1911 Encyclopedia Britannica
Ab Gruffydd Llewelyn II
II., AB GRUFFYDD (d. 1282), prince of North Wales, succeeded his uncle David in 1246, but was compelled by Henry III. to confine himself to Snowdon and Anglesey. In 1254 Henry granted Prince Edward the royal lands in Wales. The steady encroachment of royal officers on Llewelyn's land began immediately, and in 1256 Llewelyn declared war. The Barons' War engaged all the forces of England, and he was able to make himself lord of south and north Wales. Llewelyn also assisted the barons. By the treaty of Shrewsbury (1265) he was recognized as overlord of Wales; and in return Simon de Montfort was supplied with Welsh troops for his last campaign. Llewelyn refused to do homage to Edward I., who therefore attacked him in 1276. He was besieged in the Snowdon mountains till hunger made him surrender, and conclude the humiliating treaty of Conway (1277). He was released, but in 1282 he revolted again, and was killed in a skirmish with the Mortimers, near Builth in central Wales.
See C. Bhmont, Simon de Montfort (Paris, 1884); T. F. Tout in the Political History of England, iii. (1905); J. E. Morris in The Welsh Wars of Edward I. (1901).
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Chisholm, Hugh, General Editor. Entry for 'Ab Gruffydd Llewelyn II'. 1911 Encyclopedia Britanica. https://www.studylight.org/encyclopedias/eng/bri/a/ab-gruffydd-llewelyn-ii.html. 1910.