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Bible Lexicons

Gesenius Hebrew Grammer

Part 126

§126. Determination by Means of the Article.

1. The article (הַ·‎, הָ‎, הֶ‎, § 35) was originally, as in other languages (clearly in the Romance; cf. also ὁ, ἡ, τό in Homer), a demonstrative pronoun. The demonstrative force of the article, apart from its occasional use as a relative pronoun (see §138i), appears now, however, only (a) in a few standing phrases, and (b) in a certain class of statements or exclamations.

(a) Cf. חַיּוֹם‎ this day, hodie (§100c.); הַלַּ֫יְלָה‎ this night, Genesis 19:34; הַפַּ֫עַם‎ this time, Genesis 2:23; הַשָּׁנָה‎ this year (= in this year) Isaiah 37:30, Jeremiah 28:16.

(b) includes those instances in which the article, mostly when prefixed to a participle, joins on a new statement concerning a preceding noun. Although such participles, &c., are no doubt primarily regarded always as in apposition to a preceding substantive, the article nevertheless has in some of these examples almost the force of הוּא‎ (הִיא‎, הֵ֫מָּה‎) as the subject of a noun-clause; e.g. Psalms 19:10 the judgements of the Lord are true..., verse 11 הַנֶּֽחֱמָדִים וג׳‎ prop. the more to be desired than gold, i.e. they are more to be desired, or even they, that are more to be desired,[1] &c.; cf. Genesis 49:21, Isaiah 40:22 f., 44:27 f., 46:6, Amos 2:7, Amos 5:7, Psalms 33:15, Psalms 49:7 (הַבֹּֽטְחִים‎ in the parallel half of the verse continued by a finite verb); Psalms 104:3, Job 6:16, Job 28:4, Job 30:3, Job 41:25 and frequently. When such a participle has another co-ordinate with it, the latter is used without the article, since according to the above it strictly speaking represents a second predicate, and as such, according to i, remains indeterminate; e.g. Job 5:10 who giveth (הַנֹּתֵן‎) rain, &c. and sendeth וְשֹׁלֵחַ‎ &c.

The article is sometimes used with similar emphasis before a substantive, which serves as the subject of a compound sentence (§140d); e.g. Deuteronomy 32:4 הַצּוּר תָּמִים פָּֽעֳלוֹ‎ i.e. as a fresh statement (not in apposition to the preceding dative), really equivalent to he is a rock, perfect in his work (i.e. whose work is perfect); cf. Psalms 18:31.

2. The article is, generally speaking, employed to determine a substantive wherever it is required by Greek and English; thus:

(a) When a person or thing already spoken of is mentioned again, and is consequently more definite to the mind of the hearer or reader; e.g. Genesis 1:3 and God said, Let there be light: verse 4 and God saw the light (אֶת־הָאוֹר‎); 1 Kings 3:24 fetch me a sword: and they brought the sword; Ecclesiastes 9:15. (In 2 Samuel 12:2 therefore לֶֽעָשִׁיר‎ must be read.) (b) With a title understood and recognized by every one, e.g. הַמֶּ֫לֶךְ שְׁלֹמהֹ‎ ὁ βασιλεὺς Σαλωμών: Genesis 35:8 under the oak (the well-known oak which was there).

(c) With appellatives to denote persons or natural objects which are unique, e.g. הַכֹּהֵן הַגָּדוֹל‎ the high priest, הַשֶּׁ֫מֶשׁ‎ the sun, הָאָ֫רֶץ‎ the earth.

(d) When terms applying to whole classes are restricted (simply by usage) to particular individuals (like ὁ ποιητής, meaning Homer) or things, e.g. שָׂטָן‎ adversary, הַשָּׂטָן‎ the adversary, Satan; בַּ֫עַל‎ lord, הַבַּ֫עַל‎ Baal as proper name of the god; הָֽאָדָם‎ the (first) man, Adam; הָאֱלֹהִים‎[2] or הָאֵל‎ ὁ θεός, the one true God (cf. also ὁ Χριστός in the New Testament); also הַנָּהָר‎ the river, i.e. Euphrates; הַכִּכָּר‎ the circle, sc. of the Jordan, the Jordan plain [Genesis 19:17, &c.].

(e) Very often with the vocative, e.g. 2 Samuel 14:4 הוֹשִׁ֫עָה הַמֶּ֫לֶךְ‎ help, O king; Zechariah 3:8 יְהוֹשֻׁעַ הַכֹּהֵן הַגָּדוֹל‎ O Joshua the high priest; 1 Samuel 17:58, 1 Samuel 24:9, 2 Kings 9:5; in the plural, Isaiah 42:18, Joel 1:2, 13; but cf. also Joshua 10:12, Isaiah 1:2, Isaiah 49:13 (שָׁמַ֫יִם‎ and אֶ֫רֶץ‎); 23:16, Hosea 13:14, Joel 1:5, Psalms 34:12, Ecclesiastes 10:17, Ecclesiastes 11:9, &c.[3] The vocative occurs without the article in Isaiah 22:2, since it has been already defined by a preceding accusative.

Rem. Strictly speaking in all these cases the substantive with the article is really in apposition to the personal pronoun of the 2nd person, which is either expressly mentioned or virtually present (in the imperative), e.g. 1 Samuel 17:58 thou, the young man. But such passages as Isaiah 42:18, where the vocative precedes the imperative, prove that in such cases the substantive originally in apposition eventually acquired the value of a complete clause.

(f) With words denoting classes (see particulars under l).

(g) In a peculiar way, to specify persons or things, which are so far definite as to be naturally thought of in connexion with a given case, and must be assumed accordingly to be there (see q–s).

(h) With adjectives (also ordinal numbers and demonstrative pronouns used adjectivally) which are joined to substantives determined in some way (see u).

Rem. The article may be omitted in poetry in all the above-mentioned cases; in general it is used in poetry far less frequently than in prose. Its use or omission probably often rests on rhythmical grounds;[4] it is sometimes omitted also for rhetorical reasons. Cf. e.g. אֶ֫רֶץ‎ for הָאָ֫רֶץ‎ Psalms 2:2; מְלָכִים‎ as vocative, verse 10; מֶ֫לֶךְ‎ for הַמֶּ֫לֶךְ‎ 21:2; שִׁמְךָ גָּדוֹל וְנוֹרָא‎ (contrary to u, v) 99:3. In the instances in which the ה‎ of the article is omitted after a prefix (§35n), the vowel of the article is often retained after the prefix even in poetry, e.g. בַּשָּׁמַ֫יִם‎ Psalms 2:4, &c. (i) On the other hand, the article is always omitted when a person or thing is to be represented as indefinite (or indefinable) or as yet unknown; consequently also before the predicate, since this is from its nature always a general term, under which the subject is included, e.g. Genesis 29:7 עוֹד הַיּוֹם גָּדוֹל‎ as yet the day is great, i.e. it is yet high day; 33:13, 40:18, 41:26, Isaiah 66:3.

Rem. 1. As exceptions to the above rule it is usual to regard those examples in which a determinate adjective or participle (equivalent to a relative clause) is used apparently as a predicate, e.g. Genesis 2:11 הוּא הַסֹּבֵב‎ it is the compassing, i.e. that is it which compasseth; 42:6, 45:12, Exodus 9:27, Deuteronomy 3:21, Deuteronomy 8:18, Deuteronomy 11:7, 1 Samuel 4:16, Isaiah 14:27, Malachi 3:2 (cf. in Greek, e.g. St. Mat. 10:20, where Winer, Gram. des neutest. Sprachidioms, § 58, 2, Rem., explains οἱ λαλοῦντες as a predicate with the article). In reality, however, these supposed predicates are rather subjects (acc. to §116q), and the only peculiarity of these cases is that the subject is not included under a general idea, but is equated with the predicate.

2. Sometimes the article is used with only one of two parallel words, as Nahum 1:5 חָרִים‎ and הַגְּבָעוֹת‎, 2 Chronicles 3:17 מִיָּמִין‎ and מֵֽהַשְּׂמֹאול‎.

3. The use of the article to determine the class is more extensive in Hebrew than in most other languages. In this case the article indicates universally known, closely circumscribed, and therefore well defined classes of persons or things. The special cases to be considered are—

(a) The employment of general names as collectives in the singular, to denote the sum total of individuals belonging to the class (which may, however, be done just as well by the plural); e.g. the righteous, the wicked man, Ecclesiastes 3:17; the woman, i.e. the female sex, 7:26; הָֽאֹיֵב‎ the enemy, i.e. the enemies (?) Psalms 9:7; הָֽאֹרֵב‎ the liers in wait, i.e. the liers in wait; הֶֽחָלוּץ‎ the armed man, i.e. soldiers; הַֽמְאַסֵּף‎ the rearguard; הַמַּשְׁחִית‎ the spoiler, 1 Samuel 13:17;[5] so also (as in English) with names of animals, when something is asserted of them, which applies to the whole species, e.g. 2 Samuel 17:10 as the courage of הָֽאַרְיֵה‎ the lion. Especially also with gentilic names, e.g. the Canaanite, Genesis 13:7 (cf.15:19 f.); so in English the Russian, the Turk, &c., in Attic writers ὁ Ἀθηναῖος, ὁ Συρακόσιος, &c.

(b) Names of materials known everywhere, the elements and other words denoting classes, even though only a part and not the whole of them is considered, in which case in other languages, as e.g. in English, the article is usually omitted (cf., however, our to fall into the water, into the fire, &c.), e.g. Genesis 13:2 and Abram was very rich בַּמִּקְנֶה בַּבֶּסֶף וּבַוָּהָב‎ in cattle, in silver and in gold; Joshua 11:9 and he burnt their chariots בָּאֵשׁ‎ with fire; cf. Genesis 6:14, Genesis 41:42 (unless this means, the chain necessarily belonging to the official dress); Exodus 2:3, Exodus 3:14 (35:32), Isaiah 1:22, &c, and בַּשָּׁמֶן‎ with oil[6] very commonly in the sacrificial laws, Exodus 29:2, &c., and also Deuteronomy 33:24, 2 Samuel 1:21, Isaiah 1:6, Psalms 23:5, &c. Similarly the article is used with terms of measurement, as הָֽאֵפָה‎ Exodus 16:36, &c.: הַחֹמֶר‎ and הַבַּת‎ Ezekiel 45:11; הָעֹ֫מֶר‎ Exodus 16:22; בַּחֶ֫בֶל‎ 2 Samuel 8:2.

(c) The expression of abstract ideas of every kind, since they are likewise used to represent whole classes of attributes or states, physical or moral defects, &c.; e.g. Proverbs 25:5 (בַּצֶּ֫דֶק‎); Genesis 19:11 and they smote the men... בַּסַּנְוֵרִים‎ with blindness; Amos 4:9, &c.; but in הַח֫שֶׁךְ‎ Isaiah 60:2 the article is no doubt due to dittography of the ה‎, and the parallel וַֽעֲרָפֶל‎ has no article.

(d) Comparisons, since the object compared is treated not (as usually in English) individually but as a general term, e.g. Isaiah 1:18 white כַּשֶּׁ֫לֶג‎ as snow, כַּצֶּ֫מֶר‎ as wool; red כַּתּוֹלָע‎ like crimson; Isaiah 34:4 and the heavens shall be rolled together כַּסֵּפֶר‎ as a scroll; cf. Numbers 11:12, Judges 8:18, Judges 16:9 as פְּתִיל־הַנְּעֹרֶת‎ a string of tow is broken; 1 Samuel 26:20, 1 Kings 14:15, Isaiah 10:14, Isaiah 24:20, Isaiah 27:10, Isaiah 29:8, Isaiah 53:6, Nahum 3:15, Psalms 33:7, Psalms 49:15; cf. also such examples as Genesis 19:28, Judges 14:6, where the object compared is determined by a determinate genitive which follows (according to §127a).

Examples of indeterminate comparisons are rare, and perhaps due only to the Masora,—so at least in the case of singulars, while in such plurals as those in Genesis 42:30, 1 Kings 10:27, Joel 2:4, 7, the omission of the article may be explained by the ordinary rules. On the other hand, the article is regularly omitted when the object compared is already defined by means of an attribute (or relative clause, Jeremiah 23:9, Psalms 17:12), e.g. Isaiah 16:2 כְּעוֹף נוֹדֵד קֵן מְשֻׁלָּח‎ as wandering birds, (as) a scattered nest (but cf. 10:14 כַּקֵּן‎); 14:19, 29:5 כְּמֹץ עֹבֵר‎ (but Psalms 1:4 כַּמֹּץ‎); Jeremiah 2:30, Proverbs 27:8, Job 29:25, Job 30:14.—In comparisons with persons also the Masora seems to avoid the use of the article, as in כְּגִבּוֹר‎ Job 16:14 and seven other places (כַּגִּכּוֹר‎ only in Isaiah 42:13), כְּאָב‎ Job 31:18, כְּגֶ֫בֶר‎ Job 38:3, Job 40:7.

4. Peculiar to Hebrew[7] is the employment of the article to denote a single person or thing (primarily one which is as yet unknown, and therefore not capable of being defined) as being present to the mind under given circumstances. In such cases in English the indefinite article is mostly used.

Thus Amos 5:19 as if a man did flee from a lion (הָֽאֲרִי‎, i.e. the particular lion pursuing him at the time), and a bear (הַדֹּב‎) met him, &c., cf. 3:12, 1 Kings 20:36 (John 10:12); also Genesis 8:7 f., 14:13 (הַפָּלִיט‎, i.e. one that had escaped, the particular one who came just then; so also Ezekiel 24:26, Ezekiel 33:21; cf. 2 Samuel 15:13); Genesis 15:1, 11 18:7 the servant, who is regarded as being constantly at hand and awaiting his commands; cf. 2 Samuel 17:17 (but הַנַּ֫עַר‎ Numbers 11:27 is used like הַפָּלִיט‎ above); Genesis 19:30, unless בַּמְּעָרָה‎ means in the well-known cave; בַּמָּקוֹם‎ Genesis 28:11, according to Dillmann, upon the place suitable for passing the night, or the right place, but it may possibly also refer to the sanctuary of Bethel afterwards so sacred and celebrated; Genesis 42:23, Genesis 46:2, Genesis 50:26, Exodus 2:15, Exodus 3:2, Exodus 4:20, Exodus 21:20 (2 Samuel 23:21), Leviticus 23:42, Leviticus 24:10 (Samaritan יִשְׂרְאֵלִי‎ without the article); Numbers 17:11, Numbers 21:6, 9, 25:6, Deuteronomy 19:5, Joshua 2:15, Judges 4:18, Judges 8:25, Judges 13:19, Judges 16:19, Judges 19:29, Judges 20:16, 1 Samuel 17:34, 1 Samuel 19:13, 1 Samuel 21:10, 2 Samuel 17:17, 1 Kings 6:8, 1 Kings 13:14 (? most probably a particular tree is meant); 19:9, Isaiah 7:14 (הָֽעַלְמָה‎, i.e. the particular maiden, through whom the prophet’s announcement shall be fulfilled; we should say a maiden [cf. Driver on 1 Samuel 1:4, 1 Samuel 6:8, 1 Samuel 19:13]; Job 9:31.

So always to write in the book (or on the scroll, Numbers 5:23, Jeremiah 32:10), i.e. not in the book already in use, but in the book which is to be devoted to that purpose, equivalent to in a book, on a scroll, Exodus 17:14, 1 Samuel 10:25, Job 19:23. Especially instructive for this use of the article is the phrase וַיְהִי הַיּוֹם‎, which does not simply refer back to the previous narrative in the sense of the same day, but is used exactly like our one day (properly meaning on the particular day when it happened, i.e. on a certain day), 1 Samuel 1:4, 1 Samuel 14:1, 2 Kings 4:8, 2 Kings 11:18, Job 1:6, 13. In Genesis 39:11 even כְּהַיּוֹם הַזֶּה‎.

The article is sometimes used in this way before collectives in the singular, which are not meant to denote (like the examples given under l) a whole class, but only that part of it which applies to the given case; thus הָֽעֹרֵב‎, הַיּוֹנָה‎ Genesis 8:7, הַצִּרְעָה‎ Exodus 23:28.

5. When a substantive is defined by the article, or by a suffix, or by a following genitive determinate in any way (see the examples below), the attribute belonging to it (whether adjective, participle, ordinal, or demonstrative pronoun) necessarily takes the article (see, however, the Rem.), e.g. Genesis 10:12 הָעִיר הַגְּדֹלָה‎ the great city; Deuteronomy 3:24 יָֽדְךָ הַֽחֲזָקָה‎ thy strong hand. A genitive following the substantive may, according to §127a, be determined either by the article, e.g. 1 Samuel 25:25 אִישׁ הַבְּלִיַּעַל הַוֶּה‎ this worthless man (prop. man of worthlessness; cf. also such examples as 2 Chronicles 36:18, where the article is prefixed only to a second genitive following the noun); or as a proper name, e.g. Deuteronomy 11:7 מַֽעֲשֵׂה יְהֹוָה הַגָּדֹל‎ the great work of the Lord; or by a suffix, e.g. Isaiah 36:9 עַבְדֵי אֲדֹנִי הַקְּטַנִּים‎ the least of my master’s servants.

When several attributes (whether connected by Wāw or not) follow a determinate substantive, each of them takes the article, e.g. Deuteronomy 10:17 הָאֵל הַגָּדֹל הַגִּבֹּר וְהַבּוֹרָא‎ the great God, the mighty, and the terrible. Cf. also Exodus 3:3, Deuteronomy 1:19, in both of which places a demonstrative with the article also follows the adjective.[8]

Rem. 1. The article is, however, not infrequently used also—

(a) With the attribute alone, when it is added to an originally indefinite substantive as a subsequent limitation; so always with ordinal numbers after יוֹם‎,[9] e.g. Genesis 1:31 (cf. 2:3, Exodus 20:10, &c.) יוֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁי‎ the sixth day (prop. a day namely the sixth; but יוֹם שֵׁנִי‎ a second day, Genesis 1:8); Exodus 12:15 מִיּוֹם הָֽרִאשֹׁן‎ from the first day onward (not before Daniel 10:12 and Nehemiah 8:18 is מִן־הַיּוֹם הָֽרִאשׁוֹן‎ used instead of it). On the other hand, the article is always found after בְּ‎, hence בַּיּוֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁי‎, &c., although it is possible that the original reading in these cases was בְּיוֹם‎, and that the article is only due to the Masora. In Judges 6:25 the text is evidently corrupt (see verse 26).—Especially also in certain frequently recurring combinations as in particularizing the gates in Jeremiah 38:14, Ezekiel 9:2, &c., Zechariah 14:10, and courts in 1 Kings 7:8, 12, &c., Ezekiel 40:28; and very often when the attribute consists of a participle, e.g. Deuteronomy 2:23, Judges 21:19, 1 Samuel 25:10, Jeremiah 27:3, Jeremiah 46:16 חֶ֫רֶב הַיּוֹנָה‎ the sword which oppresses (?); Ezekiel 14:22, Zechariah 11:2 Keth. (the impenetrable forest?) Proverbs 26:18, Psalms 119:21.

Of the other examples, Genesis 21:29 (where, however, the Samaritan reads הכבשות‎), 41:26 (but cf. verse 4), Numbers 11:25, Judges 16:27, 1 Samuel 17:17 may at any rate be explained on the ground that the preceding cardinal number is equivalent to a determinant; in Genesis 1:21, Genesis 28:9, 10, &c., the substantive is already determined by כָּל־‎, and in 1 Samuel 14:29 (דְּבַשׁ‎) by מְעַט‎.—In 1 Samuel 12:23, 2 Samuel 12:4, Isaiah 7:20 (where, however, הַשְּׂכִירָה‎ might also be understood as a subsequent explanation of בְּתַ֫עַר‎) and Nehemiah 9:35, the omission of the article after the preposition is certainly due merely to the Masora. In 1 Samuel 16:23 (unless רוּחַ אֱלֹהִים‎ is to be read twice), Zechariah 4:7 (where however אַתָּ הָהָר‎ is probably meant), Psalms 104:18 (where a ה‎ precedes הָרִים‎, hence probably a case of haplography), the omission of the article before א‎, ר‎ (?) and ה‎ may be due to a regard for euphony (see z below). On the other hand, in 1 Samuel 6:18 (read הָאֶ֫בֶן הַגְּ׳‎), 17:12 (הַזֶּה‎ is a later addition), 19:22 (cf. the LXX), Jeremiah 17:2, Jeremiah 32:14, Jeremiah 40:3 Keth., Ezekiel 2:3 (read גּוֹי‎ or omit גּוֹיִם‎ with Cornill), Micah 7:11, Psalms 62:4, either the text is corrupt, or the expression incorrect. But in 2 Kings 20:13, Jeremiah 6:20, Song of Solomon 7:10 acc. to D. H. Müller (Anzeiger der Wiener Akad., phil-hist. Kl. 1902, no. x) הַטּוֹב‎ is the genitive of a substantive, aromatic oil, sweet cane (in Jeremiah 6:20 read וּקְנֵה‎), like spiced wine. In Isaiah 39:2 read שֶׁ֫מֶן הַטּוֹב‎ and in Psalms 133:2 כְּשֶׁ֫מֶן חַטּ׳‎.

(b) No article with the attribute, while the substantive is determined either by the article, or a suffix, or a following genitive. Thus the article is sometimes omitted with demonstratives, since they are already to a certain extent determined by their meaning (cf. also the Mêšaʿ inscription, l. 3, הבמת זאת‎ this high place); as with הוּא‎ Genesis 19:33 (evidently for euphony, and so probably often); 30:16, 32:23, 1 Samuel 19:10; with הִיא‎ Genesis 38:21; with זוּ‎ Psalms 12:8 (according to the Masora זוּ‎ is a relative pronoun here, as always elsewhere); with אֵ֫לֶּה‎ 1 Samuel 2:23, according to the present corrupt text (the original reading כָּל־עַם יהוה‎ became כָּל־עַם אֱלֹהִים‎, and אֱלֹהִים‎ was then corrupted to אֵלֶּה‎); so, almost without exception, when the substantive is determined only by a suffix, e.g. Joshua 2:20, Judges 6:14, 1 Kings 10:8, 2 Kings 1:2 and 8:8 f., where חלי‎, as in Jeremiah 10:19, has arisen by contraction from חָלְיִי‎, or we should simply read חָלְיִ‎ (in all these passages with זֶה‎); Genesis 24:8 (with זֹאת‎); Exodus 10:1, 1 Kings 22:23, Jeremiah 31:21 (with אֵ֫לֶּה‎).

The article is sometimes omitted also with the attributes referring to proper names,[10] as צִידוֹן רַבָּה‎ Joshua 11:8, Joshua 19:28, חֲמָת רַבָּה‎ Amos 6:2. Other examples are Joshua 16:3, 5, 18:13, 1 Kings 9:17 (but in 1 Chronicles 7:24, 2 Chronicles 8:5 with the article). In Genesis 7:11, &c., תְּהוֹם רַבָּה‎ is also a case of this kind, תְּהוֹם‎ being used (almost always without the article) as a sort of proper name; cf. also אֵל עֶלְיוֹן‎ the most high

  1. On the analogous use of the article before participles which have a verbal suffix, as in Psalms 18:33, &c., cf. above, §116f.
  2. On the subsequent change of שָׂטָן‎, אָדָם‎, אֱלֹהִים‎ into real proper names by the omission of the article, cf. above, §125f.
  3. For further exceptions see Nestle, ZAW. 1904, p. 323 ff.
  4. Cf. the useful statistics of J. Ley in the Neue Jahrbücher für Philologie und Pädagogik, 2te Abteilung, 1891, Heft 7–9, and M. Lambert, ‘ L’article dans la po&ésie hébr.,’ REJ. 37, 263 ff.
  5. But in Exodus 12:23 המ׳‎ is either to be explained as the destroyer (now mentioned for the first time) according to q, or a particular angel is meant whose regular function it was to inflict punishments. Others again take המ׳‎ even in Exodus 12:23 impersonally = destruction.
  6. In nearly all the above examples the presence of the article is only indicated by the vowel of the prefix (בַּ‎, כַּ‍‎, לַ‎) and might therefore be merely due to the masoretic punctuation. There is, however, no reason to doubt the correctness of the tradition. The same is true of the examples under n and o.
  7. Cf., however, analogous examples in biblical Aramaic in Kautzsch’s Gramm. des Bibl. Aram., 79 f, e.g. Daniel 2:14, Daniel 3:2, &c.
  8. The demonstrative used adjectivally is generally placed after the adjective proper; in such cases as עַמְּךָ הַזֶּה הַגָּדוֹל‎ 2 Chronicles 1:10 the adjective forms a further (fresh) addition to עַמְּךָ הַזֶּה‎.
  9. Cf. Driver, Tenses, 3rd ed., 209; M. Lambert, REJ. 31, 279 f.—The omission of the article from the substantive is not to be regarded in this instance as an indication of late style, and consequently cannot be put forward as a proof of the late origin of the ‘Priestly Code’ (cf. Dillmann on Genesis 1:31, Holzinger, Einl. in d. Hexateuch, p. 465, and especially Driver in the Journal of Philology, xi. 229 f., against Giesebrecht in ZAW. 1881, p. 265 f.). On the other hand, the common omission of the article from the substantive before a determinate adjective (e.g. כְּנֵ֫סֶת הַגְּדוֹלָה‎ the great synagogue, in the Mishna; cf. Segal, Mišnaic Hebrew, p. 19 ff.) is certainly a later idiom.
  10. Cf. Nöldeke, Beiträge zur semit. Sprachwiss., p. 48, n. 1.
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