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Bible Lexicons

Gesenius Hebrew Grammer

Part 117

C. The Government of the Verb.
§117. The Direct Subordination of the Noun to the Verb as Accusative of the Object. The Double Accusative.
L. Kaila, Zur Syntax des in verbaler Abhängigkeit stehenden Nomens im alttest. Hebr., Helsingfors, 1906.

1. The simplest way in which a noun is subordinated to a verbal form is by the addition of an accusative of the object to a transitive verb.[1] In the absence of case-endings,[2] this accusative can now be recognized only from the context, or by the particle אֶת־‎ (אֵת‎, before suffixes also אֹת‎, אוֹת‎)[3] prefixed to it. The use of this nota accusativi is, however, somewhat rare in poetry, and even in prose it is not invariably necessary but is restricted to those cases in which the accusative of the object is more closely determined by being a proper name, or by having the article, or by a following determinate genitive (hence also by the suffixes), or in some other way (see below, c), e.g. Genesis 4:1 and she bare אֶת־קַ֫יִן‎ Cain; 6:10, 1:1 God created אֵת הַשָּׁמַ֫יִם וְאֵת הָאָ֫רֶץ‎ the heaven and the earth (but 2:4 אֶ֫רֶץ רְשָׁמַ֫יִם‎); 1:25 and God made אֶת־חַיַּת הָאָ֫רֶץ‎ the beast of the earth; 2:24.

Rem. 1. The rare occurrence of the nota accusativi in poetic style (e.g. it never occurs in Exodus 15:2–18, Dt 32, Ju 5, 1 S 2, &c., though it is frequent in the late Psalms) may be explained from the fact that in this as in other respects (cf. §2q) poetry represents a somewhat more archaic stage of the language than prose. The need of some external means of indicating the accusative could only have been felt after the case-endings had become wholly extinct. Even then the את‎ would probably have been used at first to indicate only an object placed before the verb (when it followed, it was already sufficiently characterized by its position as depending on the verb), or proper names.[4] Finally, however, the nota accusativi became so customary everywhere in prose, that even the pronominal object was expressed rather by את‎ with suffixes than by verbal suffixes, even when none of the reasons mentioned under e can be assigned for it; cf. Giesebrecht in ZAW. 1881, p. 258 ff., and the statistics of H. Petri, cited above at the head of § 58. Such examples as כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה אֹתוֹ אֱלֹהִים‎ Genesis 6:22 in the Priestly Code, beside בְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּ֫הוּ יְהֹוָה‎ 7:5 in the Jahvist, are especially instructive.

2. As accusatives determined in other ways, we have in the first place to consider the collectives introduced by כֹּל‎ entirety, without a following article or determinate genitive, inasmuch as the meaning of כֹּל‎ includes a determinative sense, cf. e.g. Genesis 1:21, 30, 8:21, Deuteronomy 2:34, 2 Kings 25:9. אֶת־כֹּל‎ is used absolutely in Genesis 9:3, cf. 39:23; similarly, מִי‎ is determinate of itself, since it always denotes a person, hence אֶת־מִי‎ quem? e.g. Isaiah 6:8, Isaiah 37:23, &c., but never אֶת־מָה‎ quid? So also the relative אֲשֶׁר‎ in the sense of eum qui or quem, &c., e.g. 1 Samuel 16:3, or id quod, Genesis 9:24, &c. Cf. also such examples as Joshua 2:10, 1 Samuel 24:19, where אֵת אֲשֶׁר‎ is equivalent to the circumstance, that, &c.—Elsewhere אֵת‎ stands before nouns which are determinate in sense, although the article is omitted, which according to §126h is very frequently the case in poetic or otherwise elevated style; thus Leviticus 26:5, Joshua 24:14, 15, Isaiah 41:7 (to distinguish the object from the subject); 50:4 (with the first of two accusatives, also for the sake of clearness); Ezekiel 13:20, Ezekiel 43:10, Proverbs 13:21 (where the צַדִּיקִים‎ are to be regarded as a distinct class); Job 13:25 (unless, with Beer and others, we read וְאִם‎ for וְאֶת־‎); also Ecclesiastes 7:7 may be a quotation of an ancient maxim.

On the other hand אֵת‎ occurs very seldom in prose before a noun actually or apparently undetermined. In 1 Samuel 24:6 כָּנָף‎ is more closely defined by means of the following relative clause; in 2 Samuel 4:11 אִישׁ צַדִּיק‎ refers to Ishbosheth (as if it were him, who was an innocent man); in 1 Kings 6:16 עֶשְׂרִים אַמָּה‎ refers to the particular twenty cubits. In Exodus 21:28 (otherwise in verse 29) perhaps the אֶת־‎ is used in order to avoid the combination שׁוֹר אִישׁ‎ (as in Numbers 21:9 to avoid the cacophony נָשַׁךְ הַנָּחָשׁ אִישׁ‎?); in Leviticus 7:8 and 20:10 the accusatives are at any rate defined by the centext.—In Numbers 16:15 אֶת־אַהַד מֵהֶם‎ probably means even a single one (and then ipso facto a definite one) of them, as also in 1 Samuel 9:3 אֶת־אַחַד מֵֽהַנְּעָרִים‎ may refer to some definite one of the men-servants. In Genesis 21:30 we should read אֶת־שֶׁ֫בַע הַכְּבָשׂת‎ with the Samaritan, since the seven lambs have been already mentioned; in Exodus 2:1 translate with Meyer, Die Israeliten, p. 79, אֶת־בַּת־לֵוִי‎ the daughter of Levi; in Exodus 28:9 read הַשֹּׁ֫הַם‎ with the Samaritan; in Leviticus 20:14 אֶת־אִשָּׁה‎ is probably a scribal error due to וְאֶת־אִמָּה‎; in 1 Samuel 26:20 read נַפְשִׁי‎ with the LXX for פַּרְעשׁ אֶחָד‎; in 2 Samuel 5:24 read הַצְּעָדָה‎ as in 1 Chronicles 14:15; in 2 Samuel 15:16 the אֶת־‎ is incorrectly inserted from 20:3, where it refers to the women already mentioned; in 2 Samuel 18:18 read הַמַּצֶּ֫בֶת‎, or omit both אֶת־‎ and אֲשֶׁר‎ with the LXX and Lucian; in 1 Kings 12:31 omit אֶת־‎; in 2 Kings 23:20 probably אֶת־עַצְמוֹתָם‎ is to be read; in 2 Kings 25:9 the text is corrupt. In Ezekiel 16:32 אֶת־זָרִים‎ might refer to the strangers in question; but see Smend on the passage.

3. The pronominal object must be represented by את‎ with a suffix (instead of a verbal suffix), when (a) it precedes the verb, e.g. Numbers 22:33 אֹֽתְכָה הָרַ֫גְתִּי וְאוֹתָהּ הֶֽחֱיֵ֫יתִי‎ I had slain thee and saved her alive; Genesis 7:1, Leviticus 22:28, 1 Samuel 8:7, Isaiah 43:22, Isaiah 57:11, Jeremiah 4:17, 22, 7:19; (b) when a suffix is already attached to the verb, and as a rule when a second accusative with וְ‎ follows, e.g. 2 Samuel 15:25 וְהִרְאַ֫נִי אֹתוֹ‎ and he will show me it; Exodus 17:3 לְהָמִית אֹתִי וְאֶת־בָּנַי‎ to kill us and our children; Numbers 16:32, 1 Samuel 5:11, 2 Samuel 14:16 (but cf. also Deuteronomy 11:6, Deuteronomy 15:16, &c., and Driver on 1 Samuel 5:10); (c) after an infinitive absolute, see above §113a note; (d) after an infinitive construct, when it is immediately followed by the subject, e.g. Genesis 41:39, or when the combination of a suffix with the infinitive might lead to a misunderstanding, e.g. Genesis 4:15 לְבִלְתִּי הַכּֽוֹת־אֹתוֹ‎ lest one should smite him, &c., where לְבִלְתִּי הַכּוֹתוֹ‎ might also mean lest he should smite.

4. The pronominal object is very frequently omitted, when it can be easily supplied from the context; so especially the neuter accusative referring to something previously mentioned (the English it) after verba sentiendi (שָׁמַע‎) and dicendi, e.g. Genesis 9:22, &c., וַיַּגֵּד‎ and he told (it); also after נָתַן‎ to give, Genesis 18:7, Genesis 24:41, &c., לָקַח‎ to take, הֵבִיא‎ to bring, שִׂים‎ to lay, Genesis 9:23, &c., מָצָא‎ to find, Genesis 31:33, &c. A personal object is omitted, e.g. in Genesis 12:19, Genesis 24:51 (after לָקַח‎.—The omission of the plural object is remarkable, because it leaves an opportunity for a misunderstanding, in Genesis 37:17 שָׁמַ֫עְתּי אֹֽמְרִים‎[5] I heard them saying; perhaps, however, we should read שְׁמַעְתִּים‎ with the Samaritan.

5. In common formulae the substantival object is also sometimes omitted (an elliptical expression); thus e.g. כָּרַת‎ 1 Samuel 20:16, &c. (see the Lexicon) stands for כָּרַת בְּרִית‎ like the English to close (sc. a bargain) with any one; נָטַר‎ to keep (sc. אַף‎ anger) equivalent to to be resentful, Psalms 103:9, &c.; so also שָׁמַר‎ Jeremiah 3:5 (beside נָטַר‎); נָשָׂא‎ for נָשָׂא קוֹל‎ to lift up the voice, Isaiah 3:7; נָשָׂא לְ‎ for נָשָׂא עָוֹן לְ‎ to take away any one’s sin (to forgive), Genesis 18:24, 26, Isaiah 2:9; שָׁלַח‎ to put forth (sc. יָד‎ the hand) equivalent to to reach after something, 2 Samuel 6:6, Psalms 18:17.

6. Verba sentiendi may take a second object, generally in the form of a participle or adjective and necessarily indeterminate, to define more exactly the action or state in which the object is perceived, e.g. Numbers 11:10 וַיִּשְׁמַע משֶׁה אֶת־הָעָם בֹּכֶה‎ and Moses heard the people weeping; Genesis 7:1 אֽתְךָ רָאִ֫יתִי צַדִּיק‎ thee have I seen righteous. Frequently, however, the second object is expressed by a separate clause. This is especially frequent with רָאָה‎ to see, e.g. Genesis 1:4 and God saw the light, that it was good; Genesis 6:2, Genesis 12:14, Genesis 13:10, Genesis 49:15, Exodus 2:2, Psalms 25:19, Proverbs 23:31, Job 22:12, Ecclesiastes 2:24, Ecclesiastes 8:17; so with יָדַע‎ to know, Exodus 32:22, 2 Samuel 3:25, 2 Samuel 17:8 (with two objects); 1 Kings 5:17.

7. In certain instances את‎ serves apparently to introduce or to emphasize a nominative. This cannot be regarded as a reappearance of the original substantival meaning of the את‎, since all unquestionable examples of the kind belong to the later Books of the Old Testament. They are rather (apart from textual errors or other explanations) cases of virtual dependence on an implied verbum regens understood. The constant use of את‎ to indicate a clause governed by the verb, necessarily led at length to the use of את‎ generally as a defining particle irrespective of a governing verb. So in the Hebrew of the Mishna[6] (see above, §3a) אֹתוֹ‎ and אֹתָהּ‎ are prefixed even to a nominative without any special emphasis.

Naturally the above does not apply to any of the places in which את‎ is not the nota accusativi, but a preposition (on את‎ with, cf. §103b), e.g. Isaiah 57:15, 1 Samuel 17:34 (וְאֶת־הַדּוֹב‎ and that, with a bear; אֶת־‎ here, however, has probably been interpolated from verse 36, where it is wanting); nor the places in which the accusative is subordinate to a passive (according to §121c) or to a verb of wanting as in Joshua 22:17 and Nehemiah 9:32, see below, z. In Ezekiel 43:17 סָבִיב‎ about governs like a verb, being followed by אוֹתָהּ‎.

Other cases are clearly due to attraction to a following relative pronoun in the accusative (Ezekiel 14:22, Zechariah 8:17; but Haggai 2:5a, to ממצרים‎, must be omitted, with the LXX, as a later addition), or the accusative depends on a verbal idea, virtually contained in what has gone before, and consequently present to the speaker’s mind as governing the accusative. Thus Numbers 3:26 (the verbal idea contained in ומשמרת‎ verse 25 is they had to take charge of); in Joshua 17:11 ויהי לְ‎ implies it was given up or they gave him; 1 Samuel 26:16 is equivalent to search now for; in 2 Samuel 11:25 אל־ירע בעיניך‎ is used in the sense of noli aegre ferre[7]; Jeremiah 36:33 he had the brazier before him; in Ecclesiastes 4:3 a verb like I esteem is mentally supplied before אֵת אֲשֶׁר‎. On Joshua 22:17, Nehemiah 9:32, see below, aa.—Aposiopesis occurs in Deuteronomy 11:2 (do I mean); still more boldly in Zechariah 7:7, where either שְׁמַעְתֶּם‎ or (תַּֽעֲשׂוּ) תִּשְׁמְעוּ‎ is to be supplied.

Setting aside a few undoubtedly corrupt passages[8] there still remain the following examples, in which אֶת־‎ in the later Hebrew manner (almost in the sense of the Latin quod attinet ad) introduces a noun with more or less emphasis, Numbers 3:46, Numbers 5:10, Numbers 35:6, Judges 20:44, 46, Ezekiel 17:21, Ezekiel 20:16, Ezekiel 35:10, Ezekiel 44:3, Nehemiah 9:19, 34, Daniel 9:13, 2 Chronicles 31:17.—In Ezekiel 47:17–19 (cf. also 43:7) it is simplest to emend זֹאת‎ for אֶת־‎, according to verse 20. However, even the LXX, who have ταῦτα only in verse 18, can hardly have known any other reading than את‎; consequently in all these passages את‎ must be regarded as virtually dependent on some governing word, such as ecce (LXX 43:7 ἐώακας), and 47:17 ff. as equivalent to thou shalt have as a border, &c.

8. Another solecism of the later period is finally the introduction of the object by the preposition לְ‎ (prop. in relation to, in the direction of), as sometimes in Ethiopic[9] and very commonly in Aramaic.[10]. Less remarkable is this looser connexion of the object with a participle, as with אָכַל‎ Lamentations 4:5, אִסֵּף‎ Numbers 10:25, זָקַף‎ Psalms 145:14 (but cf. 146:8), צָרַר‎ Numbers 25:18, הִשְׂגִּיא‎ and שָׁטַה‎ Job 12:23; before the participle Isaiah 11:9.—To introduce an object preceding the finite verb לְ‎ is employed in Job 5:2 (cf. also Daniel 11:38); also after אָהֵב‎ Leviticus 19:18, 34; הֶֽאֱרִיךְ‎ Psalms 129:3; הִבְדִּיל‎ Ezra 8:24, 2 Chronicles 25:10; הֵבִין‎ Job 9:11; בֵּרַךְ‎ 1 Chronicles 29:20 (immediately before with an accusative); הִגְלָה‎ 1 Chronicles 5:26; דָּרַשׁ‎ Ezra 6:21, 1 Chronicles 22:19, 2 Chronicles 17:13; חֶֽהֱיָה‎ Genesis 45:7, where, however, read פְּלֵיטָה‎ with the LXX for לפליטה‎ and take לָכֶם‎ as a dativus commodi; הִלֵּל‎ 1 Chronicles 16:36, 2 Chronicles 5:13; הָרַג‎ 2 Samuel 3:30, Psalms 135:11 (verse 10 with accusative), 136:19 f.; חָבַשׁ‎ (to bind up) Isaiah 61:1 (Ezekiel 34:4 the verb); יָדַע‎ Psalms 69:6; כִּבֵּד‎ Psalms 86:9; לָקַח‎ Jeremiah 40:2, 2 Chronicles 23:1; הִמְלִיךְ‎ and מָשַׁה‎ 1 Chronicles 29:22; נֵהַל‎ 2 Chronicles 28:15; סָמַךְ‎ Psalms 145:14; עָזַב‎ 1 Chronicles 16:37; הֶֽעֱלָה‎ Ezekiel 26:3; פִּתַּח‎ Psalms 116:16; רָדַף‎ Job 19:28; הִצְדִּיק‎ Isaiah 53:11; שָׂכַר‎ 2 Chronicles 24:12 (previously accusatives); שִׂים‎ 1 Samuel 22:7 (but probably וְכֻּלְּכֶם‎ is to be read); הֵשִׁיב‎ (in the connexion, הֵשִׁיב דָּבָר לְ‎) 2 Chronicles 10:6 (but verse 9 and 1 Kings 12:9 with an accusative); שִׁחֵת‎ Numbers 32:15, 1 Samuel 23:10; שִׁית‎ Psalms 73:18; שָׁלַח‎ Ezra 8:16, 2 Chronicles 2:12, 2 Chronicles 17:7; שָׁמַר‎ 1 Chronicles 29:18, 2 Chronicles 5:11.

9. Sometimes the verb, on which an accusative of the object really depends, is contained only in sense in the verb which apparently governs, e.g. Isaiah 14:17 אֲסִירָיו לֹא־פָתַח בָּֽיְתָה‎ his prisoners he let not loose nor sent them back to their home. On this constructio praegnans in general, see §119ff.

2. With the proper accusatives of the object may also be classed what is called the internal or absolute object (also named schema etymologicum or figura etymologica), i.e. the addition of an object in the form of a noun derived from the same stem,[11] e.g. Psalms 14:5 פָּֽחֲדוּ פַ֫חַד‎ they feared a fear (i.e. they were in great fear), Proverbs 15:27; also with the object preceding, e.g. Lamentations 1:8 חֵטְא חָֽטְאָה יְרוּשָׁלַ͏ִם‎ Jerusalem hath sinned a sin; with a double accusative (see below, cc), e.g. 1 Kings 1:12, אִֽיעָצֵךְ נָא עֵצָה‎ let me, I pray thee, give thee counsel; 1 Kings 1:12.[12]

Rem. (a) Strictly speaking the only cases of this kind are those in which the verbal idea is supplemented by means of an indeterminate substantive (see the examples above). Such a substantive, except in the case of the addition of the internal object to denominative verbs (see below), is, like the infinitive absolute, never altogether without force, but rather serves like it to strengthen the verbal idea. This strengthening is implied in the indeterminateness of the internal object, analogous to such exclamations as, this was a man![13] Hence it is intelligible that some intensifying attribute is very frequently (as in Greek usually) added to the internal object, e.g. Genesis 27:34 וַיִּצְעַק צְעָקָה גְדֹלָה וּמָרָה עַד־מְאֹד‎ he cried (with) an exceeding great and bitter cry; cf. the Greek νοσεῖν νόσον κακήν, ἐχάρησαν χαρὰν μεγάλην (Matt. 2:10); magnam pugnare pugnam, tutiorem vitam vivere, &c.

Examples of an internal object after the verb, and without further addition, are Exodus 22:5, 2 Samuel 12:16, Isaiah 24:22, Isaiah 35:2, Isaiah 42:17, Ezekiel 25:15), 26:15, 27:35, Micah 4:9, Zechariah 1:2, Proverbs 21:26; with an intensifying attribute, Genesis 27:33, Exodus 32:31, Judges 15:8, 2 Samuel 13:36, 1 Kings 1:40 (cf. Jonah 4:6, 1 Chronicles 29:9); Isaiah 21:7, Isaiah 45:17, Jonah 1:10, Zechariah 1:14, Zechariah 8:2a, Daniel 11:3; along with an object proper the internal object occurs with an attribute in Genesis 12:17, 2 Samuel 13:15; cf. also Isaiah 14:6, Jonah 4:1.—An internal object without an attribute before the verb: Isaiah 24:16, Jeremiah 46:5, Habakkuk 3:9, Job 27:12; with an attribute before the verb: Jeremiah 14:17, Zechariah 1:15 (cf. also Genesis 30:8, Jeremiah 22:19, Jeremiah 30:14, Psalms 139:22). Instead of the substantive which would naturally be expected, another of kindred meaning is used in Zechariah 8:2.

(b) Only in a wider sense can the schema etymologicum be made to include cases in which the denominative verb is used in connexion with the noun from which it is derived, e.g. Genesis 1:11, Genesis 9:14, Genesis 11:3, Genesis 37:7, Ezekiel 18:2, Psalms 144:6, probably also Micah 2:4, or where this substantive, made determinate in some way, follows its verb, e.g. Genesis 30:37, Numbers 25:11, 2 Kings 4:13, 2 Kings 13:14, Isaiah 45:17, Lamentations 3:58,[14] and, determinate at least in sense, Jeremiah 22:16; or precedes it, as in 2 Kings 2:16, Isaiah 8:12, Isaiah 62:5, Zechariah 3:7; cf. also Exodus 3:9. In both cases the substantive is used, without any special emphasis, merely for clearness or as a more convenient way of connecting the verb with other members of the sentence.

3. Verbs which denote speaking (crying out, weeping), or any external act, frequently take a direct accusative of the organ or means by which the action is performed. In this case, however, the accusative must be more closely determined by an attributive adjective or a noun in the genitive. This fact shows the close relation between these accusatives and the internal objects treated under p, which also, according to q, mostly take an intensifying attribute. On the other hand, they must not be regarded as adverbial (instrumental) accusatives, nor are they to be classed with the second (neuter) subjects treated below in §144l.

Examples of the accusative following the verb are וָֽאֶזְעַק קֽוֹל־גָּדוֹל‎ and I cried a loud voice, i.e. with a loud voice, Ezekiel 11:13, 2 Samuel 15:23 (after the proper object, Deuteronomy 5:19, 1 Kings 8:55); Psalms 109:2 they have spoken unto me לְשׁוֹן שֶׁ֫קֶר‎ a tongue of deceit, i.e. with a lying tongue; Proverbs 10:4 he becometh poor עשֶֹׁה כַף־רְמִיְּה‎ dealing a slack hand, i.e. who dealeth with a slack hand; cf. the German eine schöne Stimme singen, to sing a fine voice, eine tüchtige Klinge schlagen, to smite a trusty sword, Schlittschuhe laufen, to run skates (i.e. to skate), and our to write a good hand, to play ball, &c.—Examples of the accusative preceding are שִֹׂפְתֵי רְנָנוֹת יְהַלֶּל־פִּי‎ my mouth shall praise with joyful lips, Psalms 63:6; cf. Psalms 12:3, where a casus instrumenti with בְּ‎ follows the accusative.

4. Many verbs originally intransitive (sometimes even in form; see a, note 2 may be used also as transitives, in consequence of a certain modification of their original meaning, which has gradually become established by usage; cf. e.g. רִיב‎ to strive, but also with an accusative causam alicuius agere (so even in Isaiah 1:17, &c.; elsewhere with לְ‎ of the person for whom one strives); יָכֹל‎ absolutely to be able, with an accusative to prevail over any one; חָפֵץ‎ to be inclined and רָצָה‎ to have pleasure (usually with בְּ‎), with an accusative to wish for some one or something; שָׁכַב‎ cubare, then in the sense of concumbere, originally joined with עִם־‎ cum, but quite early also with the accusative, equivalent to comprimere (feminam), &c. So in 2 Samuel 13:14, &c., unless in all or some of the passages the preposition אֵת‎ is intended, e.g. אִתָּהּ‎ for אֹתָהּ‎; in the earlier passages עִם־‎ is the more usual.

Rem. 1. It is certainly difficult to decide whether some verbs, which were afterwards used absolutely or joined with prepositions, were not nevertheless originally transitive, and consequently it is only the supposed original meaning, usually assigned to them in English, which causes them to appear intransitive.[15] In that case there is of course no syntactical peculiarity to be considered, and a list of such verbs would at the most be requisite only for practical purposes. Moreover, it is also possible that certain verbs were originally in use at the same time both as transitive and intransitive, e.g. perhaps לָבֵשׁ‎ to be clothed along with לָבַשׁ‎ to put on (a garment). Finally the analogy of certain transitives in constant use may have led to intransitives of kindred meaning being also united directly with the accusative, so that, in other words, whole classes of verbs came to be regarded in a particular aspect as transitives. See below, y. 2. The modification of the original meaning becomes especially evident when even reflexive conjugations (Niphʿal, Hithpaʿēl, &c.) take an accusative (cf. § 57, note 2); e.g. נִבָּא‎ to prophesy, Jeremiah 25:13; נָסַב‎ (prop. to put oneself round) to surround, Judges 19:22; נִלְחַם‎ to fight, Psalms 109:3 (where, however, the Qal וַיִּלְחֲמ֫וּנִי‎ should be read; cf. Psalms 35:1); also הִתְגַּלַּח‎ to shave (something) for oneself, Num 6:19; הִתְנַחֵל‎ to take some one for oneself as a possession, Isaiah 14:2; הִתְנַכֵּל‎ to make some one an object of craft, Genesis 37:18; הִתְנַצֵּל‎ to strip a thing off oneself, Exodus 33:6; הִתְעַבֵּר‎ to bring on oneself the anger of any one, to anger him; הִתְבּוֹנֵן‎ to consider something, Job 37:14; הִתְפָּרֵק‎ to break something off from oneself, Exodus 32:3. In Genesis 34:9 after הִתְחַתְּנוּ‎ make ye marriages, read אִתָּ֫נוּ‎ instead of אֹתָ֫נוּ‎. Cf. §54f.

3. So also it is only owing to a modification of the original meaning of a verb (except where the expression is incorrect, and perhaps derived from the popular language), when sometimes the remoter object (otherwise introduced by לְ‎) is directly subordinated in the form of an accusative suffix, e.g. Zechariah 7:5 הֲצוֹם צַמְתֻּ֫נִי אָ֫נִי‎ did ye fast at all unto me, even to me? as though to say, have ye be-fasted me? have ye reached me with your fasting? Still more strange is Job 31:18 גְּדֵלַ֫נִי כְאָב‎ he (the orphan) grew up to me as to a father; cf. Isaiah 27:4, Isaiah 65:5, Jeremiah 31:3, and in Aramaic Daniel 5:6; but אֶ֫רֶץ הַנֶּ֫גְב נְתַתָּ֫נִי‎ Joshua 15:19 is to be regarded as a double accusative after a verb of giving, see ff. In 1 Samuel 2:25 read וּפִלְלוּ‎ for וּפִלְלוֹ‎; in Isaiah 44:21, instead of the Niphʿal, read תִּנְשֵׁ֫נִי‎; in Ezekiel 29:3 either עֲשִׂיתִיו‎ is to be read with Olshausen or עֲשִׂיתִים‎ (and previously יְאֹרָי‎) with Smend; in Psalms 42:5 אֶדַּדֶּה‎ or אֲדַדֵּם‎; in Psalms 55:23 (where König takes יְהָֽבְךָ‎ as he has given it to thee) we must certainly assume a substantive יְהָב‎ (= fate?).

4. Whole classes of verbs, which, according to v above, are regarded as transitive, either on account of their original meaning or (for the sake of analogy) by a modification of that meaning, are—

(a) Verba induendi and exuendi, as לָבַשׁ‎ to put on, פָּשַׁט‎ to put off a garment, עָדָה‎ to put on ornaments, to adorn oneself with (cf. also מְשֻׁבָּצִים זָהָב‎ enclosed in gold, Exodus 28:20). Also in poetic expressions such as Psalms 65:14 לָֽבְשׁוּ כָּרִים הַצֹּאן‎ the pastures are clothed with flocks, cf. Psalms 109:29; 104:2 (עָטָה‎); 65:14b (עָטַף‎), &c.[16]

(b) Verba copiae and inopiae (also called verba abundandi and deficiendi), as מָלֵא‎, to be full of something, Exodus 8:17; here, and also frequently elsewhere, construed with אֶת־‎, and hence evidently with an accusative; Genesis 6:13; with a personal object, Exodus 15:9; with an accusative preceding the verb for the sake of emphasis, e.g. Isaiah 1:15 your hands דָּמִים מָלֵ֫אוּ‎ are full of blood, cf. Isaiah 22:2; so also the Niph. נִמְלָא‎ to fill oneself with something, e.g. Genesis 6:11, Exodus 1:7 (where the object is connected by את‎); Isaiah 2:7 f., 6:4, Proverbs 3:10; נִזְרַע‎ to be fructified with, Numbers 5:28; שָׁרַץ‎ to swarm with, Genesis 1:20, 21 Exodus 7:28; (שָׂבֵעַ) שָׂבַע‎ to be full of, Isaiah 1:11, Joel 2:19, Proverbs 12:11; גָּבַר‎ to become strong, to wax mighty in something, Job 21:7; פָּרַץ‎ to overflow with something, Proverbs 3:10 (with the object preceding); יָרַד‎ prop. to descend, poetically also to pour down, to overflow with something (cf. in Greek προρέειν ὕδωρ, δάκρυα στάζειν), e.g. Lamentations 3:48 פַּלְגֵי מַ֫יִם תֵּרַד עֵינִי‎ mine eye runneth down (with) rivers of water; 1:16, Jeremiah 9:17, Jeremiah 13:17, Psalms 119:136; so also הָלַךְ‎ to run over with, to flow with, Joel 4:18; נָזַל‎ to gush out with, Jeremiah 9:17; נָטַף‎ to drop, to overflow with, Judges 5:4, Joel 4:18a; פָּרַח‎ to break forth, Exodus 9:9; שָׁטַף‎ to overflow, but also (transitively) to overflow with, probably in Isaiah 10:22; נוּב‎ to bud with, Proverbs 10:31; so perhaps also עָבַר‎ to pass over, to overflow with, Jeremiah 5:28; יָצָא‎ to go forth with, Amos 5:3.—Especially bold, but still on the analogy of the above examples, is Isaiah 5:6, where it is said of a vineyard וְעָלָה שָׁמִיר וָשָׁ֫יִת‎ but it shall come up (it shall be overgrown) with briers and thorns; cf. Proverbs 24:31, and still more boldly, Isaiah 34:13.

With the opposite idea, חָסֵר‎ to be in want of, to lack, Genesis 18:28; שָׁכֹל‎ to be bereaved of (as though it were to lose), Genesis 27:45.—In Joshua 22:17 even הַמְעַט־לָ֫נוּ‎ (prop. was there too little for us of ...?) as being equivalent to a verbum inopiae (= had we too little of ...?) is construed with an accusative; cf. Nehemiah 9:32.

(c) Several verbs of dwelling; the accusative in this case expresses either the place or the thing at which or with which any one tarries; thus Genesis 4:20, Psalms 22:4 after יָשַׁב‎, cf. §118g; Judges 5:17, Isaiah 33:14 after גּוּר‎; Psalms 57:5 after שָׁכַב‎; Psalms 68:7, Proverbs 8:12, Isaiah 33:16 with שָׁכַן‎; or even the person (the people) with whom any one dwells or is a guest, as Psalms 5:5, Psalms 120:5 after גּוּר‎, Genesis 30:20 after זָבַל‎, Psalms 68:19 with שָׁכַן‎.

5. Two accusatives (usually one of the person and one of the thing) are governed by—

(a) The causative conjugations (Piʿēl, Hiphʿîl, sometimes also Pilpel, e.g. כִּלְכֵּל‎ Genesis 47:12, &c.) of verbs which are simply transitive in Qal, and hence also of verba induendi and exuendi, &c. (cf. above a and u, and also y, z), e.g. Exodus 33:18 הַרְאֵ֫נִי נָא אֶת־כְּבֹדֶ֫ךָ‎ show me, I pray thee, thy glory. Thus very frequently הוֹדִיעַ‎ to cause some one to know something; לִמַּד‎ docere aliquem aliquid, &c.; cf. further, Genesis 41:42 וַיַּלְבֵּשׁ אֹתוֹ בִגְדֵי־שֵׁשׁ‎ and he caused him to put on vestures of fine linen (he arrayed him in vestures, &c.); cf. in the opposite sense, Genesis 37:23 (both accusatives after הִפְשִׁיט‎ introduced by אֶת‎); so with מִלֵּא‎ to fill, to fill up with something, Genesis 21:19, Genesis 26:15, Exodus 28:3; אִזֵּר‎ to gird some one with something, Psalms 18:33; עִטֵּר‎ to crown, Psalms 8:6, &c.; חִסֵּר‎ to cause some one to lack something, Psalms 8:6; הֶֽאֱכִיל‎ to feed some one with something, Exodus 16:32; הִשְׁקָה‎ to make some one drink something, Genesis 19:32 ff.

(b) Many verbs (even in Qal) which express an influence upon the object through some external means. The latter, in this case, is attached as a second object. They are especially—

(α) Verbs which express covering, clothing, overlaying, חָגַר‎ Exodus 29:9, צִפָּה‎ Exodus 26:29, &c., טוּחַ‎ Ezekiel 13:10 ff., עָטַר‎ Psalms 5:13; cf. also רָגַם אֶבֶן‎ Joshua 7:25, &c.; hence also verbs which express sowing (זָרַע‎ Judges 9:45 Isaiah 17:10 30:23), planting (Isaiah 5:2), anointing (Psalms 45:8) with anything.

(β) Expressions of giving, thus נָתַן‎ Joshua 15:19 where the accusative of the thing precedes; endowing, זָבַד‎ Genesis 30:20; and its opposite taking away, as קָבַע‎ Proverbs 22:23; בֵּרַךְ‎ to bless some one with something, Genesis 49:25, Deuteronomy 15:14; to give graciously, חָנַן‎ Genesis 33:5; to sustain (i.e. to support, to maintain, to furnish) with anything, e.g. Genesis 27:37, Psalms 51:14 (סָמַךְ‎); Judges 19:5 (סָעַד‎); to do something to one, גָּמַל‎ Genesis 50:15, 17, 1 Samuel 24:18; cf. also קִדֵּם‎ to come to meet any one with something, Psalms 21:4, שִׁלַּם‎ to repay some one with something (with two accusatives, Psalms 35:12, Proverbs 13:21), and for the accusative of the person cf. εὖ, κακῶς πράττειν τινά. In a wider sense we may also include such phrases as they hunt every man his brother with a net, Micah 7:2; to shoot at one with arrows, Psalms 64:8 (though this is against the accents); Proverbs 13:24 (with) discipline, i.e. chastises him betimes, &c.

(γ) Expressions of asking some one for something, desiring something from some one (שָׁאַל‎ Deuteronomy 14:26, Psalms 137:3); answering any one anything (עָנָה‎ Micah 6:5, &c.; cf. in the other conjugations הֵשִׁיב דָּבָר‎ prop. verbum reddere, with an accusative of the person, 1 Kings 12:6, &c., also in the sense of announcing; sometimes also הִגִּיד‎ to declare something to some one, Job 26:4, &c., for הִגִּיד לְ‎); צִוָּה‎ to enjoin a person something, Exodus 34:32, Deuteronomy 1:18, Deuteronomy 32:46, Jeremiah 7:23.

(δ) Expressions which mean to make, to form, to build something out of something; in such cases, besides the accusative of the object proper, another accusative is used for the material of which the thing is made, e.g. Genesis 2:7 וַיִּ֫יצֶר יְהֹוָה אֱלהִֹים אֶת־הָֽאָדָם עָפָר מִן־הָֽאֲדָמָה‎ and the Lord formed man of the dust of the ground; so with יָצַר‎ also in 1 Kings 7:15; further Exodus 38:3 כָּל־כֵּלָיו עָשָׂה נְח֫שֶׁת‎ all the vessels thereof made he of brass (for another explanation of the accusative נְח֫שֶׁת‎ [into brass], linguistically possible but excluded by the context, see below, ii with kk); cf. Exodus 25:18, 28, 26:1, 14 f.29, 27:1, 36:8, 1 Kings 7:27; with a preceding accusative of the material, Exodus 25:29, Exodus 29:2, Deuteronomy 27:6 אֲבָנִים שְׁלֵמוֹת תִּבְנֶה אֶת־מִזֳבַּח יְהֹוָה‎ of unhewn stones shalt thou build the altar of the Lord.

(c) Verbs which express making, preparing, forming into anything, along with the object proper, take a second accusative of the product, e.g. Genesis 27:9 אֶֽעֱשֶׂה אֹתָם מַטְעַמִּים‎ I will make them (the kids) into savoury meat; cf. Genesis 6:14, 16, Ex 261 b, 30:25, 32:4, Isaiah 44:15, Hosea 8:4, 1 Kings 18:32 אֶת־הָֽאֲבָנִים מִזְבֵּחַ וַיִּבְנֶה‎ and he built the stones (into) an altar; cf. 10:12. So also אָפָה‎, with two accusatives, to bake something into something, Exodus 12:39, Leviticus 24:5; שִׂים‎ (prop. to set up for something, cf. Genesis 27:37, Genesis 28:18, Psalms 39:9, and similarly הֵרִים‎ Genesis 31:45) to change into something, Joshua 8:28, Isaiah 50:2, Isaiah 51:10, Micah 1:7, Micah 4:13; with two accusatives of the person (to appoint, promote any one to the position of a...), Isaiah 3:7; נָתַן‎ is also used in the same sense with two accusatives, Genesis 17:5, and שִׁית‎ 1 Kings 11:34; as a rule, however, the description of the office, and also frequently of the product, is introduced by לְ‎ to, §119t; also שִׁית‎ to make a thing so and so (Isaiah 5:6, Isaiah 26:1; with a personal object, Psalms 21:7,[17] 91:9); הֶחְשִׁיךְ‎ to make dark, Amos 5:8. Of the same class also are instances like Job 28:2 אֶ֫בֶן יָצוּק נְחוּשָׁה‎ a stone they smelt into brass; 1 Kings 11:30 וַיִּקְרָעֶ֫הָ שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר קְרָעִים‎ and rent it (the garment) into twelve pieces; cf. Isaiah 37:26, accusative of the product before the object proper, after לְהַשְׁאוֹת‎ to lay waste. On a second object with verba sentiendi (as יָדַע‎ to know something to be something, Ecclesiastes 7:25; רָאָה‎ to see, find to be, Genesis 7:1; חָשַׁב‎ to esteem one to be something, Isaiah 53:4, elsewhere always construed with לְ‎ or כְּ‍‎), cf. h.

Rem. At first sight some of the examples given above appear to be identical in character with those treated under hh; thus it is possible, e.g. in 1 Kings 18:32, by a translation which equally suits the sense, he built from the stones an altar, to explain מִזְבֵּחַ‎ as the nearer object and אֶת־הָֽאֲבָנִים‎ as an accusative of the material, and the construction would then be exactly the same as in Deuteronomy 27:6. In reality, however, the fundamental idea is by no means the same. Not that in the living language an accusative of the material in the one case, and in the other an accusative of the product were consciously distinguished. As Driver (Tenses, § 195) rightly observes, the remoter accusative in both cases is, strictly speaking, in apposition to the nearer. This is especially evident in such examples as Exodus 20:25 (the stones of the altar) גָּזִית‎ as hewn stones, cf. also Genesis 1:27. The main point is, which of the two accusatives, as being primarily affected (or aimed at) by the action, is to be made the more prominent; and on this point neither the position of the words (the nearer object, mostly determinate, as a rule follows immediately after the verb), nor even the context admits of much doubt. Thus in 1 Kings 18:32 the treatment of the stones is the primary object in view, the erection of the altar for which they were intended is the secondary; in Deuteronomy 27:6 the case is reversed.

(d) Finally, the second accusative sometimes more closely determines the nearer object by indicating the part or member specially affected by the action,[18] e.g. Psalms 3:8 for thou hast smitten all mine enemies לֶ֫תִי‎ (as to) the cheek bone, equivalent to upon the cheek bone; cf. Genesis 37:21 נֶ֫פֶשׁ‎ in the life, i.e. let us not kill him; Deuteronomy 22:26, 2 Samuel 3:27; also with שׁוּף‎ Genesis 3:15; with רָעָה‎ Jeremiah 2:16; in poetry the object specially concerned is, by a bold construction, even placed first, Deuteronomy 33:11 (with מָחַץ‎).

  1. The verb in question may either have been originally transitive, or only have become transitive by a modification of its original meaning. Thus the vocalization shows that חָפֵץ‎ (to have pleasure, usually with בְּ‎) to desire, מָלֵא‎ (to be full of something, also transitive) to fill, were originally intransitive. Cf. also such cases as בָּכָה‎ to weep (generally with עַל־‎, אֶל־‎ or לְ‎), but also to bewail with an accusative; יָשַׁב‎ to dwell (usually with בְּ‎), but also to inhabit with an accusative (cf. further, under u).—The examples are different in which verbs of motion such as בּוֹא‎ intrare, also aggredi, יָצָֹא‎ egredi (cf. §116h above), שׁוּב‎ redire, Isaiah 52:8, take an accusative of the aim of the motion, while בּוֹא‎ according to the Old Semitic usage, even takes an accusative of the person (at least in poetry, equivalent to בּוֹא אֶל־‎ in prose).
  2. On traces of these endings, especially the remains of a former accusative ending in a, cf. §90c.
  3. אֶת־‎ (toneless owing to the following Maqqeph), and אֵת‎ (with a tone-long ē, אֵֽת־‎ only in Job 41:26), אֹת‎ or אוֹת‎ before the light suffixes (on all these forms cf. §103b: the underlying form āth was obscured in Hebrew to ôth, shortened to ăth before suffixes beginning with a consonant and then modified to אֶת־‎, whence finally the secondary form אֵת‎ with the tone), Phoenician אית‎ i.e. probably iyyāth (for the Phoenician form, cf. G. Hoffmann, Einige phönik. Inschriften, Göttingen, 1889, p. 39 f.), Punic yth or (according to Euting) pronounced even as a mere prefixed t, Arabic, before suffixes, ’iyyâ, Aram. יָת‎, יַת‎. It was no doubt originally a substantive, meaning essence, substance, self (like the Syriac yāth; on the other hand, any connexion with the Hebrew אוֹת‎, Syriac ’āiā, Arabic ’āyat, a sign, must, with Nöldeke, ZDMG. xl. 738, be rejected), but now united in the construct state with a following noun or suffix stands for the pronoun ipse, αὐτός. In common use, however (cf. Wilson, ‘The particle את‎ in Hebrew,’ Hebraica, vi. 2, 3, and the precise statistics of the use of את‎ on p. 140 ff.), it has so little force (like the oblique cases αὐτοῦ, αὐτῷ, αὐτόν, sometimes also ipsius, ipsum, and the Germ. desselben, &c.) that it merely serves to introduce a determinate object; אֵת הַשָּׁמַ֫יִם‎ prop. αὐτὸν τὸν οὐρανόν (cf. αὐτὴν Χρυσηΐδα, Iliad i. 143) is no stronger than the simple הַשָּׁמַ֫יִם‎ τὸν οὐρανόν. Cf., further, P. Haupt on Proverbs 18:24 in his Rainbow Bible, and also in the Notes on Esther, p. 191.
  4. Thus, in Dt 33, את‎ occurs only in verse 9 (twice, with an object preceding the verb), in Gn 49 in the blessing of Jacob only in verse 15 with a co-ordinate second object (consequently farther removed from the verb). Of the thirteen instances of את‎ in the Mêša‛ inscription, seven stand directly and four indirectly before proper names.
  5. According to the ordinary rules of syntax (cf. §116t) we should translate, I heard men who said, &c.
  6. Cf. Weiss, משפט לשון המשנה‎ (Vienna, 1867), p. 112.
  7. So also in 1 Samuel 20:13 the Qal (יִיטַב‎) is, with Wellhausen, to be read instead of the Hiphʿîl.
  8. Thus 1 Samuel 26:16, where וְאֵי‎ is to be read for וְאֶת‎; 1 Kings 11:25, where at present the predicate of the relative clause is wanting; in 2 Kings 6:5 the את‎ is probably derived from a text which read the Hiphʿîl instead of נָפַל‎. In Jeremiah 23:33 instead of the artificial explanation what a burden (is, do ye ask?) we should read with the LXX and Vulg. אַתֶּם הַמַּשָּׂא‎ ye are the burden. In Ezekiel 10:22 מַרְאֵיהֶם וְאוֹתָם‎ is unintelligible; in 37:19 read with Hitzig אֶל־‎ for את‎; in Haggai 2:17 for אתכם‎ read with the LXX שֻֽׁבְכֶם‎ [or אֵינְכֶם‎; for the אֶל‎ cf. 2 Kings 6:11, Jeremiah 15:1, Ezekiel 36:9].
  9. Dillmann, Grammatik der äthiopischen Sprache, p. 349.
  10. With regard to Biblical Aramaic, see Kautzsch’s Grammatik des Bibl.-Aram., p. 151 f. In other ways, also, a tendency may be observed in later Hebrew to make use of the looser connexion by means of prepositions instead of the closer subordination of the noun in the accusative.
  11. On a kindred use of the infinitive absolute as an internal object, see above, §113w.
  12. Cf. βουλὰς βουλεύειν, Iliad x. 147.
  13. The Arab grammarians assign to the indeterminate eases generally an intensive sense in many instances; hence the commentators on the Qorân usually explain such cases by adding and what ...! see §125b.
  14. Also in Psalms 13:4 lest I sleep the sleep of death, הַמָּ֫וֶת‎ is only used pregnantly for שְׁנַת הַמָּ֫וֶת‎ (cf. Jeremiah 51:39), as צְדָקוֹת‎ Isaiah 33:15 for דֶּ֫רֶךְ צְדָקוֹת‎. On the similar use of הֹלֵךְ תָּמִים‎ in Psalms 15:2, see §118n.
  15. Thus e.g. עָנָה‎ to reply to (ἀμείβεσθαί τινα), to answer any one; צִוָּה‎ to command (iubere aliquem); זָכַר‎ to remember; קִוָּה‎ (also with לְ‎) to wait for any one (to expect any one); בִּשַֹׂר‎ to bring glad tidings to any one (see the Lexicon); נָאַף‎ and נִאֵף‎ to commit adultery (adulterare matronam); עָבַד‎ to serve (colere); עָרַב‎ to become surety for ..., and many others.
  16. From the idea of covering oneself with something, we might also, if necessary, explain Exodus 30:20 יִרְחֲצוּ מַיִם‎ they shall wash themselves with water; but the reading is simply to be emended to the ordinary בַּמַּיִם‎.
  17. Cf. a very pregnant expression of this kind in Psalms 21:13 כִּי תְשִׁיתֵ֫מוֹ שֶׁ֫כֶם‎ for thou shalt make them (as) a neck, i.e. thou shalt cause them to turn their necks (backs) to me; similarly Psalms 18:41 (2 Samuel 22:41, Exodus 23:27); אֹֽיְבַי נָתַ֫תָּה לִּי עֹרֶף‎ thou hast given mine enemies unto me as a back; cf. Jeremiah 18:17.
  18. Analogous to this is the σχῆμα καθ᾽ ὅλον καὶ κατὰ μέρος in Greek epic poetry, e.g. ποῖόν σε ἔπος φύγε ἕρκος ὀδόντων.
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