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Bible Lexicons

Gesenius Hebrew Grammer

Part 113

B. The Infinitive and Participle.
§113. The Infinitive Absolute.

Cf. the dissertation of J. Kahan, and, especially, the thorough investigation by E. Sellin, both entitled, Ueber die verbal-nominals Doppelnatur der hebräischen Participien und Infinitive, &c., Lpz. 1889; F. Prätorius, ‘Ueber die sogen. Infin. absol. des Hebr.’ in ZDMG. 1902, pp. 546 ff.

1. The infinitive absolute is employed according to § 45 to emphasize the idea of the verb in the abstract, i.e. it speaks of an action (or state) without any regard to the agent or to the circumstances of time and mood under which it takes place. As the name of an action the infinitive absolute, like other nouns in the stricter sense, may form part of certain combinations (as a subject, predicate, or object, or even as a genitive,[1] see below); but such a use of the infinitive absolute (instead of the infinitive construct with or without a preposition) is, on the whole, rare, and, moreover, open to question on critical grounds. On the other hand, the infinitive absolute frequently exhibits its character as an expression of the verbal idea by taking an object, either in the accusative or even with a preposition.

Examples of the use of the infinitive absolute:—

(a) As subject, Proverbs 25:27 אָכֹל דְּבַשׁ הַרְבּוֹת לֹא טוֹב‎ it is not good to eat much honey; Jeremiah 10:5, Job 6:25, Ecclesiastes 4:17; epexegetically, after a demonstrative pronoun, Isaiah 58:5 f., Zechariah 14:12.

(b) As predicate, Isaiah 32:17 and the effect of righteousness (is) הַשְׁקֵט וָבֶ֫טַח‎ quietness (prop. to find rest) and confidence.

(c) As object, Isaiah 1:17 לִמְדוּ הֵיטֵב‎ learn to do well; Isaiah 7:15, Proverbs 15:12, Job 9:18; according to the sense also Jeremiah 9:23 23:14, as well as Isaiah 5:5 (הָסֵר‎ and פָּרֹץ‎ virtually depend on the idea of the wish contained in עֹשֶׂה‎); Isaiah 22:13, where a long series of infinitives absolute is governed by הִנֵּה‎, and 59:13 (six infinitives governed by יְדַֽעֲנוּם‎ in verse 12); Deuteronomy 28:56 is strange since the object precedes the infinitive absolute which governs it,[2] also Isaiah 42:24, where the statement of place precedes the infinitive absolute.—In Jeremiah 9:4, Job 13:3 the infinitive absolute as the object of the verb is placed before it for the sake of emphasis (with the verb negatived by לֹא‎ in Isaiah 57:20, Jeremiah 49:23), so also in Lamentations 3:45 where it is the remoter object and co-ordinated with a substantive.

(d) As genitive, Isaiah 14:23 בְּמַטְאֲטֵא הַשְׁמֵד‎ with the besom of destruction; so perhaps also 4:4 בְּרוּחַ בָּעֵר‎; cf. further, Proverbs 1:3, Proverbs 21:16. The infinitive absolute is never used in immediate connexion with prepositions[3] (which as being originally substantives govern the genitive), but always the infinitive construct; but if a second infinitive is co-ordinated by וְ‎ with such an infinitive construct, it has the form of the infinitive absolute (since it is released from the immediate government of the preposition), e.g. 1 Samuel 22:13 ... בְּתִתְּךָ לוֹ לֶחֶם וְשָׁאוֹל לוֹ בֵּֽאלֹהִים‎ in that thou hast given him bread ... and hast enquired of God for him; Ezekiel 36:3; 1 Samuel 25:26, 33 (after מִן‎); after לְ‎ Exodus 32:6, Jeremiah 7:18, Jeremiah 44:17.

(e) Governing an accusative of the object, e.g. Isaiah 22:13 הָרֹג בָּקָר וְשָׁחֹם צאֹן‎ slaying oxen and killing sheep; cf. Exodus 20:8, Exodus 23:30, Deuteronomy 5:12, Isaiah 37:19, Ezekiel 23:30, and of the examples in a–d, Deuteronomy 28:56 Isaiah 5:5, Isaiah 58:6 f., Proverbs 25:27, &c.; followed by a preposition, e.g. Isaiah 7:15 מָאוֹס בָּרָע וּבָחוֹר בַּטּוֹב‎ to refuse the evil and choose the good; Proverbs 15:12 (הוֹכֵחַ לוֹ‎).

If the object be a personal pronoun, then, since the infinitive absolute can never be united with a suffix (see the note on a), it is affixed by means of the accusative-sign אֵת‎ (אֹת‎), e.g. Jeremiah 9:23 וְיָדוֹעַ אֹתִי‎ and knoweth me; Ezekiel 36:3. 2. Analogous to the use of the infinitive absolute as the accusative of the object, mentioned in d, is its employment as a casus adverbialis[4] in connexion with some form of the finite verb, to describe more particularly the manner or attendant circumstances (especially those of time and place) under which an action or state has taken place, or is taking place, or will take place; e.g. Jeremiah 22:19 he shall be buried with the burial of an ass, סָחוֹב וְהַשְׁלֵךְ‎ a drawing and casting forth, i.e. being drawn and cast forth, &c.; Genesis 21:16 (הַרְחֵק‎ a removing, i.e. distant; cf. Exodus 33:7, Joshua 3:16); Genesis 30:32, Exodus 30:36, Numbers 6:5, 23, 15:35 (where a subject is added subsequently; see below, gg); Joshua 3:17, 1 Samuel 3:12 (הָחֵל וְכַלֵּה‎ a beginning and ending, i.e. from beginning to end); 2 Samuel 8:2, Isaiah 7:11 (הַֽעֲמֵק‎ and הַגְבֵּהַּ‎, prop. a making deep ..., and a making high, i.e. whether thy request extend to the world below or to the height above); 57:17 (הַסְתֵּר‎ in hiding, sc. my face); Jeremiah 3:15 (דֵּעָה וְהַשְׁכֵּיל‎ with knowledge and understanding); Habakkuk 3:13 (עָרוֹת‎, for the form cf. §75aa); Zechariah 7:3, Psalms 35:16 (חָרֹק‎, to define more precisely קָֽרְעוּ‎ verse 15); Job 15:3.[5]

Rem. 1. To an adverbial infinitive absolute of this kind, there may further be added a casus adverbialis (the accusative of state or circumstance), or even a circumstantial clause, to define more exactly the manner in which the action is performed, e.g. Isaiah 20:2 and he did so הָלֹךְ עָרוֹם וְיָחֵף‎ walking naked and barefoot, prop. in the condition of one naked, &c.; Isaiah 30:14 a breaking in pieces (acc. to the reading כָּתוֹת‎; the Masora requires כָּתוּת‎) without sparing.

2. A few infinitives of this kind, all of which are in Hipheîl, have, through frequent use, come to be treated by the language as simple adverbs; so especially הַרְבֵּה‎ (cf. §75ff) multum faciendo, i.e. multum, very frequently strengthened by מְאֹד‎ very and even used without connexion with a finite verb (see the Lexicon); also הֵיטֵב‎ bene faciendo, i.e. bene, used especially to express the careful and thorough performance of an action (e.g. Deuteronomy 13:15); in Deuteronomy 9:21, Deuteronomy 27:8 it is added epexegetically to another adverbial infinitive absolute, in Jonah 4:9 it twice precedes the verb for the sake of emphasis. Finally, הַשְׁכֵּם‎ mane faciendo, i.e. early in the morning, then in general early with the additional idea of earnestness; in 1 Samuel 17:16 joined with the infinitive absolute וְהַֽעֲרֵב‎ a denominative from עֶ֫רֶב‎ evening (morning and evening, i.e. early and late), elsewhere (with the exception of Proverbs 27:14) always joined with the infinitive absolute of the governing verb, e.g. Jeremiah 11:7 for I earnestly protested (הַֽעִדֹ֫תִי‎) unto your fathers ... הַשֵׁכֵּם וְהָעֵד‎ rising early and protesting, i.e. with earnest protestation; Jeremiah 25:3, Jeremiah 26:5 (where וְ‎ should be omitted before ה׳‎); Jeremiah 29:19, Jeremiah 32:33, 2 Chronicles 16:15. 3. The infinitive absolute occurs most frequently in immediate connexion with the finite verb of the same stem, in order in various ways to define more accurately or to strengthen the idea of the verb.[6]

These infinitives absolute joined immediately to the finite verb belong in a sense to the schema etymologicum treated in §117p, i.e. they are objects of the finite verb in question, except that the infinitive absolute (as a nomen abstractum) lays stress rather on the actual occurrence or the energy of the action (see the examples below), while the noun proper emphasizes the result or extent of the action; cf. e.g. Exodus 22:22 אִם־צָעֹק יִצְעַק אֵלַי‎ if it actually happens that he cries to me, with Genesis 27:34 (as it were, he cried, so that a great cry was heard).

We must further distinguish—

(a) The infinitive absolute used before the verb to strengthen the verbal idea, i.e. to emphasize in this way either the certainty (especially in the case of threats) or the forcibleness and completeness of an occurrence. In English, such an infinitive is mostly expressed by a corresponding adverb, but sometimes merely by putting greater stress on the verb; e.g. Genesis 2:17 מוֹת תָּמוּת‎ thou shalt surely die, cf. 18:10, 18, 22:17, 28:22, 1 Samuel 9:6 (cometh surely to pass); 24:21, Amos 5:5, Amos 7:17, Habakkuk 2:3, Zechariah 11:17; with the infinitive strengthened by אַךְ‎ Genesis 44:28 (but 27:30 and Jacob was yet scarce gone out, &c.); Genesis 43:3 הָעֵד הֵעִד בָּ֫נוּ‎ he did solemnly protest unto us; 1 Samuel 20:6 נִשְׁאֹל נִשְׁאַל‎ David earnestly asked leave of me; Joshua 17:13, Judges 1:28 וְהוֹרֵישׁ לֹא הֽוֹרִישׁוֹ‎ and did not utterly drive them out; especially typical instances are Amos 9:8 I will destroy it from off the face of the earth אֶ֫פֶס כִּי לֹא הַשְׁמֵיד אַשְׁמִיד וג׳‎ saving that I will not utterly destroy, &c.; Jeremiah 30:11 and will in no wise leave thee unpunished; cf. further Genesis 20:18, 1 Kings 3:26, Joel 1:7, Job 13:5.

The infinitive absolute is used before the verb with less emphasis:

(1) Frequently at the beginning of the statement; cf. Driver on 1 Samuel 20:6. However, in these cases a special emphasis on the following verb is sometimes intended; cf. above, n, on Genesis 43:3, 1 Samuel 20:6; also Genesis 3:16, Genesis 26:28, Genesis 32:17, 1 Samuel 14:28, 1 Samuel 20:3. Elsewhere the infinitive absolute is evidently used only as possessing a certain fullness of sound (hence for rhythmical reasons, like some uses of the separate pronoun, §135a), as in Genesis 15:13, Genesis 43:7, 20, Judges 9:8, 1 Samuel 10:16, 1 Samuel 23:10, 2 Samuel 1:6, 2 Samuel 20:18.

(2) Very frequently in conditional sentences after אִם‎, &c. The infinitive absolute in this case emphasizes the importance of the con- dition on which some consequence depends, e.g. Exodus 15:26 if thou wilt diligently hearken, &c., Exodus 19:5, Exodus 21:5, Exodus 22:3, 11 f. 16, 22 (see above, m); 23:22, Numbers 21:2, Judges 16:11, 1 Samuel 1:11, 1 Samuel 12:25; after לוּ‎ 1 Samuel 14:30.

The infinitive absolute is used to give emphasis to an antithesis, e.g. 2 Samuel 24:24 nay; but I will verily buy (קָנוֹ אֶקְנֶה‎) it of thee, &c. (not receive it as a gift); Judges 15:13 no; but we will bind thee fast ... but surely we will not kill thee; cf. further Genesis 31:30 (thou art indeed gone=) though thou wouldst needs be gone (Vulg. esto), because thou sore longedst, &c.; Psalms 118:13, 18, 126:6 (the second infinitive absolute as a supplement to the first—see below, r—comes after the verb).—Hence also, as permissive, Genesis 2:16 f. אָכֹל תֹּאכֵל‎ thou mayest freely eat, but, &c. (so that verse 16 is in antithesis to verse 17); or concessive, 1 Samuel 2:30 I said indeed ..., 14:43.

The infinitive absolute is used to strengthen a question, and especially in impassioned or indignant questions, e.g. Genesis 37:8 הֲמָלֹךְ תִּמְלֹךְ עָ֫לֵינוּ‎ shalt thou indeed reign over us? Genesis 37:10, Genesis 43:7, Judges 11:25, 1 Samuel 2:27, 2 Samuel 19:43, Jeremiah 3:1, Jeremiah 13:12, Ezekiel 28:9, Amos 3:5, Zechariah 7:5; but cf. also Genesis 24:5 must I needs bring again?

(b) The infinitive absolute after the verb, sometimes (as in n) to intensify[7] the idea of the verb (especially after imperatives and participles, since the infinitive absolute can never precede either, e.g. Numbers 11:15, Job 13:17, Job 21:2, Job 37:2 שִׁמְעוּ שָׁמוֹעַ‎ hearken ye attentively; Jeremiah 22:10; after participles, e.g. Isaiah 22:17, also elsewhere, e.g. Numbers 23:11, Numbers 24:10 thou hast altogether blessed them; Joshua 24:10, 2 Kings 5:11, Daniel 11:10, and with the infinitive absolute strengthened by means of גַּם‎ Genesis 31:15, Genesis 46:4, Numbers 16:13); sometimes to express the long continuance of an action; here again after an imperative, Isaiah 6:9 שִׁמְעוּ שָׁמוֹעַ‎ hear ye continually; after a perfect, Jeremiah 6:29; after a participle, Jeremiah 23:17; after an imperfect consecutive, Genesis 19:9, Numbers 11:32.

To this class belong especially those cases in which a second infinitive absolute is co-ordinated with the first; the latter then expresses either an accompanying or antithetical action or the aim to which the principal action is directed; e.g. 1 Samuel 6:12 הָֽלְכוּ הָלֹךְ וְגָעוֹ‎ lowing as they went (lowing continually; so after a participle, Joshua 6:13b Qe); Genesis 8:7 it went forth to and fro[8]; Isaiah 19:22 smiting and (i.e. but also) healing again; Joel 2:26 (see above, m).

Rem. 1. Instead of a second infinitive absolute (see above) there is sometimes found a perfect consecutive (Jos. 6:13 a and 2 Samuel 13:19 [but Stade’s וְזָעוֹק‎ is preferable], in both places as perfect frequentative; Isaiah 31:5 referring to the future, unless with Stade, ZAW. vi. 189, we read וְהַצֵּיל‎ and וְהַמְלֵיט‎), or an imperfect consecutive (1 Samuel 19:23, 2 Samuel 16:13) or participle (2 Samuel 16:5); cf. also u.

2. The idea of long continuance is very frequently expressed by the verb הָלַךְ‎ to go, along with its infinitive absolute, or even by the latter alone, and this occurs not only when it can be taken in its literal sense (to go, to walk, as in the examples given above, Joshua 6:9, 13, 1 Samuel 6:12, 2 Samuel 3:16, 2 Samuel 13:19; cf. also, Isaiah 3:16, where both infinitives stand before the verb, and Psalms 126:6, where הָלוֹךְ‎ precedes), but in cases where הָלַךְ‎ in the sense of to go on, to continue, merely performs also the function of an adverb. The action itself is added in a second infinitive absolute, or sometimes (see above, t) in a participle or verbal adjective. Examples, Genesis 8:3 וַיָּשֻׁ֫בוּ הַמַּ֫יִם... הָלוֹךְ וָשׁוֹב‎ and the waters returned... continually; Genesis 8:5, Genesis 12:9, Judges 14:9, 2 Kings 2:11; with a participle following, Jeremiah 4:16 (unless we read וּבָכֹה‎, as in 2 Samuel 3:16); with an adjective following, Genesis 26:13, Judges 4:24, 1 Samuel 14:19, 2 Samuel 5:10 (1 Chronicles 11:9), 2 Samuel 18:25.[9]

On the other hand, in 1 Samuel 17:41 the participle הֹלֵךְ‎ is used instead of the infinitive absolute. Of a different kind are the instances in which the participle הֹלֵךְ‎ is used as predicate along with the co-ordinate adjective (Exodus 19:19, 1 Samuel 2:26, 2 Samuel 3:1, 2 Samuel 15:12, Esther 9:4, 2 Chronicles 17:12) or participle (1 Samuel 17:15, Jonah 1:11, Proverbs 4:18, Ecclesiastes 1:6).

3. The regular place of the negative is between the intensifying infinitive absolute and the finite verb,[10] e.g. Exodus 5:23 וְהַצֵּל לֹֽא־הִצַּלְתָּ‎ neither hast thou delivered at all, Judges 15:13, Jeremiah 13:12, Jeremiah 30:11; cf. Micah 1:10 (אַל‎). Exceptions are Genesis 3:4 (where the negation of the threat pronounced in 2:17 is expressed in the same form of words); Amos 9:8, Psalms 49:8.

4. With a finite verb of one of the derived conjugations, not only the infinitive absolute of the same conjugation may be connected (Genesis 28:22 Piʿēl; 17:13, Exodus 22:3, Ezekiel 14:3 Niphʿal; Genesis 40:15 Puʿal; Hosea 4:18 Hiphʿîl; Ezekiel 16:4 Hophʿal), but also (especially with Niphʿal, rarely with Piʿēl and Hiphʿîl; see Driver on 2 Samuel 20:18) that of Qal as the simplest and most general representative of the verbal idea, 2 Samuel 20:18 (with Piʿēl; but in Genesis 37:33, Genesis 44:28 טֹרַף‎ is a passive of Qal, §52e); 46:4 (with Hiphʿîl); Exodus 19:13, Exodus 21:20, 2 Samuel 23:7, Isaiah 40:30, Jeremiah 10:5, Job 6:2 (with Niphʿal); Isaiah 24:19 (with Hithpoʿēl; רֹ֫עָה‎ in the same verse must also, according to the Masora, certainly be the infinitive absolute Qal; see §67o), and so always מוֹת יוּמַת‎ he shall surety be put to death. Elsewhere the infinitive absolute of a conjugation with kindred meaning is found, Leviticus 19:20, 2 Kings 3:23 Hophʿal for Niphʿal (but most probably we should read, with Driver, the infin. Niph. in both places, הִפָּדֵה‎ and הֵֽחָרֵב‎); 1 Samuel 2:16 (Piʿēl for Hiphʿîl, unless יְקַטְּרוּן‎ is to be read); Ezekiel 16:4 (Hophʿal for Puʿal).[11] Finally, the infinitive absolute may equally well be represented by a substantive of kindred stem.[12] In Isaiah 29:14 the substantive intensifying the verb is found along with the infinitive absolute.

5. Instead of the infinitive absolute immediately connected with the finite verb, an infinitive construct form appears (cf. §73d), in Numbers 23:25 (גַּם קֹב‎; cf. Ruth 2:16 גַּם שֹׁל‎); Jeremiah 50:34 (רִיב יָרִיב‎); Proverbs 23:1 (בִּין תָּבִין‎). In the last instances the infinitive is probably assimilated to the imperfect, like the infinitive Niphʿal in the forms noticed in §51k and note.—Cf. also 2 Kings 3:24 וַיָּבֹ֫אוּ בֹא וְהַכּוֹת‎ (read so with the LXX) before א‎, hence, no doubt due to the dislike of a hiatus; so in Psalms 50:21, Nehemiah 1:7 (הֲבֹל‎), all in rapid style; after the verb, Joshua 7:7, unless הַֽעֲבֵיר‎ is intended.

4. Finally the infinitive absolute sometimes appears as a substitute for the finite verb, either when it is sufficient simply to mention the verbal idea (see z), or when the hurried or otherwise excited style intentionally contents itself with this infinitive, in order to bring out the verbal idea in a clearer and more expressive manner (see aa).

(a) The infinitive absolute as the continuation of a preceding finite verb. In the later books especially it often happens that in a succession of several acts only the first (or sometimes more) of the verbs is inflected, while the second (or third, &c.) is added simply in the infinitive absolute. Thus after several perfects, Daniel 9:5 (cf. verse 11) we have sinned ... and have transgressed thy law, וִסוֹר‎ and have turned aside (prop. a turning aside took place); so after a perfect Exodus 36:7 (?), 1 Samuel 2:28, Isaiah 37:19, Jeremiah 14:5, Jeremiah 19:13, Haggai 1:6 (four infinitives), Zechariah 3:4 (but read with Wellhausen, after the LXX, וְהַלְבִּ֫שׁוּ אֹתוֹ‎), 7:5, Ecclesiastes 8:9, Ecclesiastes 9:11, Esther 3:13, Esther 9:6, 16, 18, 12:6 ff., Nehemiah 9:8, 13, 1 Chronicles 5:20, 2 Chronicles 28:19;[13] after the perfect consecutive, Zechariah 12:10; after the perfect frequentative 1 Kings 9:25 (unless וְהִקְטִיר‎ be intended); after the simple imperfect, Leviticus 25:14, Numbers 30:3, Jeremiah 32:44 (three infinitives), 36:23, 1 Chronicles 21:24; after a cohortative, Joshua 9:20; after the imperfect consecutive, Genesis 41:43 (as a continuation of וַיַּרְכֵּב‎); Exodus 8:11, Judges 7:19, Jeremiah 37:21, Nehemiah 8:8, 1 Chronicles 16:36, 2 Chronicles 7:3; with אוֹ‎ or after the jussive, Deuteronomy 14:21, Esther 2:3, Esther 6:9; after the imperative, Isaiah 37:30b, Amos 4:4f.; after the participle, Habakkuk 2:15 (strengthened by אַף‎, and regarded, like the participle itself, as an adverbial accusative); Esther 8:8.

(b) At the beginning of the narrative, or at least of a new section of it. The special form of the finite verb which the infinitive absolute represents must be determined from the context. The infinitive absolute is most frequently used in this way, corresponding to the infinitive of command in Greek, &c.[14]:—

(α) For an emphatic imperative,[15] e.g. שָׁמוֹר‎ (thou shalt, ye shall), observe Deuteronomy 5:12; זָכוֹר‎ (thou shalt) remember, Exodus 13:3, Exodus 20:8 (the full form occurs in Deuteronomy 6:17 שָׁמוֹר תִּשְׁמְרוּן‎; 7:18 זָכֹר תִּזְכֹּר‎); Leviticus 2:6, Numbers 4:2, Numbers 25:17, Deuteronomy 1:16, 2 Kings 5:10, Isaiah 38:5, Jeremiah 2:2, followed by a perfect consecutive; Joshua 1:13, 2 Kings 3:16, Isaiah 7:4, Isaiah 14:31 (parallel with an imperative; in Nahum 2:2 three imperatives follow). But הַבֵּיט‎ Psalms 142:5 may be only an incorrect spelling of הַבֵּט‎ imperative.[16]

(β) For the jussive, Leviticus 6:7, Numbers 6:5, 2 Kings 11:15, Ezekiel 23:46; cf. also Proverbs 17:12 (let it rather meet).

(γ) For the cohortative, Isaiah 22:13b אָכוֹל וְשָׁתוֹ‎ (the exclamation of the mocker); Ezekiel 21:31, Ezekiel 23:30, 46; perhaps also Jeremiah 31:2 (הָלוֹךְ‎).[17]

(δ) For the imperfect in emphatic promises, e.g. 2 Kings 4:43 ye shall eat and leave thereof; 19:29 (Isaiah 37:30), 2 Chronicles 31:10; also in indignant questions, Job 40:2 shall he that cavilleth contend with the Almighty?[18] (on the addition of the subject cf. the Rem. below); Jeremiah 3:1 and thinkest thou to return again to me? Jeremiah 7:9 ff. (six infinitives, continued by means of the perfect consecutive; cf. §112o).

(ε) For any historical tense (like the Latin historic infinitive) in lively narration (or enumeration) and description, even of what is still taking place in present time, e.g. Hosea 4:2 swearing and breaking faith, and killing, and stealing, and committing adultery (in these they are busied); 10:4 (after a perfect); Isaiah 21:5, Isaiah 59:4, Jeremiah 8:15, Jeremiah 14:19, Job 15:35; cf. further Jeremiah 32:33, Ecclesiastes 4:2.—In Ezekiel 23:30, Proverbs 12:7, Proverbs 15:22, and 25:4, the infinitive absolute is best rendered by the passive. Rem. The subject is sometimes added to the infinitive absolute when it takes the place of the finite verb, e.g. Leviticus 6:7, Numbers 15:35, Deuteronomy 15:2, Psalms 17:5, Proverbs 17:12, Job 40:2, Ecclesiastes 4:2, Esther 9:1. So, probably, also in Genesis 17:10, Exodus 12:48, although here כָּל־זָכָר‎ according to §121a might also be taken as an object with a passive verb; cf. Esther 3:13. In 1 Samuel 25:26, 33 the subject follows an infinitive absolute which is co-ordinated with an infinitive construct, see above, e.

  1. The infinitive absolute can never be joined with a genitive or a pronominal suffix.
  2. Perhaps הַצֵּג‎ according to §53k should be explained as an infinitive construct, or should be written הַצִּג‎.
  3. ואחרי שָׁתֹה‎ 1 Samuel 1:9 is impossible Hebrew, and as the LXX shows, a late addition.
  4. That this casus adverbialis also was originally regarded as an accusative, may be seen from classical Arabic, where an infinitive of this kind expressly retains the accusative ending. In Latin the ablative of the gerund corresponds in many ways to this use of the infinitive absolute.
  5. Also in 2 Kings 21:13 for מָחָה וְהָפַךְ‎ read with Stade and Klostermann מָחֹה וְהָפֹךְ‎; similarly, with Stade, וְקָשֹׁה‎ in Judges 4:24; וְחָזוֹק‎ in Jeremiah 23:14, and on Isaiah 31:5 cf. t.
  6. Cf. A. Rieder, Die Verbindung des Inf. abs. mit dem Verb. fin ... im Hebr., Lpz., 1872; also his Quae ad syntaxin Hebraicam ... planiorem faciendam ex lingua Graeca et Latina afferantur, Gumbinnen (Programm des Gymnasiums), 1884. G. R. Hauschild, Die Verbindung finiter und infiniter Verbalformen desselben Stammes in einigen Bibelsprachen, Frankfurt a. M., 1893, discussing especially the rendering of such constructions in the Greek and Latin versions.
  7. In Arabic also, the intensifying infinitive regularly stands after the verb, but in Syriac before the verb.
  8. Also in Ezekiel 1:14 for the distorted form רצוא‎ reads simply יָֽצְאוּ יָצוֹא‎.
  9. Cf. in French, Le mal va toujours croissant, la maladie va toujours en augmentant et en empirant, ‘continually increases and becomes worse and worse.’
  10. Cf. Rieder, Quo loco ponantur negationes לֹא‎ et אַל‎... (Zeitschrift für Gymn.Wesen, 1879, p. 395 ff.).
  11. In three passages even the infinitive absolute of another stem of like sound occurs; but in Isaiah 28:28 אָדוֹשׁ‎ is no doubt a mere textual error for דּוֹשׁ‎, and in Jeremiah 8:13, according to §72aa, we should read אֹֽסְפֵם‎, and in Zephaniah 1:2 אֹסֵף‎. Barth, Nom.-bildung, §49b, sees in אַדוֹשׁ‎ and אַסוֹף‎ infinitives Hiphʿîl, exactly corresponding in form to ʾaqâm[ā] the Aram. infin. ʾAphʿēl of קוּם‎; but there is no more evidence for a Hiph. of דּוּשׁ‎ in Hebrew than for a stem אָדַשׁ‎.
  12. On these substantives (and on the use of the infinitive absolute generally as absolute object, see above, m), cf. the schema etymologicum treated in connexion with the government of the verb in §117p, q.
  13. In Ezekiel 7:14 a perfect appears to be continued by means of an infinitive construct; but the text is quite corrupt; Cornill reads תִּקְעוּ תָקוֹעַ הָכִ֫ינוּ הָכֵן‎.
  14. Cf. also such infinitives in French as voir (page so and so, &c.), s’adresser..., se méfier des voleurs!
  15. Prätorius, op. cit., p. 547: the extraordinarily common use of the infinitive form qāṭōl in the sense of an imperative, jussive, or cohortative has long since caused it to be compared with the Arab. faʿāli. It thus appears that the infin. qāṭōl in Hebrew could be used from early times as a kind of fixed, invariable word of command.
  16. In Ezekiel 21:31, for the infinitives construct הָסִיר‎, הָרִים‎, הַשְׁפִּיל‎ (beside הַגְבֵּהַּ‎) read with Cornill the infinitives absolute הָסֵר‎, &c. The Kethîbh probably intends הָסֵיר‎, &c.
  17. In 2 Samuel 3:18 the infinitive construct appears to be used instead of the cohortative, but אוֹשִׁיעַ‎ should certainly be read for הוֹשִׁיעַ‎. Also in 1 Kings 22:30 (2 Chronicles 18:29), which was formerly included under this head (I will disguise myself and go into the battle), read אֶתְחַפֵּשׂ וְאָֹבא‎.
  18. In Job 34:18 in a similar question instead of the infinitive constr. we should rather expect the infinitive absolute (הֶאָמֹר‎), unless with the LXX and Vulg. the participle with the article (הָֽאֹמֵר‎) is to be read.
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