch. Revelation 14:10-11 implying that ordinary sinners will be punished with the Devil, the False Prophet, the Beast and his worshippers. Cf. St Matthew 25:41 sqq.


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Bibliography
"Commentary on Revelation 20:15". "Cambridge Greek Testament for Schools and Colleges". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cgt/revelation-20.html. 1896.

Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary

REFLECTIONS

Oh! the unspeakable joy, the Church, both in heaven and earth, must feel, in Christ's triumphs over the devil! What a glorious sight, even in contemplation, to behold Christ coming down from heaven, and seizing upon the monster, to cast him into the bottomless pit, where hell and horror reigns.

Praises to our All-conquering Jesus, for shutting him up, during his thousand years reign with his saints, that their joy shall have no interruption. And blessed be his holy Name, that he will raise up his saints and faithful ones, to sit on thrones with him, during this blissful age, of light, and life, and glory. Nothing of sin, nothing of sorrow, shall interrupt this blessed Millennium. And Jesus will have the souls of them that were beheaded for the witness of Jesus, and the word of God, and that have not worshipped the beast, but hated the whore; to reign with him. Oh! the felicity of beholding Jesus, and the glory of his Person, and the love of his heart, to his redeemed, his people!

They are indeed blessed, and holy, who have part in the first resurrection. God the Holy Ghost hath said it. And, my soul, beg the Lord to seal the everlasting remembrance of it, in thy inmost affections. On such, the second death hath no power!

And while thy Church, O Lord, are rejoicing with holy triumph, over the devil, and the beast, and the false prophet, in beholding them forever cast into the lake of endless torment; oh! for grace, in a life of faith on the Son of God, to be waiting for that great day of the Lord, when Jesus will come to be glorified in his saints, and to be admired in all that believe. Then will Jesus say to all his redeemed: Come ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you before the foundation of the world. Lord! shall this be my happy portion? Will Jesus so own me, when he cometh to make up his jewels? Oh! for the Lord to bless my soul now with grace; and sure I am, that then the Lord will give me glory.


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Bibliography
Hawker, Robert, D.D. "Commentary on Revelation 20:15". "Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pmc/revelation-20.html. 1828.

Coffman's Commentaries on the Bible

And if any was not found written in the book of life, he was cast into the lake of fire.

And if any was not found written in the book of life ... The mention of the righteous in this shows that both the good and the evil participate in the resurrection of the final day, those whose names were written there, and those whose names were not written there. Otherwise, there could have been no reason for using "if" in this verse. Here it is evident that the New Testament contains no promise of any second chance after death.

In this series of commentaries, the book of life has often been mentioned; and here the absolute necessity of every man's being inscribed in it in order to be saved is dogmatically stated. Therefore, out of regard to all men, we shall declare how one may so be written.

In Matthew 10:32, Jesus promised that all who confess him will themselves be confessed by Jesus in heaven "before God and the angels." In Matthew 16:16, is the record of the first man ever to confess Christ; and significantly, Jesus then and there upon that occasion, confessed that man, Peter, using exactly the same formula Peter had used in his confession of Christ. From this we have concluded that the writing of one's name in the book of life occurs upon the occasion of his confessing Christ and being baptized into him. Certainly, Christians have their names written there during their sojourn as Christians upon the earth (Philippians 4:3); and it is most logical to believe that it is written at the very beginning of that Christian life. Once inscribed in the book of life, one's name will remain there eternally, except in the case of his apostasy, in which event it will be "blotted out" (Revelation 3:5).

"This verse is a solemn reiteration of what has been asserted twice before in Revelation 20:12,13."[59]

John, having carried his readers through seven successive periods, each culminating in the final judgment, his purpose must have been clear to all. He was giving in each vision a view of the church's life between the two Advents, each scene being a recapitulation of one and the same chronological event.

<LINES><MONO>

1. In scene I, the church struggled against wars, famine and disease.

2. In scene II, the struggle was against natural disasters and false doctrine.

3. In scene III, there was the struggle against the dragon, the sea-beast and the land-beast.

4. In scene IV, the struggle with the harlot is given.

5. In scene V, the struggle with the harlot is given in greater detail.

6. In scene VI, the struggle with the scarlet beast in the phase of his ten horns, or the eighth head, is seen.

7. And in scene VII, the final victory over the devil himself is depicted.SIZE>MONO>LINES>

This type of pageantry cannot indicate that consecutive historical events are depicted in order. All of the church's enemies are in all of the visions. Although the focus changes, being first upon one, then upon another, etc., yet the dragon, the godless city, the sea-beast, the land-beast, the great harlot, the ten kings, the false prophet, etc., all continue to the end of time. No one of them is ever completely out of the total picture. Their operations are coextensive and simultaneous with the entire Christian dispensation; and all are thrown into the "lake of fire" at the same time "alive."

But despite all this, the victory is glorious and complete. John never allows us to forget it even for a moment. Almost every terrible scene is either begun, concluded or interrupted with a marvelous vision of the rejoicing saints in glory, these recurring scenes being injected proleptically to keep up the faith and the patience of the saved. In some ways, this is the most glorious book in the Bible.

All of the struggles having been recounted, John will devote the final two chapters to a discussion of heaven, the eternal home of the redeemed. There is absolutely nothing like these final two chapters in the entire record of human thought. The scholars, some of them, have vainly tried to find Revelation in pagan myth or folklore; but it is not there. Only the word of God could have given us this prophecy.

ENDNOTE:

[59] A. Plummer, op. cit., p. 475.


Copyright Statement
James Burton Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.

Bibliography
Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on Revelation 20:15". "Coffman Commentaries on the Old and New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/revelation-20.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible

‘And if any was not found written in the book of life, he was cast into the lake of fire.’

Thus all men are involved in this judgment. It is an all-embracing scene into which all other pictures of the judgment have to be fitted. And fitted they can be if we recognise that what is important is the spiritual lessons and not the physical descriptions. The significance of the book of life is that it contains the names of those who have been cleansed from sin, who have washed their robes and made them white in the blood of the Lamb (Revelation 7:14). It is revealing that only those who are hidden in Christ and covered with His righteousness can face the judgment without fear for all their sins have been borne by another. But as Paul constantly stressed, while our works cannot justify us, they can certainly condemn us, and those who are not His will be found doubly guilty, for they have not only broken God’s law but they have also rejected His mercy. For them there is no future. There is only the lake of fire.

So briefly is the fate of the wicked depicted. But now they are left behind. Now that man’s final judgment has been described, and the destruction of all that is evil revealed, we move on in the remainder of the book to the destiny of the righteous. For this in the end was the aim of book and is the aim of God. And what a transformation it is. A few verses previously it was all doom and gloom, but that is now behind and we are to see the glorious vision of the future. One can but feel sorry for those who see in this new picture a future that will be tarnished and fail, for it is rather a picture of complete triumph and full blessedness for all who are His.


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Bibliography
Pett, Peter. "Commentary on Revelation 20:15". "Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible ". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pet/revelation-20.html. 2013.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

15. Book of life—There was no book of death. Heaven has a glorious citizenship, and a glorious census-book of its citizens. But gehenna is an anarchy, without record and without citizenship.


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Bibliography
Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Revelation 20:15". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/revelation-20.html. 1874-1909.

Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable

The names of the wicked will be absent from the book of life. This will confirm their eternal fate (cf. Revelation 14:11).

"When taken seriously, this final note evaporates all theories of universalism or apocatastasis [restoration]..." [Note: Johnson, p590. Cf. Robertson, 6:465; and Ladd, p258. See Berkouwer, pp387-423 , for a very good discussion of eternal punishment.]

Eternal punishment is a doctrine that is becoming increasingly unpopular in our day. Notice that Jesus Christ, the Judges , spoke very plainly when He affirmed it ( Revelation 20:14-15; Revelation 20:10; Revelation 19:20; Revelation 14:10; Matthew 18:8; Matthew 23:15; Matthew 23:33; Matthew 25:41; Matthew 25:46; Mark 9:46). [Note: See David J. MacLeod, "The Sixth "Last Thing": The Last Judgment and the End of the World ( Revelation 20:11-15)," Bibliotheca Sacra157:627 (July-September2000):315-30.]

"If we once saw sin as God sees it, we would understand why a place such as hell exists." [Note: Wiersbe, 2:621.]


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Bibliography
Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on Revelation 20:15". "Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/dcc/revelation-20.html. 2012.

Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament

Revelation 20:15. And if any one was not found written in the book of life, he was cast into the lake of fire. Here then is the purpose, and the only one, for which ‘the book of life’ is spoken of as used at the judgment before us. It was searched in order that it might be seen if any one’s name was not written in it; and he whose name could not be discovered in its pages was cast into the lake of fire. For a carefulness of expression very similar to that of these words see John 10:16 and note.

From all that has been said it will be apparent that the judgment now described is not a general judgment, but one on the wicked only. The first view is no doubt that which most naturally suggests itself to the reader of the passage, until he examines more particularly the expressions that are employed, and calls to mind the whole style of thought exhibited in this book. But (1) The thought of a general judgment breaks the continuity of the scene. The passage, as a whole, is occupied with judgment upon the enemies of the Church. The interposition of a judgment, and consequent reward, of the righteous disturbs the even now of the description: (2) It is very difficult to imagine that those who have already reigned with Christ in the thousand years, and to whom judgment either relating to themselves or over others has been ‘given’ (Revelation 20:4), should now be placed at the judgment bar: (3) Add to all this the use and meaning in St. John’s writings of such words as ‘the dead,’ ‘judged,’ ‘the sea,’ ‘death,’ and ‘Hades,’—and it appears impossible to adopt any other conclusion than that in the vision now before us we have a judgment of the wicked, and not a general judgment.


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Bibliography
Schaff, Philip. "Commentary on Revelation 20:15". "Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/scn/revelation-20.html. 1879-90.

The Expositor's Greek Testament

In Enoch (xxxviii. 5, xlviii. 9) the wicked are handed over by God to the saints, before whom they burn like straw in fire and sink like lead in water. The milder spirit of the Christian prophet abstains from making the saints thus punish or witness the punishment of the doomed (cf. on Revelation 14:10). In Apoc. Pet. 25 the souls of the murdered gaze on the torture of their former persecutors, crying θεὸς, δικαία σου κρίσις. These features, together with those of torturing angels (Dieterich, 60 f.) and Dantesque gradations of punishment (Dieterich, 206 f.), are conspicuous by their absence from John’s Apocalypse. There is a stern simplicity about the whole description, and just enough pictorial detail is given to make the passage morally suggestive. As gehenna, like paradise (4 Ezra 3:4), was created before the world, according to rabbinic belief (Gfrörer, ii. 42–46), it naturally survived the collapse of the latter (Revelation 20:11). Contrast with this passage the relentless spirit of 4. Esd. 7:49 f. (“I will not mourn over the multitude of the perishing … they are set on fire and burn hotly and are quenched”). If John betrays no pity for the doomed, he exhibits no callous scorn for their fate. The order of Revelation 20:13-15 and Revelation 21:1 f. is the same as in the haggadic pseudo-Philonic De Biblic. Anti-quitatibus (after 70 A.D.) where the judgment (“reddet infernus debitum suum et perditio restituet paratecen suam, ut reddam unicuique secundum opera sua”) is followed by the renewal of all things (“et exstinguetur mors et infernus claudet os suum … et erit terra alia et caelum aliud habitaculum sempiternum”).

So much for the doomed. The bliss of saints occupies the closing vision (Revelation 21:1 to Revelation 22:5). From the smoke and pain and heat it is a relief to pass into the clear, clean atmosphere of the eternal morning where the breath of heaven is sweet and the vast city of God sparkles like a diamond in the radiance of his presence. The dominant idea of the passage is that surroundings must be in keeping with character and prospects; consequently, as the old universe has been hopelessly sullied by sin, a new order of things must be formed, once the old scene of trial and failure is swept aside. This hope of the post-exilic Judaism (cf. Isaiah 65:17; Isaiah 66:22) was originally derived from the Persian religion, in which the renovation of the universe was a cardinal tenet; it is strongly developed in Enoch (xci. 16, civ. 2, new heaven only) and 4 Esd. 4:27 f. (“if the place where the evil is sown pass not away, there cannot come the field where the good is sown”). The expectation (cf on Romans 8:28 f.) that the loss sustained at the fall of Adam would now be made good, is handly the same as this eschatological transformation; the latter prevailed whenever the stern exigencies of the age seemed to demand a clean sweep of the universe, and the apocalyptic attitude towards nature seldom had anything of the tenderness and pathos, e.g., of 4 Esd. 8:42–48 (cf. 7:31). The sequence of Revelation 20:11 f. and Revelation 21:1 f. therefore follows the general eschatological programme, as e.g. in Apoc. Bar. xxi. 23 f., where, after death is ended (very mildly), the new world promised by God appears as the dwelling-place of the saints (cf. also 32:1 f.). The earthly Jerusalem is good enough for the millennium but not for the final bliss; the new order (Revelation 21:5) of latter (cf. above) coincides, as in Oriental religion (Jeremiah , 45 f.), with the new year (i.e., spring) festival of the god’s final victory.—The literary problem is more intricate. With Revelation 21:1-8, which is evidently the prophet’s own composition, the Apocalypse really closes. The rest of the vision, down to Revelation 22:5, is little more than a poetical repetition and elaboration ol Revelation 21:1-8, to which Revelation 22:6 f. forms the appropriate conclusion, just as the doublet Revelation 19:9 b, 10 (in its present position) does to Revelation 19:1-8. When Revelation 19:9 b, 10 is transferred to the end of 17 (see above), the parallelism becomes even closer. Both 17 (the vision of the harlot-Babylon, with her evil influence on the world, and her transient empire) and Revelation 21:9 to Revelation 22:5 (the vision of the Lamb’s pure bride, with her endless empire) are introduced alike (cf. Revelation 17:1, Revelation 21:9) and ended alike, though Revelation 22:6-8 has been slightly expanded in view of its special position as a climax to the entire Apocalypse. As 17. represents John’s revision of an earlier source, this suggests, but does not prove, a similar origin for Revelation 21:9 to Revelation 22:5. He might have sketched the latter as an antithesis to the former; certainly the “editorial” brushwork in Revelation 21:9 to Revelation 22:5 is not nearly so obvious and abrupt as, e.g., in 18. Upon the other hand there are touches and traits which have been held to imply the revision of a source or sources, especially of a. Jewish character (so variously Vischer, Weyland, Ménégoz, Spitta, Sabatier, Briggs, Schmidt, S. Davidson, von Soden, de Faye, Kohler, Baljon, J. Weiss, and Forbes), delineating the new Jerusalem (cf. Revelation 21:1-2). In this event the Christian editor’s hand would be visible, not necessarily in Revelation 21:22 (see note), but in the ἀρνίον-allusions, in Revelation 21:14 b, 23 (cf. Revelation 22:5), 25 b (= Revelation 22:5 a), and 27 (= Revelation 20:15, Revelation 21:8, Revelation 22:3 a). Another set of features (Revelation 21:12; Revelation 21:16; Revelation 21:24-27 a, Revelation 22:2 c, 3 a, 5) is explicable apart from the hypothesis of a Jewish source, or indeed of any source at all. Literally taken, they are incongruous. But since Revelation 21:9 to Revelation 22:5 may be equivalent not so much to a Jewish ideal conceived sub specie Christiana as to a Christian ideal expressed in the imaginative terms of a Jewish tradition which originally depicted an earthly Jerusalem surrounded by the respectful nations of the world, a number of traits in the latter sketch would obviously be inapplicable in the new setting to which they were transferred. These are retained, however, not only for the sake of their archaic associations but in order to lend pictorial completeness to the description of the eternal city. The author, in short, is a religious poet, not a theologian or a historian. But while these archaic details need not involve the use of a Jewish source (so rightly Schön and Wellhausen), much less a reference of the whole vision to the millennial Jerusalem (Zahn), or the ascription of it to Cerinthus (Völter) or a chiliastic Jewish Christian editor (Bruston), may not the repetitions and parallelisms, especially in view of Revelation 22:6 f., indicate a composite Christian origin, as is suggested, e.g., by Erbes (A = Revelation 21:1-4, Revelation 22:3-17; Revelation 22:20-21, (920) = Revelation 21:5-27, Revelation 22:1-2; Revelation 22:18-19) and Selwyn (Revelation 22:16-21, the conclusion of (921) = Revelation 21:2, Revelation 22:3-5, Revelation 21:3-6 a, Revelation 22:7, Revelation 21:6 b–8, or of (922) = Revelation 21:9 to Revelation 22:2, Revelation 22:6; Revelation 22:8-15)? Some dislocation of the original autograph or scribal additions may be conjectured with reason in Revelation 22:6-21 (see below), at least. But the reiterations are intelligible enough as the work of a single writer, whose aim is to impress an audience rather than to produce a piece of literature. The likelihood is that John composed Revelation 21:9 f. as an antithesis to the description of the evil city which he had reproduced from a source in 17, and that he repeated the incident of Revelation 22:8-9 (as Revelation 19:9-10 at the end of 17), adapting it to its position at the close of the whole book as well as of the immediately preceding oracle.


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Bibliography
Nicol, W. Robertson, M.A., L.L.D. "Commentary on Revelation 20:15". The Expositor's Greek Testament. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/egt/revelation-20.html. 1897-1910.

Gary Hampton Commentary on Selected Books

Hell was prepared for the devil and his angels, but some men will be sent there for eternity because they refused to repent. (Matthew 25:41)


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Bibliography
Hampton, Gary. "Commentary on Revelation 20:15". "Gary Hampton Commentary on Selected Books". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ghc/revelation-20.html. 2014.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

whosoever = if (App-118. a) any one (App-123.), Note the Figure of speech Polysyndeton (App-6) verses: Revelation 20:9-18.


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Bibliography
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Revelation 20:15". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/revelation-20.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

And whosoever was not found written in the book of life was cast into the lake of fire.

The bliss of the righteous is not here specified, as it commenced before the final judgment. Compare, however, Matthew 25:34; Matthew 25:41; Matthew 25:46.


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Bibliography
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Revelation 20:15". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/revelation-20.html. 1871-8.

Foy E. Wallace's Commentary on the Book of Revelation

5. The names not written in the book of life. "And whosoever was not found written in the book of life was cast into the lake of fire"--20: 15.

The book of life was the registry of the approved of God. The names not found in it were not a part of God's called and chosen people--they belonged to the society opposed to the church.

The same reference in chapter 13:8 mentioned the names not written in the book of life "from the foundation of the earth," which affirms the great truth that in all nations and ages the only people who belong to God in the true sense of the people of God were and are the people who have lived and now live in obedience to His divine will.

Let it be impressed on the minds of the readers of Revelation, that these visions of resurrection; of second death and judgment; were all extraordinary and of special character. They were not intended for future and general application. They belonged to the apocalypse, and the apocalypse belonged to that period. The depiction of the first resurrection and the second death were not meant for expositions of the doctrine of the resurrection from the dead and the future eternal punishment of the wicked, abundantly taught elsewhere in numerous scriptures. Though the imagery has basis in these fundamental doctrinal truths, the visions of Revelation were limited in application to the pageantry of apocalyptic description of the fortunes of the early church and the divine judgments on its enemies.


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Bibliography
Wallace, Foy E. "Commentary on Revelation 20:15". "Foy E. Wallace's Commentary on the Book of Revelation". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/foy/revelation-20.html. 1966.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

And whosoever was not found written in the book of life was cast into the lake of fire.
whosoever
Mark 16:16; John 3:18,19,36; 14:6; Acts 4:12; Hebrews 2:3; 12:25; 1 John 5:11,12
was cast
19:20; Matthew 25:41; Mark 9:43-48

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Bibliography
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Revelation 20:15". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/revelation-20.html.

Walter Scott's Commentary on Revelation

CAST INTO THE LAKE OF FIRE.

Revelation 20:15. — "And if any one was not found written in thebook of life he was cast into the lake of fire." Such then is the eternal doom of the wicked. The dragon, the Beast, the False Prophet, and now all the unbelieving from the days of Cain find themselves in one horror of horrors, in one place where memory will give point and sting to the agony of eternal separation from God,from light and happiness. May God solemnise our spirits as we ponder these realities soon to be the awful lot and portion of many.


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Bibliography
Scott, Walter. "Commentary on Revelation 20:15". "Walter Scott's Commentary on Revelation". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/sor/revelation-20.html.

E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament

This explains who is meant in the preceding verse to be cast into the lake of fire. In order to avoid such a doom it behooves us all to get our names written in the book of life, then live so that they will not be blotted out.


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Bibliography
Zerr, E.M. "Commentary on Revelation 20:15". E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/znt/revelation-20.html. 1952.

Hanserd Knollys' Commentary on Revelation

Revelation 20:15

Revelation 20:15 And whosoever was not found written in the book of life was cast into the lake of fire.

By

the Book of Life,

we are to understand God's election unto everlasting salvation, or eternal life and glory; there is a remnant according to the election of grace, Romans 11:5; Romans 8:30; Ephesians 1:3-6. Those that were

not found written in the Book of Life,

are all the non-elect, viz. wicked and ungodly persons; the workers of iniquity, who have lived in the world without God and Christ, and died in their sins; viz. all impenitent unbelievers, that obey not the gospel. { 2 Thessalonians 1:6-10}


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Bibliography
Knollys, Hanserd. "Commentary on Revelation 20:15". "Hanserd Knollys' Commentary on Revelation". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hkc/revelation-20.html.

Revelation 20:15. And whosoever was not found written in the book of life, was cast into the lake of fire. Bengel remarks that "with great emphasis the discourse in Revelation 20:14-15 is thrice closed with the words, the lake of fire." In Revelation 20:14 the final hell is, as it were, erected, here it receives its wretched inhabitants. There is a parallel in John 15:6, "He that abides not in me, is cast forth as a branch, and is withered; and men gather them, and cast them into the fire, and they are burned." "O Jesus, help now, for the sake of thy wounds, that I may be found written in the book of life!"


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Bibliography
Hengstenberg, Ernst. "Commentary on Revelation 20:15". Ernst Hengstenberg on John, Revelation, Ecclesiastes, Ezekiel & Psalms. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/heg/revelation-20.html.

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