The Nuttall Encyclopedia
Sultan of Turkey in 1876, brother to Abdul-Aziz, and his successor; under him Turkey has suffered serious dismemberment, and the Christian subjects in Armenia and Crete been cruelly massacred; b . 1842.
Wood, James, ed. Entry for 'Abdul-Ha`mid II.'. The Nuttall Encyclopedia. https://www.studylight.org/encyclopedias/eng/nut/a/abdul-hamid-ii.html. Frederick Warne & Co Ltd. London. 1900.