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Bible Lexicons

Bullinger's Figures of Speech Used in the Bible

Hendiadys; or Two For One

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Two words used, but one thing meant

Hen-dî´-a-dy̆s, from ἕν (hen), one, διὰ (dia), by, δίς (dis) two (from δύο, two). Lit., one by means of two. Two words employed, but only one thing, or idea, intended. One of the two words expresses the thing, and the other (of synonymous, or even different, signification, not a second thing or idea) intensifies it by being changed (if a noun) into an adjective of the superlative degree, which is, by this means, made especially emphatic.

The figure is truly oriental, and exceedingly picturesque. It is found in Latin as well as in Hebrew and Greek, and is very frequently used in both Old and New Testaments.

The two words are of the same parts of speech: i.e., two nouns (or two verbs) always joined together by the conjunction "and." The two nouns are always in the same case.

An example or two from the Latin will serve to explain the true nature of this figure, which is one of the most important in the Bible.

Tacitus (Ann. i. 49. 5) says, "ultio et satietas," lit., a revenge and a sufficiency. Here we have not two things, but only one, though there are two words. The latter noun becomes a very strong adjective, which may be well and excellently expressed by our English idiom: "a revenge, yes-and a sufficient revenge too": i.e., a sufficient revenge, with strong emphasis on the word "sufficient," from its being thus changed from a noun to an adjective of superlative degree. Had the mere adjective been used, the emphasis would then have been on "revenge," thus naturally qualified.

Tacitus, again (Ann. i. 61), speaks of one who was slain, "infelici dextera et suo ictu," by his hapless right hand, and his own blow: i.e., "by his hapless right hand, yes-a blow dealt by his own hand too."

Tacitus (Ann. ii. 82. end): "tempore et spatio," time and space. Here we have not two things, but one: i.e., "time, yes-and a long-extended time too."

Tacitus (Ann. iii. 65. 1): "posteritate et infamia," posterity and infamy: i.e., "posterity, yes-and an infamous posterity too."

Virgil (Aen. vii. 15): "gemitus iraeque," roars and angers: i.e., "roars, yes-and angry roars too."

Virgil (Aen. vii. 772): "medicinae et artis," medicine and art, or healing and skill: i.e., "healing, yes-and skilful healing too," or skill (and great skill too) in healing.

Horace (Od. i. 35. 33): "cicatricum et sceleris fratrumque," scars and crime and brothers: i.e., "scars and crime (i.e., criminal scars), yes-and criminal scars inflicted by brethren too." This is a case of Hendiatris (see below).

CAEsar (b. g. iv. 18): "vi et armis," by force and arms: i.e., "by force, yes-and armed force too."

Many more examples could be given of this figure which is so commonly used in Latin.

The Greek Classics also abound in examples:

Sophocles (Ajax 145): βοτὰ καὶ λείαν (bota kai leian), cattle and plunder: i.e., "cattle, yes-and plundered cattle too."

Hendiadys always raises the qualifying word to the superlative degree.

But we are not to suppose that whenever we find two words joined together by the word "and" we have the figure of Hendiadys. It may be Epitheton.

It does not follow that in every case where two nouns are thus joined we have only one idea. In the first place, there must be something to attract our attention, something out of the ordinary usage, and sometimes not strictly according to the letter.

And occasionally, even in an undoubted Hendiadys, the two words may be equally true when taken separately and severally, as when joined together in one. In these cases both letter and figure are correct, and the passage gains considerable additional light and force.

Another point to be remembered is that the two words must have a certain relation to each other: one must indicate a property of the other, or be associated in some way with it.

There cannot be a Hendiadys where the two words are opposed in any way in their signification; nor even when there is no real connection between them.

For example: Philippians 1:25, "I know that I shall abide and continue with you all for your furtherance and joy of faith." Here, in each case, there are two distinct ideas: the abiding in life, and continuing with the Philippian saints; also, their "furtherance" was one thing, and their "joy" another.

On the other hand, verse 11 may be taken in both ways: "Being filled with the fruits of righteousness, which are by Jesus Christ, unto the glory and praise of God." This may be two things: either, to the glory of God, and the praise of God; or it may be only one: "Unto the praise, yes-the glorious praise, of God."

So Romans 15:4 : "Whatsoever things were written aforetime were written for our learning, that we through patience and comfort of the Scriptures might have hope."

Here there are two things, not one, because comforting is not a proper qualification of patience.

In reading this verse, therefore, a pause must be made after the word "patience" (which we possess), so as to distinguish it from the "comfort" (which the Scriptures give).

In most cases, the context and the analogy of Scripture will decide the doubt.

Some of the examples we present more by way of suggestion than actual illustration. About most of them there can be no doubt: but a few (such as Genesis 2:9) may be open to question; and these are submitted for the judgment and consideration of the reader.

1. Nouns

Genesis 1:26.-"Let us make man in our image, after our likeness": i.e., in the likeness of our image.* [Note: "Image" is צֶלֶם (tzelem), εἰκών (eikôn), ; . "Likeness" is דְּמוּת (dmûth), ὁμοίωσις (homoiôsis), .] Not two things but one, though two words are employed.

Genesis 2:9.-"The tree of knowledge of good and evil": i.e., of evil enjoyment.

Genesis 3:16.-"Multiplying I will multiply (i.e., "I will greatly multiply," see Polyptoton) thy sorrow and thy conception": i.e., thy sorrow, yes-and thy conceiving sorrow too: [for] "in sorrow thou shalt bring forth children."

Genesis 4:4.-"And Abel, he also brought of the firstlings of his flock and of the fat thereof": i.e., he brought the firstlings of his flock, yes-and the fattest ones too, or the fattest firstlings of his flock, with the emphasis on "fattest."

Genesis 19:24.-"Then the Lord rained upon Sodom and upon Gomorrah brimstone and fire from the Lord out of heaven": i.e., brimstone, yes-and burning brimstone too; or, simply "burning brimstone" with emphasis on "burning."

1 Samuel 28:3.-They "buried him in Ramah and his own city": i.e., in Ramah, yes-even in his own city; or, in his own city, Ramah.

2 Samuel 20:19.-"Thou seekest to destroy a city and a mother in Israel": i.e., a city, yes-and a mother city too; * [Note: In the same way "villages" are called daughters (; ; . . .] or, a metropolitan city. Neither the A.V. [Note: The Authorized Version, or current Text of our English Bible, 1611.] nor R.V. [Note: The Revised Version, 1881.] sees the figure here; but both translate the words literally, though the figure is obvious.

1 Kings 20:33.-"Now the men divined and hasted": i.e., divined, yes-and quickly too; or, as in A.V. [Note: The Authorized Version, or current Text of our English Bible, 1611.] , "diligently observed," with the emphasis on the word diligently. See Ginsburgs Introduction, page 438.

1 Chronicles 22:5.-"Of fame and of glory"; i.e., of glorious fame.

2 Chronicles 2:9.-"The house which I am about to build, shall be great and wonderful." (Heb., see margin).

Here, the A.V. [Note: The Authorized Version, or current Text of our English Bible, 1611.] sees the figure, and translates it accordingly: "shall be wonderful great." The exact sense, however, is "shall be great, yes-and wonderfully great too."

2 Chronicles 16:14.-"Sweet odours and divers kinds": i.e., sweet odours, yes-and of all manner of kinds.

Job 10:17.-"Changes and war are against me": i.e., changes, yes-and warlike ones too-are against me: i.e., successive changes of attack. Or it may be read: "changes, aye-a host of them."

Job 10:21.-"Before I go whence I shall not return, even to the land of darkness and the shadow of death": i.e., the land of darkness, yes-and the darkness of deaths shadow too. Compare Psalms 23:4; and see under Periphrasis.

Psalms 74:16.-"Thou hast prepared the light and the sun": i.e., sunlight.

Psalms 96:7.-"Give unto the Lord glory and strength": i.e., glory, yes-and great glory too. See under Metonymy.

Psalms 116:1.-"I love the Lord, because he hath heard my voice and my supplications": i.e., my supplicating voice, with emphasis on "supplicating."

Psalms 119:138.-"Thy testimonies that thou hast commanded are righteous and very faithful." So the A.V. [Note: The Authorized Version, or current Text of our English Bible, 1611.] correctly according to the figure. But, literally, this verse reads: "Thou hast commanded the righteousness of thy testimonies and faithfulness exceeding" (see A.V. [Note: The Authorized Version, or current Text of our English Bible, 1611.] margin): i.e., thy testimonies, yes-thy exceeding faithful testimonies.

Isaiah 1:13.-"I am not able [to endure] your iniquity and assembly": i.e., your iniquity, yes-your iniquitous assemblies, or your festal iniquity.

See R.V. [Note: The Revised Version, 1881.] , and margin, and also A.V. [Note: The Authorized Version, or current Text of our English Bible, 1611.] , for the confusion and obscurity through failing to see the combined figures of Ellipsis and Hendiadys in this sentence.

Jeremiah 22:3.-"Execute ye judgment and righteousness": i.e., execute ye judgment, yea-and righteous judgment too.

Jeremiah 22:15.-"And do judgment and justice": i.e., execute judgment, yes-and righteous judgment too.

Jeremiah 29:11.-"I know the thoughts that I think toward you, saith the Lord, thoughts of peace, and not of evil, to give you an end and expectation."

Here the A.V. [Note: The Authorized Version, or current Text of our English Bible, 1611.] gives this in the margin, and translates it "to give you an expected end." The R.V. [Note: The Revised Version, 1881.] renders it "o give you hope in your latter end," and puts in the margin "Heb., a latter end and hope."

All this is a recognition of the difficulty, without grasping or catching the spirit of the figure: "to give you the end, yes-the end you hope for": i.e., the end which I have promised and on which I have caused you to hope and depend. All this, and more, is contained in and expressed by the figure Hendiadys.

Jeremiah 36:27.-"Then the word of Jehovah came to Jeremiah after that the king had burned the roll and the words which Baruch wrote": i.e., the roll, yes-and the roll that contained the words of Jehovah too.

Daniel 8:10.-"It cast down some of the host and of the stars": i.e., of the starry host. Only one thing, not two.

Zephaniah 1:16.-"A day of trumpet and alarm": i.e., of the trumpet, yes-and an alarming trumpet too.

Matthew 3:11.-"He shall baptize with the Holy Ghost and with fire."

First observe that there are no articles. It is ἐν πνεύματι ἁγίῳ καὶ πυρί (en pneumati hagiô kai puri), with Holy Spirit and fire: i.e., with Holy Spirit, yes-and burning purifying spirit too. Not two things, but one thing: Judgment!

The contrast is with Johns baptism, which was with water which mingled together the chaff and the wheat (as the water sign has done in all ages). But the new baptism of Christ should not be like that. It would separate the chaff from the wheat by burning it up, as the Baptist goes on to declare, without a break in his words: "whose fan is in his hand, and he will throughly purge his floor, and gather his wheat into his garner: but he will burn up the chaff with unquenchable fire." The "fire" in verse 11 is different from the "fire" in verse 12. In verse 11 it is a figure for purifying and cleansing; and in verse 12 it is a literal fire that is meant. But the effect of its operations are the same in each case.

The Baptist is speaking, not of the Church, but of Christ and His kingdom, as was prophesied in Isaiah 4:3-4 : "And it shall come to pass that he that is left in Zion, and he that remaineth in Jerusalem, shall be called holy, even every one that is written among the living in Jerusalem: when the Lord shall have washed away the filth of the daughters of Zion, and shall have purged the blood of Jerusalem from the midst thereof by the spirit of judgment and by the spirit of burning": i.e., by spirit of judgment-His consuming.

This is the purging of the floor, and the burning up of the chaff, which the Baptist speaks of in verse 12. John only foretold it; but Christ shall do it in the day referred to in Isaiah 4:1-6

"The Spirit" is the Worker, and "the fire" denotes His operations, searching, consuming, and purifying. The day of the Lords coming will be "like a refiners fire And he shall sit as a refiner and purifier of silver: and he shall purify the sons of Levi, and. purge them as gold and silver" (Malachi 3:1-4). That day "shall burn as an oven; and all the proud, yea, and all that do wickedly, shall be stubble (as in Matthew 3:12): and the day that cometh shall burn them up, saith the Lord of hosts." Malachi 4:1 (3:19).

That future judgment is referred to, and not any ecclesiastical ordinance, is clear from verse 10.

When the future baptism of the members of Christs mystical body with the Holy Spirit is spoken of there is no mention of or reference to fire.

Christ "fans" to get rid of the chaff. Satan "sifts" to get rid of the wheat (Luke 22:31).

Matthew 4:16.-"In a region and shadow of death." This does not denote two places, but one: in a region, yes-in deaths dark region too, as is clear from Isaiah 9:1-2 (8:23-9:1).

Matthew 24:30.-"They shall see the Son of man coming in the clouds of heaven with power and great glory": i.e., with power, yes-with great and glorious power.

Matthew 24:31.-"And he shall send his angels with a great sound of a trumpet." In the margin we learn that the Greek is "with a trumpet and a great voice." Here, it is clear that we have not two things but one: "a trumpet, yes-and a great sounding trumpet too."

Both the A.V. [Note: The Authorized Version, or current Text of our English Bible, 1611.] and R.V. [Note: The Revised Version, 1881.] recognize the Figure Hendiadys here. But the A.V. [Note: The Authorized Version, or current Text of our English Bible, 1611.] gives the literal Greek (according to one reading) in the margin; while the R.V. [Note: The Revised Version, 1881.] gives as an alternative rendering, "Or, a trumpet of great sound"; which represents the change of the second noun into an adjective in a different way.

Luke 1:17.-"He shall go before Him in the spirit and power of Elijah": i.e., in spirit, yes-in Elijahs powerful spirit too.

Luke 21:15.-"For I will give you a mouth and wisdom": i.e., a mouth (Metonymy, for speech), yes-and a wise mouth too; such wisdom of speech that "all your adversaries shall not be able to gainsay nor resist."

John 1:17.-"The law was given by Moses, but grace and truth came by Jesus Christ." This must be the figure Hendiadys, because otherwise the words taken literally would not be true to fact.

Was there no "grace" in the Law? How came only Israel to have it and not the Babylonians, Egyptians, Philistines, Assyrians, etc.? Yes; it was all grace: as God asks and tells them so earnestly and so often; in Deuteronomy 4:32-40, and other places.

And was there no "truth" in the Law? Yes; surely, every word was truth.

But, in John 1:17, the contrast is between one thing that was given by Moses, and another and a different thing that came by Jesus Christ.

The figure Hendiadys explains the difficulty and sheds light on the verse.

The Law was given by Moses, and there was grace in it; and moreover it was truth itself: "but grace, yes-and true grace too (the real thing) came by Jesus Christ.

John 3:5.-This is literally, "Except a man shall have been begotten of water and spirit." There is no article to either of the two nouns.

That only one thing is meant by the two words is clear from verses 6 and 8, where only the Spirit (the one) is mentioned.

The Lord is speaking to Nicodemus of "earthly things" (see verse 12). And as "a master in Israel," he knew (or ought to have known) perfectly well the prophecy of Ezekiel 36:25-27 concerning the kingdom (not the Church). Concerning Israel, in the day of their restoration to their own land, Jehovah had declared: "Then will I sprinkle clean water upon you, and ye shall be clean And I will put my spirit within you," etc.

The cleansing of that day is not to be with literal water, as in the ceremonial cleansings of the Law, but with the Spirit of God.

Hence only one thing is meant:-"Except a man be begotten of water, yes-and spiritual water too, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God." That spiritual water stands, by another figure (Metonymy), for the Holy Spirit Himself: as is clear from John 7:38-39 : "water-(But this spake He of the Spirit, which they that believe on Him should receive )."

Hence there is no reference here to ceremonial or ecclesiastical water-but to that baptism of the Spirit which is the one indispensable condition of entering into the kingdom of God; a moral sphere, which includes and embraces the Church of God, here and now, as well as the future kingdom foretold by God through the prophets.

John 4:21-24.-The one subject of these verses is-What is true worship? its nature and its character. It was the sixth word of the Lord Jesus to the woman of Samaria: "Woman, believe me, the hour cometh, when ye shall neither in this mountain, nor yet at Jerusalem, worship the Father. Ye (Samaritans) worship ye know not what: we (Jews) know what we worship: for salvation is of (i.e., proceeds from) the Jews. But the hour cometh, and now is, when the true worshippers shall worship the Father in spirit and in truth: for the Father seeketh such to worship Him. God is a spirit (i.e., a Spiritual Being): and they that worship him must worship him in spirit and in truth."

Here, notice first that there is only one preposition (ἐν, en), "in," for the two nouns. It is not to be repeated as in the A.V. [Note: The Authorized Version, or current Text of our English Bible, 1611.] It is "in spirit and truth." Moreover, one of the usages of this preposition with the noun turns it into an adverb: so that "in spirit" means "spiritually": i.e., in accordance with another of its meanings, with the spirit, or with our spirits. Then, the figure Hendiadys comes in to strengthen this. "God is a Spirit: and they that worship Him must worship Him spiritually, yes-in a truly spiritual manner too."

Observe, further, that the Lord says, "MUST"! There is nothing left to our choice or taste in the matter. This "great rubrick" overrides all others: so that it is of no use for anyone to say: "I like this form of service," or "I prefer that kind of service." It says, "MUST"! God is a Spirit, and therefore He cannot be worshipped by the flesh: i.e., by means of any of our senses, which are essentially of the flesh. We cannot worship God with our eyes, by looking at decorations, however beautiful; we cannot worship Him with our ears, by listening to music, however ravishing; we cannot worship Him with our noses, by the smelling of incense, however sweet; no! not by any separately or by all of them together can we worship a Spiritual Being. All such things are, really, only hindrances; which are destructive of all true spiritual worship. We, who cannot pray or listen to a prayer without wandering thoughts, need no such temptations to attract or distract our spirits from doing that which God can alone accept. It is a positive cruelty to professing worshippers to present anything to their senses. It is a device of the devil to destroy spiritual worship, and to render obedience to this great rubric impossible. Hence this impressive figure used here, in conjunction with the word "MUST." It is the same word as in chap. 3:7: "Ye MUST be born again"; and chap. 3:14: "The Son of man MUST be lifted up." So here, in the next chap., 4:24: "They that worship God, who is a spirit, MUST worship Him with the spirit, yes-really and truly with the spirit." See further under Hyperbaton; which is used in this verse in order to enchance and enforce this interpretation of these words.

Acts 1:25.-"That he may take part of this ministry and apostleship, from which Judas by trangression fell": i.e., this ministry, yes-this apostolic ministry, with emphasis on the adjective "apostolic," which is obtained by exchange for the noun.

Acts 3:14.-"But ye denied the Holy One and the Just." Here, it is perfectly clear that only One Person is meant, though two are apparently described: i.e., "ye denied the Holy One, yes-the righteous Holy One, and desired a murderer (an unrighteous criminal) to be granted unto you." By the use of this figure here the contrast between that "righteous" one and the criminal is strongly marked and emphasized.

Acts 14:13.-"Then the priest of Jupiter which was (i.e., whose statue stood) before their city, brought oxen and garlands unto the gates, and would have done sacrifice."

In the heathen worship, the victim to be sacrificed was always decorated with a garland immediately before the sacrifice took place, as may be seen to-day in pictures and sculptures. There were two things then brought by the priest, but there is only one idea; and the figure tells us and shows us that every arrangement had been made, and that all was ready; nothing hindered the immediate offering of the sacrifice. "The priest brought oxen, yes-and they had their garlands on too." All this gives a vivid picture; and the whole scene is presented to our minds by the employment of this simple yet beautiful and expressive figure, "oxen and garlands."

Acts 23:6.-"Of the hope and resurrection of the dead I am called in question": i.e., of the hope, yes-the resurrection hope am I called in question.

Romans 1:5.-"By whom we have received grace and apostleship": i.e., grace, yes-and apostolic grace too.

Romans 2:27.-"Letter and circumcision." See under Ellipsis, page 23.

Romans 11:17.-"And with them partakest of the root and the fatness of the olive tree": i.e., the root, yes-and the fat or prolific root; or the rich blessings which come forth from that root.* [Note: See Article on "The Fig, the Olive, and the Vine" in Things to Come for July, 1899.]

1 Corinthians 2:4.-"In demonstration of the Spirit and of power": i.e., of the Spirit, yes-of the power of the Spirit too.

1 Corinthians 11:7.-"Forasmuch as he is the image and glory (i.e., the glorious image) of God."

Ephesians 4:11.-"And he gave some, apostles; and some, prophets; and some, evangelists; and some, pastors and teachers": i.e., pastors (or shepherds), yes-shepherds who should feed too; or teachers, yes-teachers who should shepherd too. Not two classes of persons, but one; implying that a shepherd who did not feed would fail in his duty; and so would a teacher who failed to be a pastor.

Ephesians 5:5.-"Hath any inheritance in the kingdom of Christ and of God": i.e., the kingdom of Christ, yes-of Christ who is truly God.

Ephesians 6:18.-"Praying always with all prayer and supplication in the Spirit, and watching thereunto with all perseverance and supplication for all saints": i.e., praying with all prayer (this is Polyploton, q.v. [Note: Which see.] ) and supplication: i.e., prayer, yes-with supplicating prayer too; and watching thereunto with every kind of supplication, yes, with persevering supplication too.

Colossians 2:8.-"Beware lest any man spoil you through philosophy and vain deceit."

Here, we have not two things, but one: through philosophy, yes-a vain, deceitful philosophy too.

Colossians 2:18.-"Let no man beguile you of your reward in a voluntary humility and worshipping of angels, intruding into those things which he hath not seen, vainly puffed up by his fleshly mind."

The marginal notes in A.V. [Note: The Authorized Version, or current Text of our English Bible, 1611.] and R.V. [Note: The Revised Version, 1881.] show the difficulties created by not seeing the Hendiadys here.

It is certain that θρησκεία (threeskeia) means religion (not worship), and is so rendered in all the other places where it occurs (see Acts 26:5. James 1:26-27). It must be so rendered here: "humility and religion": i.e., humility, yes-the religious humility of angels.

If we observe this figure, it throws all the other words into their right places, and enables us to give them their right meanings. This gives sense also to the reading of all the Textual Critics, and with the R.V. [Note: The Revised Version, 1881.] in omitting the negative μή (mee) before the word "seen." It also saves our having to condemn these Colossian saints for angel-worship! Surely there is nothing in this epistle to warrant the conclusion that they had fallen as low as that I The passage is a warning to the saints who had been well-instructed as to their standing in Christ that they were not to forget in their worshipping the Father that they had a higher standing than that of angels, even that of beloved sons, in the acceptance of "the Beloved One." They had "boldness of access" as sons, and not merely that which pertained to "angels" as messengers.

We cannot think that this is a mere warning not to make angels an object of worship. Such a thought is far below the whole scope and teaching of the epistle.

The verse then will read: "Let no one deprive you of your prize, having pleasure in (so Lightfoot) the religious humility of angels, taking his stand upon (so R.V. [Note: The Revised Version, 1881.] margin) the things which he hath seen, vainly puffed up by the mind of his flesh (i.e., by his old nature) and not holding the head," etc.

If we hold the great truth of the "Mystery" concerning the Head and members of the Body of Christ, we shall understand and take our proper standing before God, which He himself has given us.

To cease from "holding the Head" is to lose practically all our special privileges as members of His Body. It is to take up an attitude before God, in our access to Him, below that in which His love and grace has set us. It is to take the place of religious humility as the angels, as servants instead of sons-even the sons of God. It is to worship with veiled faces at a distance, instead of with unveiled faces, beholding the glory of the Lord. It is a reigned humility, not apprehending the exceeding riches of the grace of God toward us in Christ Jesus; which is sure to issue in a regard for visible things and religious ordinances which are the natural objects of the fleshly mind (the Old nature), the only things which it can comprehend or understand. Hence the theme of ordinances being done away in Christ follows in verses 11-15. "Which sort of things have indeed an appearance of wisdom in self-devised religious observances and humiliation (of mind) and discipline (of the body); yet are not really of any value to remedy indulgence of the flesh* [Note: See R.V. and Lightfoot (Com. in loco) for this beautiful and happy rendering.] (i.e., the Old nature)."

The exhortation is plural; but the warning is directed against some individual, who, puffed up and led by his Old nature, would fain teach them that as angels in their worship "veiled their faces" and take the most humble place, therefore it was only becoming that they should do the same. These were the only things which the "flesh" could see; this was the standing that the flesh would fain take! But they were not to be thus defrauded of that high calling and standing which they had in Christ, and which enabled them to draw near with boldness to the throne of grace.

1 Thessalonians 2:12.-"That ye would walk worthy of God, who hath called you unto his kingdom and glory": i.e., his kingdom, yes-his glorious kingdom too; or, his glorious kingdom, with emphasis on the word "glorious."

1 Timothy 3:15.-"The Church of the living God, the pillar and ground of the truth."

This is spoken of "the truth"-"the mystery of the faith" (verse 9), and "the mystery" which is "confessedly great" (verse 16). This is the pillar, yes-the great foundation pillar of the truth: i.e., Christ Mystical, as set forth in verse 16.* [Note: See The Mystery, by the same author and publisher. Price sixpence.]

2 Timothy 1:10.-"Our Saviour Jesus Christ, who hath abolished death and hath brought life and immortality to light": i.e., life, yes-and immortal life too.

2 Timothy 4:1-2.-This verse requires re-translating; owing to the Figures, and the older readings witnessed to by the Critical Texts and the R.V. [Note: The Revised Version, 1881.]

"I adjure thee, therefore, before God, yes-Christ Jesus, I mean (1 Timothy 5:21), who is about to judge the living and dead; and [I adjure thee] by His appearing, yes-and His royal appearing too, Preach the Word." For this judgment shall be when He "shall sit upon the throne of His glory," not in the act of His first shining forth at His epiphaneia. The adjuration is similar to Deuteronomy 4:26; Deuteronomy 30:19; Deuteronomy 31:28, and is called forth by the fact that the Scriptures are God-breathed and profitable. "Therefore" it is that "I adjure thee" to preach the word. The solemn adjuration is needed, because of the fact that "the time will come when they will not endure sound teaching." This is no reason why preachers should seek for something that men will endure, but it is given as the very reason why the word of God and that alone should be persistently proclaimed and taught. It is a reason so strange that the charge has to be set in the full view of coming judgment. Hence, in verses 1 and 8, the fact of judgment is twice stated. The charge is beset with judgment before and behind.

The figure Hendiadys, which the Spirit twice employs to enhance the force of the words, the enemy uses to obscure it; trading by his devices on the ignorance of those who profess to be preachers of this Word.

Titus 2:13.-"Looking for that blessed hope and the glorious appearing." Not two things but one: our hope is the glorious appearing!

The latter clause is also Hendiadys: One Person being meant, not two: the appearing of the great God, yes-even our Saviour Jesus Christ: i.e., our Divine Saviour.

James 3:9.-"Therewith bless we God, even the Father." Lit., the God and Father: i.e., God, yes-even that God who is our Father.

2 Peter 1:3.-"Through the knowledge of him who hath called us to glory and virtue."

But the Greek is "by," as stated in the margin, διά (dia) with the genitive, denoting the cause or instrument. The R.V. [Note: The Revised Version, 1881.] renders it "by his own glory and virtue" (and tells us, in the margin, that "some ancient authorities read through glory and virtue"), translating the figure literally, and (like the A.V. [Note: The Authorized Version, or current Text of our English Bible, 1611.] ), missing the force of it.

But it is one thing, not two.

Note that the Critical Texts read ἰδίᾳ (ideâ), his own, instead of διά (dia), through, the dative case denoting the agency, by.

Note also that ἀρετή (aretee) means goodness, excellence in art or workmanship; goodness, as shown by the possession of reputation for bravery and merit. This is what God has called His people by: His own goodness, will and power, yes-His glorious power too; His own excellent workmanship, His own gracious dealing.

2 Peter 1:16.-"When we made known unto you the power and coming": i.e., either the coming power, or the powerful coming, or both.

2 Peter 1:17.-"For he received from God the Father honour and glory": i.e., honour, yes-and glorious honour too.

Christ received this glorious honour, which was put upon Him, "on the holy mount" of transfiguration.

The wondrous act which there took place was the official anointing, appointing, and consecrating of Christ for His Priestly office and sacrificial work. The only subject spoken of on that mount was "the Exodus which He should accomplish at Jerusalem" (Luke 9:31). Not the death to which man should put Him, but "which He should accomplish" Himself. Hebrews 2:9 distinctly tells us why Christ was thus crowned: 2 Peter 1:17-18, tells us where.

It tells us that He was made a little lower than the angels for the suffering of death; crowned with glory and honour, that He, by the grace of God, should taste death for every man" (see Synecdoché).

This is confirmed by Exodus 28:2, where we are distinctly told that, when Aaron was consecrated to his priestly office, "that he may minister unto me in the priests office," "thou (Moses) shalt make holy garments for Aaron thy brother, for glory and for beauty." Here are the same two words, τιμὴ καὶ δόξα (timee kai doxa), for honour, yes-and for glorious honour too!

Can we resist the conclusion that on the Holy Mount the Lord Jesus was thus consecrated for His (Melchisedekian) priesthood. True, Moses was there, and Elijah; but this glorious honour with which Christ was clothed and crowned was put upon Him by no earthly hands. It came "from the excellent glory."* [Note: For further elucidation of the Transfiguration and its objects, see Christs Prophetic Teaching, by the same author and publisher.]

Revelation 5:10.-Here we must adopt the rendering of the R.V. [Note: The Revised Version, 1881.] : "And madest them to be unto our God a kingdom and priests, and they reign upon the earth": i.e., a kingdom, yes-and a great priestly kingdom too, the plural "priests" being put by Heterosis for the singular, denoting the greatness.

2. Verbs

Matthew 13:23.-The Hendiadys is disguised in the A.V. [Note: The Authorized Version, or current Text of our English Bible, 1611.] through the separation of the two words: "He that was sown upon the good ground, this is he who hears and understands the word." The person who heareth and understandeth is one. One act is meant, and not two. All hear, but this one heareth, yes-and understandeth it too.

Luke 6:48.-"He is like a man who dug and deepened, and laid the foundation on the rock."

Here, the A.V. [Note: The Authorized Version, or current Text of our English Bible, 1611.] renders it: "and digged deep." The R.V. [Note: The Revised Version, 1881.] : "who digged and went deep."

It is clear that we have the figure Hendiadys in the two verbs: the man digged, yes-and very deep; deeper and deeper indeed till he got to the rock itself.

Acts 9:31.-"Then the churches were edified and walking in the fear of the Lord were multiplied.

Here, in the Received Text, the verbs are not in the same inflection. But the Critical Texts (L. [Note: . Lachmann and his critical Greek Text.] T. [Note: . Tischendorf and his critical Greek Text.] Tr. [Note: r. Tregelles and his critical Greek Text.] A. [Note: . Alford and his critical Greek Text.] WH. [Note: H. Westcott and Hort, and their critical Greek Text.] , and R.V. [Note: The Revised Version, 1881.] ) read: οἰκοδομουμένη καὶ πορευομένη (oikodomoumenee kai poreuomenee), being built up and progressing: i.e., being built up, yes-and increasingly so too.

Note also that the Critical Texts read: ἐκκλησία (ecclesia) assembly (instead of plural); and ἐπκηθύνετο (epleethuneto), was multiplied (instead of plural).

Acts 13:41.-"Behold, ye despisers, and wonder and perish: i.e., perish, yes-and perish wonderfully too.

1 Thessalonians 4:1.-"As ye have received of us how ye ought to walk and to please God": i.e., how ye ought to walk, yes-and how to please God in your walk, with emphasis on the verb to please.

2 Peter 3:12.-"Looking for, and hasting unto the coming of the day of God." Here, "looking for" is προσδοκάω (prosdokaô),* [Note: ; . ; ; ; ; . ; ; ; (twice). .] and "hasting" is σπεύδω (speudô), to hasten. Everywhere else [Note: ; . ; .] the latter verb is intransitive; but here it is transitive to correspond with "looking for," and means to be eager or earnest for a thing. It qualifies the "looking for" and not the "coming" itself: i.e., looking for, yes-and earnestly looking for that coming too.

We cannot hasten that day, which is fixed in the counsels of God, but we can be more eager and earnest in our looking for it. The R.V. [Note: The Revised Version, 1881.] has "earnestly desiring the coming." This is better; but it is stronger when we recognize the figure-looking for and being earnest for, which is the figure Hendiadys; earnestly looking for, with the emphasis on earnestly.

Revelation 20:4.-"And they lived and reigned with Christ a thousand years": i.e., they lived, yes-and they reigned too.

Revelation 22:17.-"And let him that is athirst come. And whosoever willeth, let him take." Not two classes of persons, but one. Not thirsty ones who do not will; or willing ones who do not thirst; but willing thirsty ones, let them come: See under Epistrophe.

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Bibliography Information
Bullinger, E. W., D.D. Entry for 'Hendiadys; or Two For One'. Bullinger's Figures of Speech Used in the Bible.

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