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Bible Encyclopedias

1911 Encyclopedia Britannica

Archaeology Greece and Greek Sites

"ARCHAEOLOGY: GREECE AND GREEK SITES.-All important excavations which were in progress in Greek lands in 1911 came to an end with the beginning of the World War. These had not yet been resumed by 1921, partly because of the increased cost of labour, partly because of the continued inaccessibility of sites. The numerous minor explorations, however, chiefly carried on by Government authorities and local archaeological societies, had been less interrupted. Even the studies of individual members of the foreign schools and institutes had been to some extent continued by these scholars in the course of military service with one or other of the combatant forces in the Near East.

Prehellenic Period The greatest advance during the decade 1910-20 was made in the knowledge of prehistoric Greece, to which increasing interest had been directed 'since the first discoveries of Sir Arthur Evans in Crete in 1900.

Greek Mainland.-Exploration of 'the Mycenaean sites of the Greek mainland have shown that beneath the characteristic painted pottery which is so plainly derived from the late Minoan wares, there is no unbroken sequence of development such as is found at Cnossos and elsewhere in Crete: that is to say, the Mycenaean civilization was not native to Greece proper, but was imposed there in a mature form upon a more backward culture. The earliest Cretan settlements in Greece belong to the end of the third Middle Minoan period, about 1800 s.c. Pre-Mycenaean civilization in Greece varied in different localities. The results of researches on numerous prehistoric mounds in Thessaly were exhaustively published by A. J. B. Wace and M. S. Thompson in 1912. Sites have also been explored in Phocis (Hagia Marina) and Boeotia, in AetoIia (Thermon) and the Ionian Islands, in Attica, at Argos, Mycenae and Tiryns, in the neighbourhood of Corinth, and in the islands of Aegina, Cythera, Euboea, Melos, Paros, and Rhodes.

The results show that Thessaly was free from Cretan or other southern influence until the late Mycenaean period developed in isolation an advanced neolithic culture until the rest of Greece and the Aegean Is. had come almost to the end of their age of bronze. Western Greece appears to have been more barbarous than Thessaly, and its outward connexions, if any, before the Mycenaean period, were with Italy rather than with Greece. South-eastern Greece and the Peloponnesus show (in their sequence of pottery fabrics): (i.) An Early Bronze Age culture (black-varnish ware, Urfirnis ) similar to that of the Cyclades and Crete but of meaner development, which was dominated in turn by (ii.) its more progressive neighbours of the Cyclades (dull-paint ware, Mattmalerei ) and perhaps of Asia (Minyan ware), and ultimately (iii.) of Crete (Mycenaean).

For the mainland cultures a new term " Helladic " has lately been invented, and three chronological divisions, Early, Middle and Late Helladic, are proposed to correspond with the parallel Cycladic and Minoan periods. Mycenaean pottery is found to contain elements which do not belong to Crete, but which must be attributed to the influence of the fabrics established in Greece before it. The same development is looked for in Mycenaean architecture. Early Helladic house walls have lately been found by the American School at Corinth (A. W. Blegen, 1921). Prehistoric buildings of the semielliptical plan, which previously appeared beneath classical remains at Olympia and at Orchomenos in Boeotia, have now been discovered under the Mycenaean palace of Tiryns, under an Hellenic temple at Thermon in Aetolia and in Levkas.

This new and unexpected knowledge, and modern improvements in the science of excavation, have led to the reexploration of several old sites. Tiryns was dug again by the German Institute (until 1914), Phylakopi in Melos (1912) and the Kamares Cave in Crete (1913) by the British School at Athens, who also began in 1920 a further excavation on the acropolis of Mycenae. What is chiefly sought by such revision is better evidence for the chronology and inter-relation of the different cultures, but much new information has been gained in regard to plan and structure of the palaces and fortifications of Mycenae and Tiryns. Fragments of painted wall and floor decoration have also been recovered on these sites. Those from Tiryns are a most remarkable series; the figure frescos which have been reconstructed represent women in procession, a chariot group and a boar hunt. A fresco bearing the figure of a woman holding lilies and a vase was also found in the " Palace of Cadmus " at Thebes (1916), where many Early Mycenaean graves were also excavated. Other discoveries at Tiryns were a beehive tomb, perfectly preserved and used throughout the classical period, some pottery vases which bear painted inscriptions in characters said to be derived from the Cretan script, and an accidental find of Mycenaean treasure in 1915 by a labourer employed in the agricultural school. This consisted of bronze swords and vases, gold jewellery with agate and other gems, bracelets, collars, a seal cylinder and two engraved gold rings, one of which, the largest known, bears a religious scene. Mycenaean pottery and a carved steatite vase were found in caves in the island of Cythera in 1915. The Italian occupation of Rhodes in 1911 was followed by a general exploration of the island, in the course of which some graves were opened in the Mycenaean cemetery of Ialysos, which had been dug in 1868-72, and important material is said to have been obtained. This should be useful for establishing the date and classification of the earlier finds, which are in the British Museum. Some Late Mycenaean remains have been found in association with products of the local culture in the Ionian Islands. Doerpfeld sees in the crude settlements in Levkas the works of Homeric Achaeans, and continues to identify the island with Ithaca. A search by rival theorists for evidence which will prove that Cephallenia is Ithaca, has produced nothing more convincing, and efforts to find the city of the Phaeacians at Cape Kephali in Corfu were also unsuccessful.

1 Crete

2 Thessaly and Macedonia

3 South Russia

4 Greek Islands

5 Sicily and Italy

6 Etruria


In Crete there were many excavations in progress at the beginning of the war; at Tylisos (by the Greeks), Hagia Triada, Phaistos and Gortyna (Italians), Pachyammos and other sites in eastern Crete (R. B. Seager and the American School). Sir Arthur Evans conducted supplementary excavations at Cnossos in 1912, and the British School reexamined the Kamares Cave, where the typical Middle Minoan polychrome pottery were first found in Crete, in 1913. During the war only the Greek excavations were continued, and no foreign work has yet begun again (1921). Tylisos was the most productive site. Khatzidakis found there three large houses, each with some twenty rooms and upper storeys, and a unique collection of bronzes, an ingot, some enormous cauldrons, and a statu ette of a praying man. This curious figure served to identify a similar but much finer piece of unknown origin, which had lain for many years unrecognized in the British Museum. Another new bronze from Crete had been lately acquired (1921) by an English collector. It represents a man in the act of turning a somersault over the horns of a charging bull, a unique rendering of a familiar theme in Minoan art. Both these pieces were published in the new volume of the Journal of Hellenic Studies (1921). The Museum of Fine Arts at Boston also obtained in 1914 a masterpiece surreptitiously excavated and smuggled out of Crete, an exquisite gold and ivory statuette of the snake goddess or her votary.

The Kamares Cave was found to be a sanctuary, not a dwelling, but the offerings consisted almost entirely of pottery of M.M. styles, and there were no specifically votive objects such as other cave sanctuaries have contained. The Italians at H. Triada in 1913 found a portico bordering a courtyard of the palace, a large deposit of inscribed clay tablets, and a well-preserved L.M. III. shrine. Two beehive tombs, said to be Early Minoan, were found near Phaistos. They had been plundered and were destroyed to within a metre of the ground, but still contained some pottery and stone vases, bronze blades, seals, and ivory fragments. At Gortyna the first prehistoric finds of neolithic and Minoan periods were made in 1913. The other discoveries on this site have been nearly all of Roman date. The so-called Odeum, a circular building in which the famous code was found, was completely cleared in 1912, and five small fragments of the inscription were recovered.

Minoan finds were made on several lesser sites: at Plati in the Lasithi Plain in 1914, houses and burials; in eastern Crete at Sphoungaras in 1912, and at Pachyammos in 1914, E.M. to L.M. cemeteries with numerous pithos burials, at Damania, in 1915, an L.M. III. tomb of rectangular plan with converging walls closed at the top by a single course of stones. At Gournes, near Cnossos, in 1914 an E.M. cemetery containing hand-made vases of strange fabric was opened by Khatzidakis, who also found in 1911 fragments of bucchero cups, in a cave sanctuary at Arkalokhori near Lyttos. Similar grey pottery was found by Xanthondidis in a large E.M. tomb at Pyrgo in 1918. Seager's brilliant discoveries at Mokhlos were published (with coloured plates of the Early Minoan stone vases) in 1912.

" Geometric" Period Remains of the still problematic transitional period of the Early Iron Age were found in Crete at Atsipada in 1912, and in a settlement at Vrokastro in 1912-3 (R. B. Seager and E.

M. Hall). Several sites of the Early Iron Age have also been excavated in Greece, but nothing has been found to prove the origin of the " Geometric " culture, though accumulating evidence still indicates a northern source.

A Geometric cemetery was dug by the Germans at Tiryns, and their finds have been accurately published (1912). Some graves were opened at Eretria in Euboea in 1915. More important are the remains of buildings of this period. A temple built of sun-dried brick and timber has been found at Thebes underlying an archaic temple of Ismenian Apollo and standing on Mycenaean tombs (Keramopoullos, 1916), and a more extensive settlement was found at Thermon in Aetolia (Romaios, 1911-3). This lies similarly underneath an archaic Greek temple of Apollo, which was built apparently in the 7th century to replace the " Geometric " temple, an elliptical structure with an exterior ring of columns. Smaller elliptical houses were found near by, with geometric potsherds, bronzes, and a few iron weapons. Below again are Mycenaean and pre-Mycenaean settlements, with houses built of sticks and mud. The value of the site is its continuity from prehistoric to Hellenic times. The stratification is said to be like that of the settlements at Olympia, but undisturbed.

Halos was added to the number of Early Iron Age sites in Thessaly in 1912 (Wace and Thompson). A tumulus and cist graves were dug containing weapons, fibulae, and pottery of sub-Mycenaean type like that previously found at Theotoku. In Macedonia during the war some finds of the same period were made by British troops on mounds in the Vardar valley, and a cemetery was opened by the Y.M.C.A. at Chauchitsa (Causica) near Lake Doiran. These graves have been further examined since the war, and have yielded material which is said to connect with Thessaly and Hallstatt (S. Casson, 1921). Some bronzes from Chauchitsa are in the Royal Scottish Museum at Edinburgh.

Classical Period Recent excavations of classical sites in Greece proper have been of minor importance. At Argos, A. Vollgraff continued his researches, but found little besides inscriptions. These are always the most numerous finds on classical Greek sites, and their importance is mainly historical. New inscriptions and the general progress of Greek epigraphy have been minutely recorded from year to year by M. N. Tod in the Journal of Hellenic Studies. Greece. - There has been most archaeological activity at Athens, where its results have been mainly topographical. The cemetery of Kerameikos outside the Dipylon Gate was being extensively excavated and restored, so far as possible, to its original 5th-century appearance by the German Institute in 1914. Ostraka inscribed with familiar political names were found in the course of the work. An examination of the Pnyx in 1911 showed that the supporting wall is no earlier than the 4th century. A search for the Odeion of Pericles on the south-east slope of the Acropolis was inconclusive. Some pieces of sculpture were found here, among them fragments of the Parthenon and a singular relief of Asclepius with a kneeling woman suppliant. Sculpture was also found in excavating the Stoa of the Giants and the Roman agora. A cemetery at Phaleron dating from the 7th century was examined. A curious find was a grave containing burials of eighteen men fettered with iron collars and shackles. At Sunium the west end, pediment, and roof of the temple of Poseidon was rebuilt with excavated fragments. A circular building identified (bv Svoronos) as the Attic mint in the Peloponnesian War, was cleared, and a fine archaic relief of an ephebe crowning himself was discovered. A hoard of about 1,600 silver coins, found at Carditsa in 1914, was acquired by the National Museum of Athens. The coins are chiefly Theban, of all dates down to 315 B.C. There are about oo archaic Aeginetan staters, and some other rare coins.

The important excavations of the American School at prehistoric sites near Corinth have been mentioned. Work in the city had not been resumed after the war up to 1921; the last finds in 1914 were two colossal portrait statues of members of the Julio-Claudian family, perhaps Gaius and Lucius Caesar. The reexamination of Delphi by the French School was still going on in 1921, but on a small scale, while the publication of the first discoveries, made in 1892, was still unfinished. Among other details, the interior arrangements of the temple were studied, and it was established that there was no natural cave, but an artificial recess in the sanctuary, of which the walls still remain. The excavator also claimed to have found the omphalos itself. The pediment sculptures were reconsidered with fresh fragments and a better knowledge of the tympanon, and a new restoration of the eastern group has been proposed (F. Courby, 1914). A popular but scholarly account of Delphi was translated into English from the Danish of F. Poulsen in 1920.

Halae in Locris was dug by Americans in 1911. The cemetery, extending from archaic Greek to Roman times, and the acropolis were explored. The sanctuary of Apollo Corynthos at Longas was excavated in 1911. Five temples were found, and, among small objects, a number of bronzes. Material for reconstructing the megaron or Hearth of Despoina was found at Lycosura. The monument was an open-air altar, a terrace with portico, dated about zoo B.C. Many votive terra-cotta statuettes were obtained, the commonest being the figure of a sheep dressed as a woman, erect with a basket on its head, no doubt a ceremonial costume of worshippers. In the Roman city of Nikopolis the temple built by Octavian to Mars and Neptune, in commemoration of the battle of Actium, was excavated in 1912, and fragments of its structure were recovered. Further examination of towers in the town wall of Pagasae (or Demetrias) led to the discovery of many more painted gravestones, like those first found in 1907. The town was explored in 1912, and the cemetery from which the stelae came was found. The graves are mostly of the 3rd century B.C. At Tanagra a large series of graves was opened by the Greek authorities in 1911, but the finds, though numerous, were poor. There were more than a hundred terra-cotta statuettes, but none of fine quality.

Thessaly and Macedonia

Thessaly has been consistently studied by Arbanitopoullos in his capacity as Ephor of Antiquities and as a soldier in the Balkan wars (1912-3). The new territory here and in Macedonia was surveyed as soon as acquired, and a central museum for Thessaly was established in the former Turkish custom-house at Elassona before the cessation of hostilities. The sites of Pella and Dion were examined by the Greeks, and the French began to excavate the necropolis and theatre of Philippi in 1914. In the .next war, the landing of the Allied forces at Salonica led to some archaeological discoveries in the occupied territory. Reports of the work of British and French troops were published in the Annual of the British School at Athens in 1919. The results were scanty, as would be expected during a military campaign. Prehistoric sites were located on the characteristic mounds of the country, and some were superficially excavated; but most finds were accidental and unrecorded, and many were dispersed and lost. The antiquities collected at the headquarters of the British Salonica force were presented to the nation by the Greek Government, and are now in the British Museum. Shortly before the war a double-chamber tomb was excavated in a tumulus at Langaza. This is the best example of the Macedonian tumulus-tombs, which seem all to be of Hellenistic date. One was excavated by the French in the town of Salonica,` and another by the British on the Monastir road in 1919. The Langaza tomb had unusually elaborate architectural ornaments and two pairs of doors, one of wood, the other of marble. The doors were removed to the Ottoman Museum at Constantinople. A series of papers dealing with the little-known antiquities of Thrace has been published by G. Seure in the Revue Archeologique since 1911.

South Russia

The sites of the colonies in South Russia used to be a copious source of Greek antiquities of all periods, but the supply has ceased at the present time. From 1911 to 1914 Kerch (Panticapaion), Old and New Chersonesos, Tanais, Olbia, a town on the Is. of Berezan, and a cemetery on the peninsula of Taman were being excavated. The results were annually reported by A. Pharmakovski in the Archaeologischer Anzeiger of the Jahrbuch of the German Archaeological Institute. The typical objects from South Russia were jewellery, pottery, terra-cottas, and glass, mostly of florid Greek style. A remarkable glass bowl with coloured reliefs, said to be Alexandrian work, was found at Olbia in 1913. A glass cup with reliefs carved in the blue and white technique of the Portland Vase, representing a pastoral sacrifice, which was sold by auction in Paris in 1912 for 64,000 francs, was said to have come from Heraclea Pontica. The most valuable historical material from the Pontic colonies is archaic Ionian pottery from Berezan. An unusual find was a Scythian royal grave in a tumulus at Solokha, in 1913. The burial was richly furnished with barbaric jewellery, a gold comb, a bow-case and some vases decorated with Graeco-Scythian reliefs.

A welcome work on Scythians and Greeks, interpreting material which has long lain inaccessible in Russian books and periodicals, was published by E. H. Minns, in 1913.

Greek Islands

Among the Greek islands Corfu has produced the most notable find. At Goritsa, the ancient Corcyra, in 1911, the Greek Archaeological Society discovered an early archaic temple of Artemis, the excavation of which was continued until 1914 by Doerpfeld at the expense of the former Emperor of Germany. The striking feature of the building is the sculpture of the west pediment, carved in high relief on limestone slabs. The subjects are, between two panthers, a central group of a gigantic Medusa with her two diminutive children, Pegasus and Chrysaor, and corner groups of apparently unconnected battle scenes. A large altar stood before the west front. The small Ionic temple at Kardaki in Corfu was recleared in 1912. The French have made good progress in their work at Delos, where the town site is now said to be a Hellenistic Pompeii, its houses still preserving their mosaic floors and frescopainted walls. When Mytilene was recovered by the Greeks it was proposed to establish there a central museum for the Aegean islands, except Thasos, and the removal of antiquities was in progress in 1913. The Italian occupation of Rhodes put an end to the important work of the Carlsberg Expedition, and caused the loss of much of the material which had been collected at Lindos by the Danes, but the valuable finds from the archaic town and cemetery at Vroulia were fortunately recorded by K. F. Kinch before their dispersal, and were published in 1914. Greek efforts to recover the Dodecanese led to the publication of a lavishly illustrated book describing the Hellenic antiquities of Rhodes, for the information of the Peace Conference. The Germans began to excavate the great temple of Hera at Samos in 1910. This was a stone building with outer columns of marble, not in the Doric style, as Vitruvius said. It was begun in the 6th century B.C. and never finished. Considerable work was done in Thasos by the French School in 1910 and later. Five gates of the city wall were cleared. They were decorated with archaic reliefs, some of which were previously known. Other important finds were seven statues of women from a sanctuary of Artemis Polo, .a temple and altar of Apollo Pythius, decorative terra-cottas from an archaic Prytaneion, a cemetery with carved and painted tombstones, and remains of a triumphal arch of Caracalla. Asia Minor. - Political conditions in Asia Minor still prevented up to 1921 the reopening of the great city sites. During the war some show of general work was made by members of the German Archaeological Commission with the Turkish forces, but this came to little more than notes on the preservation or destruction of wellknown monuments. The French had lately renewed their arrangements for the excavation of Colophon, but no results had been obtained up to 1921 on the site. Very little was done in 1913-4; the " temple of Apollo Clarius " was found to be an exedra and a propylaea, and an oracular grotto of the god was discovered in the hills. It contained potsherds which are said to range from " Troy I." to the Roman period. A small collection of pottery and implements made by H. A. Ormerod during journeys in Pisidia is a useful addition to the scanty prehistoric material from Asia Minor, and shows that the characteristic fabrics of Troy and Yortan extend across the peninsula to Cyprus. A prehistoric settlement was found on Kilik Tepe at Miletus. The last excavations at Ephesus, Miletus and Pergamon produced (besides inscriptions) little more than architectural remains of Hellenistic and Roman date. A report of the work done at Ephesus by the Austrian Archaeological Institute since 1909 was issued in 1913. The results of the German excavations at Miletus after the same year were published in 1911.. The enormous temple at Didymi was cleared and all its columns were found to be standing to the height of several metres. The excavation of Miletus was completed in 1914. At Pergamon the Germans cleared two Hellenistic temples, in one of which a broken statue, identified as a portrait of Attalus II., was found. Another volume was added to the lengthy publication of the work at Pergamon.

The most brilliant results in Asia were obtained by American archaeologists at Sardis. Excavations were begun by the Princeton Syrian Expedition (H. C. Butler and W. H. Buckler) in 1910, and were continued actively for five seasons. The city lay between a mountain (its acropolis) and the river Pactolus, and its site was marked by two great Ionic columns standing deep in earth. The excavators began by driving a level platform from the river bank towards the acropolis on the line of the two columns. They therefore had to deal with a constantly increasing mass of soil, for the mountain has been washed down to the river in a continuous slope. A hundred metres from the columns they struck the west end of a temple, and found that more of the structure was preserved as the covering of soil became deeper. The temple, which (as inscriptions show) was dedicated to Artemis, had been half-buried by a landslip from the acropolis hill in the historic earthquake of 17 A.D. It is a 4th-century Greek building of rich Ionic style, and was still unfinished at the time of the earthquake, then cleared and partially rebuilt, and finally used as a water reservoir in the Byzantine period. At the west end, to which the two standing columns belong, some of the other shafts are still preserved to the height of 30 feet. Great efforts were made to remove the deep deposit of earth from the surrounding precinct, and the temple now stands in a wide, open space; but on its east front, where the cut face of the slope is 50 ft. high, progress was checked by a solid mass of the hill which had come near to wrecking the building altogether, having finished its slide less than too ft. from the portico. This mass had buried a great part of the Lydian and Greek cities, but on a protected slope some undisturbed Lydian strata were found. Here the pottery. sequence goes back through sub-Mycenaean wares to simpler geometric and plain black and grey fabrics. These provide means for classifying the rich finds from the cemetery which was excavated on the other bank of the river. The tombs, which are chambers cut in tiers in the hard clay of the hillside, were used with few exceptions for repeated burials, and the ejected offerings had been scattered down the slope. Two tumuli were dug in the necropolis of Bin Tepe without result. Great quantities of jewellery were found in the tombs, the gold work said to resemble the Etruscan. Especially noteworthy are numbers of engraved gems in Graeco-Persian (no doubt Lydian) style. These are all of the highest quality. Many bronze mirrors were found. The local pottery is marked in form by a conical base, in technique by a white slip, like the archaic Greek wares of Asia. Some important sculpture was found, and a large number of inscriptions, the most valuable being two bilingual texts, in Lydian-Aramaic and Lydian-Greek. These have not, however, given the key to the Lydian language, nor do they support the theory that Etruscan was derived from Lydian. Annual reports of the excavations were published in the American Journal of Archaeology. Africa. - Next in importance after Sardis among ancient sites explored in 1910-20 is the Greek city of Cyrene, also opened by American enterprise. An expedition, led by R. Norton, made its way there in 1910, but, owing to organized hostility among the natives, its first progress was slow and difficult. In 1911 H. F. de Cou was murdered by hired Arabs, but work was continued until the end of the first season, and before the second season could begin, the country was seized by Italians. The coming of this nation here as in Rhodes put an end to the work of others, and the American excavation has been continued by the Italian Government on a larger scale and with the protection of a military force. The principal finds, as in the earlier British search by R. Murdoch Smith and E. A. Porcher, are Graeco-Roman statues. About twenty had been found up to 1921, among them Zeus with the aegis, Hermes, Alexander as a Dioscurus, Eros stringing a bow, three groups of the Graces, two satyrs, a headless Aphrodite, and a head of Athena found by the Americans. Most of the sculpture decorated a bath restored by Hadrian. The Aphrodite, which is thought to be the finest piece, was removed to the Museo delle Terme in Rome; the rest are at Bengazi.

Some more pieces of Graeco-Roman sculpture have been recovered by the French from the sunken ship off Mandia. The finest bronzes which had been found before 1910 were published in Monuments Piot, vols. xvii.,hwiii. Among the new finds are a head of Athena, a large statuette of Hermes, and a dog. Archaeological work in Africa met with little or no interruption during the war, either in French or Italian territory. Prisoners of war have indeed done scientific service as labourers on certain sites. But except at Cyrene, the new material from Africa is Punic or Roman, and not Greek.

Sicily and Italy

In Sicily there has been continuous work on Greek sites at Camarina, Catania, Messina, and Syracuse; the most important results were obtained at Syracuse. There the temple of Athena was excavated by P. Orsi from 1912 to 1917. A pre-Hellenic settlement was found under the temple, marked by incised and painted geometric pottery. This was followed by archaic Greek remains of the early colonists, Asiatic and Protocorinthian pottery, and some carved ivories. Fragments of the temple included a series of terra-cotta architectural ornaments. Among Sicilian discoveries must be counted a remarkable archaic statue of a seated goddess which was in Paris at the outbreak of war, and was soon afterwards acquired by the Berlin Museum.

Researches in South Italy have produced new evidence of the foundation and early relations of the Greek colonies. At Caulonia in 1912 Orsi found prehistoric remains, the Greek city defences, a Doric temple, houses and a cemetery. Here, as elsewhere in Magna Graecia, the architectural terra-cottas are a valuable part of the finds. The sanctuary of Hera Lacinia at Croton was located in 1912.

E. Gabrici's extensive researches at Cumae were published in 1913.

A temple of Zeus was excavated on a terrace of the acropolis; the great temple of Apollo crowned the summit of the hill. Here, too, the date of the earliest remains goes back before the Hellenic settlement, to the i Ith century B.C. In one of three Greek temples excavated at Locri were tiles inscribed in Greek with the name of Clodius Pulcher. A cemetery at Locri yielded large numbers of poor Greek vases, and some exceptionally fine bronze mirrors.


A few mirrors and some Greek vases were found in Etruria at Vignanello in 1913, and from an Etruscan tomb at Todi in 1915 there were obtained some bronzes and more than 70 redfigure vases. The best bronze was a helmet with reliefs on the cheekpieces; the finest vase an Attic kylix signed by Pamphaios. Etruscan antiquities are receiving closer study, but its first results will probably tend more to controversy than to agreement. A paper by F. Weege (in Jahrbuch, 1916) on the two most important series of paintings at Corneto argues that these were executed in the archaic style of North Ionia by a Greek artist who had lived among the Etruscans long enough to understand their national life and spirit. To Greeks also we shall perhaps attribute the splendid terra-cotta figures found at Veii in 1916. These had been piously buried near a Roman road. The best preserved is an archaic Apollo, whose arms only are missing. Fragments of other figures indicate that the complete work was a group, not for architectural decoration, representing a contest of Apollo and Heracles about a hind in the presence of Hermes and Artemis. That the archaic art of Etruria was wholly Greek it is hard to believe. It is still equally hard to distinguish Greek work from Etruscan art inspired by Greek models.

Bibliography. - Periodicals: - (American) American Journal of Archaeology; Classical Journal; (Austrian) Jahreshefte des Osterreichischen Archaologischen Instituts; (British) Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology; Annual of the British School at Athens; Antiquaries Journal; Archaeologia; Journal of Hellenic Studies; Year's Work in Classical Studies; (French) Bulletin de Correspondance Hellenique; Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Inscriptions et BellesLettres; Revue Archeologique; Revue des Etudes Grecques; (German) Jahrbuch and Athenische Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archdologischen Instituts; (Greek) 'ApxacoXoytKdv AEXrtov, 'Apxacoaoyuc, 'E4» Epis and IlpaeroCa of the Athenian Archaeological Society; (Italian) Annuario della R. Scuola Archeologica di Atene; Atene e Roma; Ausonia; Bollettino d'Arte; Cronaca di Belle Arti; Monumenti Antichi; Notizie degli Scavi di Antichita and Rendiconti della R. Accademia dei Lincei. Special Publications, Prehistoric Period: - R. B. Seager, Explorations in the Island of Mochlos (1912); R. M. Burrows, The Discoveries in Crete (1913); E. H. Hall, Aegean Archaeology (1915); Excavations in Eastern Crete: Sphoungaras (1912); Vrokastro (1914); R. B. Seager, The Cemetery of Pachyammos, Crete (1916); A. J. B. Wace and M. S. Thompson, Prehistoric Thessaly (1912); German Archaeological Institute, Tiryns, vols. i., ii. (1912); Classical Period: F. H. Marshall, Discovery in Greek Lands (1920); Cyrene, Notiziario Archeologico del Ministero delle Colonie (1915); Ecole Francaise d'Athenes, Exploration Archeologique de Delos (1911-4); J. Keil, Ephesos, Fithrer durch die Ruinenstdtte (1915); Austrian Archaeological Institute, Forschungen in Ephesos (vol. ii., 1912); Th. Wiegand, 7teT Vortdufigen Bericht fiber Milet and Didyma (1911); Milet (vol. i., parts iii., iv., v., vol. iii., part i., 1913-9); Altert g mer von Pergamon (vol. i., parts i.-iii., 1912-3); F. Kinch, Fouilles de Vroulid, Rhodes (1914); Sardis (vol. vi., part i.); E. Littmann, Lydian Inscriptions, (vol. xi.); H. W. Bell, Coins (1916); E. H. Minns, Scythians and Greeks (1913); Th. Wiegand, Wissenschaftliche Veroffentlichungen des deutsch-turkischen Denkmalschutz-Kommandos (1920).

(E. J. F.)

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Bibliography Information
Chisholm, Hugh, General Editor. Entry for 'Archaeology Greece and Greek Sites'. 1911 Encyclopedia Britanica. 1910.

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