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1911 Encyclopedia Britannica
HEDWIG RAABE (1844-1905), German actress, was born in Magdeburg on the 3rd of December 1844, and at the age of fourteen was playing in the company of the Thalia theatre, Hamburg. In 1864 she joined the German Court theatre at St Petersburg, touring about Germany in the summer with such success that in 1868 she relinquished her Russian engagement to devote herself to starring. In 1871 she married Albert Niemann (b. 1831), the operatic tenor. She excelled in classical roles like Marianne in Goethe's Geschwister and Franziska in Minna von Barnhelm. It was she who first played Ibsen in Berlin. She died on the 21st of April 1905.
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Chisholm, Hugh, General Editor. Entry for 'Hedwig Raabe'. 1911 Encyclopedia Britanica. https://www.studylight.org/encyclopedias/eng/bri/h/hedwig-raabe.html. 1910.