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1911 Encyclopedia Britannica
Non-Federated Malay States
"NON-FEDERATED MALAY STATES ( see 17.482). - (1) Johor ( see 15.475). - A British general adviser to the Sultan was lent by the Federated Malay States Government in 1910, and other officers of the same service were seconded to conduct Government departments in Johor. In subsequent years the prosperity of the state was greatly enhanced; the administration was improved, roads and railways were extended, and a trigonometrical survey was undertaken. Town boards were created in Johor Bahru, the capital, Bandar Maharani, and Penggaram (Batu Pahat), and effected improvements in sanitation, etc.
With increased prosperity came a great increase in pop.; the pop. according to the census of 1911 was 180,412, but a conservative estimate in 1919 put it at 300,000. In 1919 revenue amounted to $11,002,777 ($ = 2s. 4d.) and expenditure to $8,223,862, the revenue being almost exactly double, and the expenditure more than double, that in 1915. Imports were valued in 1919 at $29,524,700, and exports at $71,279,930. In 1915, 9,197 tons of rubber were exported; in 1919, 27,890 tons, valued at $J3,203,400. Copra, areca nuts, tin, tapioca and gambier were the other chief exports. The development of tin-mining dates almost wholly from 1911; it is carried on principally in two fields, Mersing and Kota Tinggi.
The new educational system of Johor, in which English is taught concurrently with Malay, appears certain of success. In 1919 there were 71 vernacular schools with an average attendance of 3,058, and the attendance at English schools was 693, the chief being the Bukit Zahara school at Johor Bahru, which has been reconstructed.
The state had in 1919 a military force numbering 590; a detachment was employed in the defence of Singapore, 1915-9.
Pop. (1911), 286,751. Revenue (1919), $1,141,- 444; expenditure, $1,065,012. Exports (1919), $5,467,424; imports $3,876,679. Out of the total exports, rubber represented a value of $3,577,127. The total value of direct trade, or trade other than with the Straits Settlements and Malay States, was $1,847,115, the export trade being almost wholly with the United Kingdom ($641,515), while imports were from that country, the Netherlands, India and Siam.
In 1912 the agreement between the Sultan and the Duff Development Co. was determined, and the Government renewed the sovereign powers previously conceded to the company over nearly twothirds of the area of the state. The company retained various agricultural and mineral rights, but mining remained almost undeveloped down to 1920. In 1919, however, an agreement was made with Chinese interests for the working of a mineral area in the Nenggiri, and a little tin ore was exported from the Bukit Yong concession in the Karnuning district.
A ferry service between Kota Bharu (capital of Kelantan) and Plekbang was reopened in Sept. 1919.
Pop. (1911), 146,920. In 1918-9, when there was a serious shortage of rice and other food supplies, 3,000 persons were reported to have emigrated from northern Treng ganu to Kelantan, and many villages were abandoned.
After the suzerainty of this and other states was transferred to Great Britain by Siam under treaty of 1909, the Sultan of Trengganu only agreed to the appointment of a British agent with the functions of a consular official. In May 1919, however, he agreed to receive a British adviser and to act upon his advice in all matters of finance and general administration, excepting such as touch the Mahommedan religion. The state remains in a backward condition, but this important change of regime was willingly accepted, and presages extensive developments and reform.
Revenue and expenditure in 1915 amounted to $183,723 and $ 18 3,47 0 respectively; in 1919 to $762,455 and $756,977. Revenue was formerly obtained almost wholly from monopolies, but these were retained in 1919 only for gaming, spirits, pawnbroking, and turtle-eggs. This last peculiar monopoly yielded between 85,000 and $6,000. Other former monopolies, such as customs and opium, which were farmed out, yielded greatly enhanced sums under direct Government control.
Complete trade returns for the state are not kept, but imports into the port of Kuala Trengganu were valued at $2,417,645 in 1919, and exports at $1,718,428. Figures for the Singapore-Trengganu trade showed a value of $1,911,014 for imports into Trengganu, and of 83,816,670 for exports. The chief exports were dried fish, tin ore, wolfram ore, copra, Para rubber and silk sarongs. The export of tin ore to Singapore was 10,194 piculs in 1918 and 10,580 in 1919; of wolfram ore 10,368 and 9,408 piculs in the same years. The tinmining industry, in Kemaman district, is chiefly in European and Chinese hands. Wolfram is worked in the same district and in Dungun; considerable attention has recently been given to prospecting, and extensive deposits of graphite and magnetite have been located. Complaint was made, however, of the corrupt condition of the land department, and the appointment of a European commissioner of lands was urged. Rubber plantations are mainly in Danish hands; the state is not self-supporting in the principal food crops; agricultural development on commercial lines attracts mainly Europeans, Chinese and Japanese; and the fish trade is held by Chinese agents of firms in Singapore. The advance in commercial prosperity it may be observed, has not been conspicuously reflected in improved conditions for the peasantry.
Pop., 1911, 245,986; 1919 (est'd), 300,000. The influenza epidemic of 1918-9 was exceptionally severe, notably among Malays and Tamils, but less among the Chinese. Revenue (1919), $4,941,484; expenditure, $4,282,038.
Complete trade returns are wanting, but the chief exports are rubber, tapioca and sago, tin ore, live stock and poultry, and normally rice. But the general shortage of rice in Malayan and adjacent countries in 1918-9 led to such heavy export from Kedah that in Feb. 1919 it was necessary to prohibit export of paddy, and to control the home distribution and milling. The output of tin ore in 1919 was 11,799 piculs, but this represents a decrease, and the known tin-fields were becoming exhausted. In the same year the largest-yielding wolfram workings in the British Malay States, at Sintok, North Kedah, were closed down owing to the fall in price of tungsten. The yield of timber from forests under the forest department was nearly 15,000 tons, but accessible timber was becoming scarce and rising in price, and its want delayed many public works. The export and import of cattle, pigs, sheep and goats continued large though somewhat declining. Cattle and cattle-sales are licensed and registered, and for a better control of the trade with Siam a quarantine station was established for all the British Malay States at Pedang Besar, Perlis. Agricultural estates (of which there were 202 of 500 ac. or more in 1919) employed 35,673 labourers; most of these lands were under rubber cultivation.
The educational system of this state has notably advanced. Two Government English schools were maintained in 1919, at Alor Star and Sungei Patani, with 294 pupils, mostly Malays and Chinese. There were 60 vernacular schools: average attendance 4,867.
The Public Works Department maintained 314 m. of streets, metalled roads, earth roads, and bridlepaths, and 165 m. of canals in North Kedah.
Pop., 1911, 32,746; 1919 (est'd), 36,000. Revenue (1919), $ 2 94, 0 44; expenditure, $243,885. Copra, tin ore, fish, live stock and paddy were chief exports.
Perlis has not, like other Malay states, neglected its native agricultural pursuits in favour of those of greater commercial value, and it escaped the food shortage common to neighbouring countries in 1918-9. The output of tin ore, 1,896 piculs in 1919, was declining; stream tin appeared to be exhausted, and the revenue from royalties on tin ore declined to 815,897 from $26,948 in 1918. The guano hills had ceased to be worked for export. An outcrop of coal at Bukit Arang has been prospected, but the signs of petroleum had not been exploited in 1921. (0. J. R. H.)
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Chisholm, Hugh, General Editor. Entry for 'Non-Federated Malay States'. 1911 Encyclopedia Britanica. https://www.studylight.org/encyclopedias/eng/bri/n/non-federated-malay-states.html. 1910.