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1911 Encyclopedia Britannica
Specialization in athletic sports, although always existent, is to a great extent a modern product. In ancient times athletes were encouraged to excel in several branches of sport, often quite opposite in character. Thus the athlete held in highest honour at the Olympic Games (see GAMES, CLASSICAL) was the winner of the pentathlon, which consisted of running, jumping, throwing the javelin and the discus, and wrestling. All-round championships have existed for many years both in Scotland and Ireland, and in America there are both national and sectional championships. The American national championship was instituted in 1884, the winner being the athlete who succeeds in obtaining the highest marks in the following eleven events; ioo yards run; putting 16 lb shot; running high jump; half-mile walk; throwing 16 lb hammer; 120 yards hurdle race; pole vault; throwing 56 lb weight; one mile run; running broad jump; quarter-mile run. In each event 'coo points are allowed for equalling the "record," and an increasing number of points is taken off for performances below "record," down to a certain "standard," below which the competitor scores nothing. For example, in the loo yards run the time of 94 seconds represents loon points; that of 10 seconds scores 958, or 42 points less; 105 seconds scores 916, &c.; and below 141seconds the competitor scores nothing. Should the record be broken 42 points are added for each I second. (See also ATHLETIC SPORTS.)
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Chisholm, Hugh, General Editor. Entry for 'All-Round Athletics'. 1911 Encyclopedia Britanica. https://www.studylight.org/encyclopedias/eng/bri/a/all-round-athletics.html. 1910.