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Bible Lexicons

Gesenius Hebrew Grammer

Part 116

§116. The Participles.

Cf. Sellin (see above at the head of §113), p. 6 ff., and Kahan, p. 11 ff.

1. Like the two infinitives, the participles also occupy a middle place between the noun and the verb. In form they are simple nouns, and most nearly related to the adjective; consequently they cannot in themselves be employed to represent definite relations of tense or mood. On the other hand, their verbal character is shown by their not representing, like the adjectives, a fixed and permanent quality (or state), but one which is in some way connected with an action or activity. The participle active indicates a person or thing conceived as being in the continual uninterrupted exercise of an activity. The participle passive, on the other hand, indicates the person or thing in a state which has been brought about by external actions.

Rem. That the language was fully conscious of the difference between a state implying action (or effected by external action) and mere passivity, is seen from the fact, that participles proper cannot be formed from the purely stative Qal, but only verbal adjectives of the form qāṭēl (מָלֵא‎, כָּבֵד‎, &c.) or qāṭōl (גָּבֹהַּ‎, &c.), whereas the transitive Qal שָׂנֵא‎ to hate, although it coincides in form with the intransitive Qal (as a verb middle e), nevertheless forms a participle active שׂנֵא‎, and participle passive שָׂנוּא‎ (cf. the feminine שְׂנוּאָה‎).—In cases where the participle proper and the verbal adjective both occur, they are by no means synonymous. When the Assyrians are called in Isaiah 28:11 לַֽעֲגֵי שָׂפָה‎ men of stammering lips, a character is ascribed to them which is inseparably connected with their personality. On the other hand כֻּלֹּה לֹעֵג לִי‎ Jeremiah 20:7, describes those about the prophet as continually engaged in casting ridicule upon him. Cf. also Psalms 9:18 (שְׁכֵחֵי‎) with 50:22 (שֹֽׁכְחֵי‎).

On the difference between the participle as expressing simple duration and the imperfect as expressing progressive duration, cf. what has been stated above in §107d. Nevertheless the participle is sometimes used—especially in the later books, cf. e.g. Nehemiah 6:17, 2 Chronicles 17:11—where we should expect the action to be divided up into its several parts, and consequently should expect the finite verb. But the substitution of the participle for the tempus historicum, which becomes customary in Aramaic (cf. Kautzsch, Gramm. des Bibl.-Aram., § 76. 2, d, and e), is nevertheless quite foreign to Hebrew.

2. The period of time indicated by (a) a participle active, either as an attribute or predicate, must be inferred from the particular context. Thus מֵת‎ may mean either moriens (Zechariah 11:9), or mortuus (so commonly; with the article הַמֵּת‎ regularly = the dead man), or moriturus (Deuteronomy 4:22); בָּא‎ coming, come Genesis 18:11, &c., venturus 1 Samuel 2:31, &c.; נׄפֵל‎ falling, but also fallen, Judges 3:25, 1 Samuel 5:3, and ready to fall (threatening ruin, Isaiah 30:13, Amos 9:11). For other examples of perfect participles see Genesis 27:33, Genesis 43:18 (הַשָּׁב‎ that was returned; cf. Ezra 6:21, &c., הַשָּׁבִים‎ which were come again from the captivity); Genesis 35:3, Exodus 11:5, Zechariah 12:1, Psalms 137:7, Proverbs 8:9, Job 12:4 (קֹרֵא‎), and see m below. For future participles see Genesis 41:25, 1 Kings 18:9, Isaiah 5:5, Jonah 1:3, &c., probably also לֹֽקְחֵי‎ Genesis 19:14. On the futurum instans (esp. after הִנֵּה‎) see p below.

(b) Of the passive participles, that of Qal (e.g. כָּתוּב‎ scriptus) always corresponds to a Latin or Greek perfect participle passive, those of the other conjugations, especially Niphʿal, sometimes to a Latin gerundive (or to an adjective in -bilis), e.g. נוֹרָא‎ metuendus, to be feared, Psalms 76:8, &c.; נֶחְמָד‎ desiderandus (desiderabilis) Genesis 3:6, Psalms 19:11, &c.; נִבְרָא‎ creandus Psalms 102:19; נוֹלָד‎, usually natus, but also (like הַיּוּלָּד‎ Judges 13:8) procreandus, nasciturus 1 Kings 13:2, Psalms 22:32; נַֽעֲרָץ‎ terribilis Psalms 89:8; נִתְעָב‎ abominable Job 15:16; נֶחְשָׁב‎ aestimandus Isaiah 2:22; הַנֶּֽאֱכֶ֫לֶת‎ that may be eaten (an animal) Leviticus 11:47. In Puʿal מְהֻלָּל‎ laudandus, worthy to be praised Psalms 18:4. In Hophʿal, 2 Samuel 20:21 מֻשְׁלָךְ‎; 2 Kings 11:2 הַמּֽוּמָתִים‎; Isaiah 12:5 Qe מוּדַ֫עַת‎.[1]

3. The participles active, in virtue of their partly verbal character, possess the power of governing like verbs, and consequently, when used in the absolute state, may take after them an object either in the accusative, or with the preposition with which the verb in question is elsewhere usually construed, e.g. 1 Samuel 18:29 אֹיֵב אֶת־דָּוִד‎ hating David; Genesis 42:29; with the suffix of the accusative, e.g. עשֵׂ֫נִי‎ that made me Job 31:15; מִי רֹאֵ֫נוּ‎ who seeth us? Isaiah 29:15 (in Isaiah 47:10 רֹאָ֫נִי‎ is abnormal); רֹדֵם‎ ruling them Psalms 68:28, sometimes also with the article, e.g. Psalms 18:33 הַֽמְאַזְּרֵ֫נִי‎ that girdeth me (LXX ὁ κραταιῶν με); Deuteronomy 8:14–16, 13:6, 11, 20:1, 2 Samuel 1:24, Isaiah 9:12 (where, however, Cheyne omits the article), 63:11, Psalms 81:11, Psalms 103:4, Daniel 11:6; followed by a preposition, e.g. 1 Kings 9:23 הָֽרֹדִים בָּעָם‎ which bare rule over the people; 2 Kings 20:5 הִֽנְנִי רֹפֵא לָךְ‎ behold, I will heat thee. [2]

By an exhaustive examination of the statistics, Sellin (see the title at the head of § 113), p. 40 ff., shows that the participle when construed as a verb expresses a single and comparatively transitory act, or relates to particular cases, historical facts, and the like, while the participle construed as a noun (see g) indicates repeated, enduring, or commonly occurring acts, occupations, and thoughts.

So also the verbal adjectives of the form qāṭēl may take an accusative of the person or thing, if the finite verb from which they are derived governs an accusative, e.g. Deuteronomy 34:9 מָלֵא רוּחַ חָכְמָה‎ full of the spirit of wisdom; Psalms 5:5 חָפֵץ רֶ֫שַׁע‎ that hath pleasure in wickedness.

As a sort of noun the participle may, however, also exercise the same government as a noun, being in the construct state, and followed by the object of the action in the genitive (see §89a; and cf. §128x), e.g. Psalms 5:12 אֹֽהֲבֵי שְׁמֶ֫ךָ‎ that love thy name; cf. Psalms 19:8 f.; also when a verbal adjective, e.g. Genesis 22:12 and often יְרֵא אֱלֹהִים‎ one fearing God; Habakkuk 2:15; with an infinitive, Psalms 127:2; with a noun-suffix (which, according to §33c, also represents a genitive), e.g. Genesis 4:14 כָּל־מֹֽצְאִי‎ whosoever findeth me (prop. my finder; cf. עשִֹׁי‎ my maker); 12:3 מְבָֽרֲכֶ֫יךָ‎ that bless thee, מְקַלֶּלְךָ‎ that curseth thee (but read either מְקַלְלֶ֫יךָ‎, or מְבֽרֶכְךָ‎ in the preceding clause); 27:29, 1 Samuel 2:30, Isaiah 63:13, Psalms 18:49. In Jeremiah 33:22 read מְשָֽׁרְתִים אֹתִי‎.[3]

Rem. To the class of objective genitives belong also specifications of place after the participles בָּא‎ iniens and יֹצֵא‎ egrediens, since the verbs בּוֹא‎ and יָצָא‎, in the sense of ingredi, egredi, can be directly connected with an accusative; e.g. Genesis 23:10, 18 בָּאֵי שַׁ֫עַר עִירוֹ‎ that went in at the gate of his city; Lamentations 1:4; after יֽׄצְאֵי‎ Genesis 9:10, Genesis 34:24, Genesis 46:26, &c.—In poetic language the participle in the construct state may be connected not only with a genitive of the object, but also with any other specifications (especially of space) which otherwise can only be made to depend on the verb in question by means of a preposition; cf. Isaiah 38:18, and frequently, יֽוֹרְדֵי־בוֹר‎ they that go down into the pit (the grave); Psalms 88:6 שֹֽׁכְבֵי קֶ֫בֶר‎ that lie in the grave; Deuteronomy 32:24 (Micah 7:17); 1 Kings 2:7, 2 Kings 11:5, 7, 9 those that came in (or went out) on the sabbath, Proverbs 2:7, 1 Chronicles 5:18, &c.; instead of the construction with מִן־‎, e.g. Isaiah 59:20 (those who turn from transgression), Micah 2:8 (cf. §72p).

These genitives of nearer definition appear also in the form of a noun-suffix, e.g. Psalms 18:40, 49 קָמַי‎ (for קָמִים עָלַי‎) that rise up against me; cf. Exodus 15:7, Deuteronomy 33:11, Psalms 44:6, Exodus 32:25, Isaiah 1:27 שָׁבֶ֫יהָ‎ her converts; Psalms 53:6 (חֹנָךְ‎); Proverbs 2:19 כָּל־בָּאֶ֫יהָ‎ all that go unto her; the construction is especially bold in Isaiah 29:7 כָּל־צֹבֶ֫יהָ וּמְצֹֽדָתָהּ‎ all that fight against her and her stronghold (for בָּל־הַצֹּֽבְאִים עָלֶ֫יהָ וְעַל־מ׳‎); Psalms 102:9 even with a participle Poʿal, מְהֽוֹלָלַי‎ they that are mad against me (?), but read perhaps with Olshausen מְחֽוֹלְלַי‎ who pierce me.—In Isaiah 1:30 as a terebinth נׄבֶ֫לֶּת עָלֶ֫הָ‎ fading as regards its leaf, it remains doubtful whether נׄבֶ֫לֶת‎ is in the absolute state, and consequently עָלֶ֫הָ‎ in the accusative, or whether it is to be regarded as construct state, and עָלֶ֫הָ‎ as the genitive. In the latter case it would be analogous to Proverbs 14:2 (see k).

4. The passive participles also may either be in the absolute state, and take the determining word in the accusative,[4] or may be connected with it in the construct state, e.g. Judges 18:11, 1 Samuel 2:18, Ezekiel 9:2 לָבוּשׁ בַּדִּים‎ clothed in linen, cf. verse 3 הַלָּבֻשׁ הַבַּדִּים‎; (even with a suffix קָרוּעַ כֻּתָּנְתּוֹ‎ rent as regards his coat 2 Samuel 15:32; with the participle following Judges 1:7); but Ezekiel 9:11 לְבוּשׁ הַבַּדִּים‎ the one clothed with linen; 2 Samuel 13:31 קְרֻעֵי בְגָדִים‎ rent in respect of clothes, equivalent to with their clothes rent (cf. Jeremiah 41:5); Numbers 24:4, Deuteronomy 25:10, Isaiah 3:3, Isaiah 33:24, Joel 1:8, Psalms 32:1 (נְשׂוּי־פֶּ֫שַׁע‎ forgiven in respect of transgression, כְּסוּי חֲטָאָה‎ covered in respect of sin); with a suffix to the noun, Proverbs 14:2 נְלוֹז דְּרָכָיו‎ he that is perverse in his ways.

Rem. The passive participle occurs in the construct state before a genitive of the cause, e.g. in Isaiah 1:7 שְׂרֻפוֹת אֵשׁ‎ burnt with fire; cf. Genesis 41:6, Exodus 28:11, Deuteronomy 32:24; before a genitive denoting the author, e.g. Genesis 24:31 בְּרוּךְ יְהֹוָה‎ blessed of the Lord (but Psalms 115:15 בְּרוּכִים לַיהוָֹה‎, see §121f); cf. Isaiah 53:4, Psalms 22:7, Job 14:1 (15:14, 25:4); hence also with noun-suffixes (which are accordingly genitive) Proverbs 9:18 קְרֻאֶ֫יהָ‎ her invited ones, i.e. those invited by her; cf. 7:26, Psalms 37:22.

5. The use of the participle as predicate is very frequent in noun-clauses (which, according to §140e, describe established facts and states), in which the period of time intended by the description must again (see above, d) be inferred from the context. Thus:

(a) As present, in speaking of truths which hold good at all times, e.g. Ecclesiastes 1:4 דּוֹר הֹלֵךְ וְדוֹר בָּא‎ one generation goeth, and another generation cometh; and the earth abideth (עֹמָ֫דֶת‎) for ever; cf. verse 7; also to represent incidental (continuous) occurrences which are just happening, Genesis 3:5, Genesis 16:8 (I am fleeing); 32:12, Exodus 9:17, 1 Samuel 16:15, 1 Samuel 23:1, 2 Kings 7:9, Isaiah 1:7; when the subject is introduced by the emphatic demonstrative הִנֵּה‎ behold! (§100o and §105b), e.g. Genesis 16:11 הִנָּךְ הָרָה‎ behold, thou art with child, &c.; 27:42; frequently also in circumstantial clauses (connected by Wāw), cf. §141e, e.g. Genesis 15:2, &c.

(b) To represent past actions or states, sometimes in independent noun-clauses, e.g. Exodus 20:18 וְכָל־הָעָם רֹאִים אֶת־הַקּוֹלֹת‎ and all the people saw the thunderings, &c.; 1 Kings 1:5; in negative statements, e.g. Genesis 39:23 a; sometimes in relativeclauses, e.g. Genesis 39:23 b, Deuteronomy 3:2 (cf. also the frequent combination of the participle with the article as the equivalent of a relative clause, e.g. Genesis 32:10 הָֽאֹמֵר‎ which saidst; 12:7, 16:13, 35:1, 3, 36:35, 48:16, 2 Samuel 15:31, &c.); sometimes again (see n) in circumstantial clauses, especially those representing actions or states which occurred simultaneously with other past actions, &c., e.g. Genesis 19:1 and the two angels came to Sodom וְלוֹט ישֵׁב‎ and (i.e. while) Lot sat, &c.; 18:1, 8, 16, 22, 25:26, Judges 13:9, 2 Chronicles 22:9; also with the subject introduced by הִנֵּה‎ 37:7, 41:17. (On הֹלֵךְ‎ with a following adjective or participle to express an action constantly or occasionally recurring, cf. §113u.)

(c) To announce future actions or events, e.g. 1 Kings 2:2, 2 Kings 4:16 at this season when the time cometh round, אַתְּ חֹבֶ֫קֶת בֵּן‎ thou shalt embrace a son; so after a specification of time, Genesis 7:4, Genesis 15:14, Genesis 17:19, Genesis 19:13, Haggai 2:6 (but in Isaiah 23:15, where, after וְהָיָה‎ we should rather expect a perfect consecutive, it is better to explain וְנִשְׁכַּ֫חַת‎, with Qimḥi, as the 3rd sing. fem. of the perfect; on the form, cf. §44f); or in relative clauses, Genesis 41:25, Isaiah 5:5, i.e. am in the act of doing; in a deliberative question, Genesis 37:30; but especially often when the subject is introduced by הִנֵּה‎ (especially also if the subject be attached as a suffix to הִנֵּה‎ as הִנְנִי‎, הִנְּךָ‎, &c.), if it is intended to announce the event as imminent, or at least near at hand (and sure to happen), when it is called futurum instans, e.g. Genesis 6:17, Genesis 15:3, Genesis 20:3, Genesis 24:13 f., 48:21, 50:5, Exodus 3:13, Exodus 8:25, Exodus 9:3, Exodus 34:10, Joshua 2:18, Judges 7:17, Judges 9:33, 1 Samuel 3:11, 2 Kings 7:2, Isaiah 3:1, Isaiah 7:14, Isaiah 17:1, Jeremiah 30:10, Zechariah 2:13, Zechariah 3:8; with a participle passive, 2 Samuel 20:21: cf. also §112t.

Rem. 1. As the above examples show, a noun-clause with a participle as predicate may have for its subject either a substantive or a personal pronoun; in both cases the participle, especially if there be a certain emphasis upon it, may precede the subject. Also in noun-clauses introduced by הִנֵּה‎ the subject may be either a substantive, or (e.g. Genesis 37:7) a separate personal pronoun, or a suffix attached to הִנֵּה‎. In the same way, the subject may also be introduced by יֵשׁ‎ (est, see the Lexicon) with a suffix, and in negative sentences by אֵין‎ (non est) with a suffix, e.g. Judges 6:36 אִם־יֶשְׁךָ מוֹשִׁיעַ‎ if thou wilt save; Genesis 43:5 אִם־אֵֽינְךָ מְשַׁלֵּחַ‎ if thou wilt not send; 1 Samuel 19:11.—In such cases as Isaiah 14:27 יָדוֹ הַנְּטוּיָה‎ the stretched out hand is his, הַנְּטוּיָה‎ is not, like נְטוּיָה‎ in 9:11, 16, &c., the predicate (in which case the participle could not take the article), but the subject; cf. Genesis 2:11, Genesis 45:12, Isaiah 66:9, Ezekiel 20:29, Zechariah 7:6 (cf. §126k), where the participle with the article likewise refers to the present, also Numbers 7:2, Deuteronomy 3:21, Deuteronomy 4:3, &c., 1 Samuel 4:16, where it refers to the past. In 1 Kings 12:8 and 21:11 even in relative clauses after אֲשֶׁר‎.

2. To give express emphasis to an action continuing in the past, the perfect הָיָה‎ in the corresponding person is sometimes added to the participle, and similarly the imperfect יִֽהְיֶה‎ (or the jussive יְהִי‎, or the imperfect consecutive) is used to emphasize an action continuing in the future, e.g. Job 1:14 הַבָּקָר הָיוּ חֹֽרְשׁוֹת‎ the oxen (cows) were plowing; Genesis 37:2, Genesis 39:22, Exodus 3:1, Deuteronomy 9:24, Judges 1:7, 1 Samuel 2:11, 2 Samuel 3:6; the same occurs with a passive participle, e.g. Joshua 5:5, Zechariah 3:3; יִֽהְיֶה‎ with a participle is found e.g. in Isaiah 2:2; the jussive in Genesis 1:6, Psalms 109:12;[5] and ויהי‎ with a participle in Judges 16:21, Nehemiah 1:4.

3. The personal pronoun which would be expected as the subject of a participial clause is frequently omitted, or at least (as elsewhere in noun-clauses, cf. Isaiah 26:3, Psalms 16:8, Job 9:32) the pronoun of the 3rd pers. הוּא‎, e.g. Genesis 24:30, Genesis 37:15, Genesis 38:24, Genesis 41:1, 1 Samuel 10:11, 1 Samuel 15:12, Isaiah 29:8 (the participle always after הִנֵּה‎); cf., moreover, Genesis 32:7, Deuteronomy 33:3, 1 Samuel 17:25, 1 Samuel 20:1, Isaiah 33:5, Isaiah 40:19, Psalms 22:29, Psalms 33:5, Psalms 55:20, Job 12:17, 19 ff., 25:2, 26:7.—הִיא‎ is omitted in Leviticus 18:28; הֵ֫מָּה‎ in Isaiah 32:12, Ezekiel 8:12, Nehemiah 9:3; in a relative clause, Genesis 39:22, Isaiah 24:2.—The personal pronoun of the 2nd pers. masc. (אַתָּה‎) is omitted in Habakkuk 2:10; the 2nd fem. (אַתְּ‎) in Genesis 20:16 (where, however, for the participle וְנׄכַ֫חַת‎ the 2nd fem. perf. וְוֹכַ֫חַתְּ‎ is to be read); the pronoun of the 1st sing. in Habakkuk 1:5 (?), Zechariah 9:12, Malachi 2:16; the 2nd plur. (אַתֶּם‎) 1 Samuel 2:24 (if the text be right), 6:3, Ezekiel 13:7 (?). But these passages are all more or less doubtful.

Of a different kind are the cases in which some undefined subject is to be supplied with the participle; e.g. Isaiah 21:11 אֵלַי קֹרֵא‎ there is one calling unto me (= one calleth; §144d); cf. Isaiah 30:24, Isaiah 33:4.—So with participles in the plur., e.g. Exodus 5:16 (אֹֽמְרִים‎ sc. the taskmasters); Jeremiah 38:23 (in 33:5 the text is corrupt), Ezekiel 13:7 (?), 36:13, 37:11 (equivalent to sunt qui dicant). 4. We must mention as a special class those noun-clauses which occur at the beginning of a period, and are intended to lay stress upon the fact that the first action still continues on the occurrence of the second (always introduced by וְ‎); e.g. Job 1:16 f. עוֹד זֶה מְדַבֵּר וְזֶה בָא‎ he was yet speaking, and (=when) another came, &c.[6]; cf. Genesis 29:9, 1 Samuel 9:11, 27, 20:36, 1 Kings 14:17; 2 Kings 2:23, 2 Kings 4:5, Daniel 9:20 f.; also in Judges 19:22, 1 Samuel 9:14, 1 Samuel 17:23, 1 Kings 1:42, Job 1:18 f., in all which passages the apodosis is introduced by וְהִנֵּה‎.—On the other hand, in 1 Kings 1:14 the noun-clause itself is introduced by הִנֵּה‎ (as in verse 22 by וְהִנֵּה‎), and denotes an action only just impending.[7] Finally, when the whole sentence is introduced by means of וַיְהִי‎ (cf. §111g), and the apodosis by וְהִנֵּה‎, Genesis 42:35, 2 Kings 2:11, 2 Kings 13:21; without הִנֵּה‎ in the apodosis, 1 Samuel 7:10, 2 Kings 19:37 (Isaiah 37:38).

Participles active, which are used in the sense of the perfect participle, and also participles passive, in accordance with their meaning, express in such noun-clauses a state still continuing on the occurrence of the principal action, e.g. Genesis 38:25 הִוא מוּצֵאת וְהִיא שָֽׁלְחָה‎ she was being brought forth, when she sent, &c.; cf. Genesis 50:24. [See further in Driver, Tenses, §§ 166–169.]

5. Different from the examples treated in u and v are the instances in which a participle (either alone or as the attribute of a noun) stands at the beginning of the sentence as a casus pendens (or as the subject of a compound noun-clause, see §143c) to indicate a condition, the contingent occurrence of which involves a further consequence; e.g. Genesis 9:6 שֹׁפֵךְ דַּם הָֽאָדָם בָּֽאָדָם דָּמוֹ יִשָּׁפֵךְ‎ shedding man’s blood, i.e. if any one sheddeth man’s blood, by man shall his blood be shed; Exodus 21:12, Psalms 75:4, Proverbs 17:14, Job 41:18; so especially if כָּל־‎ every precedes the participle, Genesis 4:15, 1 Samuel 3:11 (2 Kings 21:12), 2 Samuel 5:8 (whosoever smiteth), 1 Chronicles 11:6. The apodosis is very often introduced by וְ‎ (wāw apodosis), e.g. Exodus 12:15 (with a following perfect consecutive), Numbers 35:30; 1 Samuel 2:13 הַכֹּהֵן כָּל־אִישׁ זֹבֵחַ זֶ֫בַה וּבָא נַ֫עַר‎ when any man offered sacrifice, the priest’s servant came, &c.; 2 Samuel 14:10 (participle with article); 22:41 (where, however, the text is to be emended in accordance with Psalms 18:41); 2 Samuel 23:3 f., Proverbs 23:24 Keth.; 29:9.—As in the instances discussed under u, such sentences are sometimes preceded by וַיְהִי‎, cf. 1 Samuel 10:11, 1 Samuel 11:11, 2 Samuel 2:23 וַיְהִי כָּל־הַבָּא‎ and it came to pass, that as many as came, &c. [or by וְהָיְה‎, frequentative, Judges 19:30].—On the other hand, וְהַנִּשְׁבֶּ֫רֶת‎ Daniel 8:22 is a mere catchword (equivalent to and as for that which was broken) to call to mind the contents of verse 8.

6. On the use of the participle after the infinitive absolute הָלוֹךְ‎ cf. §113u.

7. Almost as a rule the participial construction beginning a sentence (like the infinitival constructions according to §114r) is continued by means of a finite verb with or without וְ‎, before which the English construction requires us to supply the relative pronoun implied in the participle; thus, continued by means of a perfect, Isaiah 14:17 שָׂם תֵּבֵל כַּמִּדְבָּר וְעָרָיו הָרָ֑ס‎ that made the world as a wilderness, and overthrew the cities thereof[8]; 43:7, Ezekiel 22:3, Psalms 136:13 ff., Proverbs 2:17; by a perfect without Wāw, Genesis 49:11; by a simple imperfect (as the modus rei repetitae in the present), Isaiah 5:23, Isaiah 46:6, Proverbs 7:8, Job 12:17, 19 ff., 24:21; by an imperfect without Wāw, e.g. 1 Samuel 2:8, Isaiah 5:8, Proverbs 2:14, Proverbs 19:26; by an imperfect consecutive, Genesis 27:33, Genesis 35:3, 1 Samuel 2:6, Jeremiah 13:10 (after several participles), Psalms 18:33, Psalms 136:10f.

Footnotes:
  1. Such examples as נוֹרָא‎, נֶחְמָד‎, מְהֻלָּל‎ show plainly the origin of this gerundive use of the participle passive. A person or thing feared, desired, or praised at all times is shown thereby to be terrible, desirable, or praiseworthy, and therefore also to be feared, &c.
  2. On the other hand, in Isaiah 11:9 as the waters לַיָּם מְכַסִּים‎ covering the sea, the ל‎ serves only to introduce the object preceding the participle [cf. the Arabic parallels cited by Driver, Tenses, § 135, 7 Obs.]. Cf. Hab. 2:14.
  3. When, as in Job 40:19, the participle with the noun-suffix הָֽעשֹׁוֹ‎ he that made him, also has the article (cf. §127i), the anomaly is difficult to understand, since a word determined by a genitive does not admit of being determined by the article.—No less remarkable is the use of the constr. st. of the participle before the accusative in Jeremiah 33:22 מְשָֽׁרְתֵי אֹתִי‎ that minister unto me (for which there is מְשָֽׁרְתַי‎ in verse 21). In Amos 4:13 an accusative of the product follows the genitive of the object, עשֵֹׁה שַׁחַר עֵיפָה‎ maker of the morning into darkness. In Jeremiah 2:17 בְּעֵת מֽוֹלִכֵךְ‎ is supposed to mean at the time when he led thee; perhaps the perfect (הוֹל׳‎) should be read as in 6:15. In Ezekiel 27:34, the ancient versions read נִשְׁבַּרְתְּ‎ (ה‎)עַתָּ‎ now thou art broken, instead of the difficult עֵת נִשְׁבֶּ֫רֶת‎. In 1 Kings 20:40 read עשֶֹׁה‎ before הֵ֫נָּה וָהֵ֫נָּה‎.
  4. On the proper force of this accusative when retained in the passive construction cf. below, §117cc, &c., and §121c, d. So also Nehemiah 4:12 is to be understood, and the builders were אִישׁ חַרְבּוֹ אֲסוּרִים עַל־מָתְנָיו‎ girded every one with his sword on his side, and building.
  5. A jussive is practically to be supplied also in the formulae of blessing and cursing, בָּרוּךְ‎ blessed be ... Genesis 9:26, &c.; אָרוּר‎ cursed art thou ... 3:14, &c.
  6. The independent noun-clause here lays stress upon the simultaneous occurrence (and consequently the overlapping) of the events far more forcibly than could be done by a subordinate expression of time (as e.g. וַיְהִי בְדַבְּרוֹ‎). In English it may be represented by scarcely had he finished speaking when. ... As the above examples show, the apodosis also frequently consists of a noun-clause.
  7. At the same time the preceding עוֹד‎ still shows that what is announced is not merely a future event, but a future event contemporaneous with something else; the case thus entirely differs from the examples given in §112t, where הִנֵּה‎ refers to the following participle, while here it belongs properlyto the apodosis, before which it is therefore generally placed; see the examples.
  8. On the parallelism between the external and internal members, which appears here and in many other examples of this kind, see the note on §114r.
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