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Bible Lexicons

Gesenius Hebrew Grammer

Part 128

§128. The Indication of the Genitive Relation by means of the Construct State.
Cf. especially Philippi’s work cited at the head of § 89.

1. The genitive relation is regularly expressed (see § 89) by the close connexion of the nomen regens (in the construct state) with the nomen rectum (in the genitive). Since only one nomen regens can be immediately connected with a nomen rectum, it follows that the same genitive cannot depend on two or more co-ordinate nouns, but a second (sometimes even a third, &c.) regens must be added with a suffix referring to the nomen rectum, e.g. בְּנֵי דָוִד וּבְנֹתָיו‎ the sons of David and his daughters (not בְּנֵי וּבְנוֹת דָּוִד‎); cf. 1 Kings 8:28.[1] The language also prefers to avoid a series of several co-ordinate[2] genitives depending upon one and the same nomen regens (such as occur in Genesis 14:19, Numbers 20:5, Numbers 31:54 [1 Chronicles 13:1], 1 Samuel 23:7, 2 Samuel 19:6, Isaiah 22:5, Psalms 5:7, Psalms 8:3),[3] and rather tends to repeat the nomen regens, e.g. Genesis 24:3 אֱלֹהֵי הַשָּׁמַ֫יִם וֵֽאלֹהֵי הָאָ֫רֶץ‎ the God of heaven and the God of the earth (so in Jeremiah 8:1 the regens is five times repeated). A lengthened series of genitives may, however, be formed by a nomen rectum serving at the same time as regens to a genitive depending on it (cf. §127a [d]); e.g. Genesis 47:9 יְמֵי שְׁנֵי חַיֵּי אֲבֹתַי‎ the days of the years of the life of my fathers; cf. Job 12:24, where there are three genitives, Isaiah 10:12 four, and 21:17 five (unless the last three are in apposition). As a rule, indeed, such an inconvenient accumulation of genitives is avoided by means of a circumlocution in the case of one of them (see §129d).

Rem. As the fundamental rules stated above are the necessary consequence not merely of logical but more especially of rhythmical relations (see §89a), we must feel the more hesitation in admitting examples in which genitives are supposed to be loosely attached to forms other than the construct state. Some of these examples (the supposed genitives following a regens which is determined by the article) have been already discussed in §127f–h. Compare, moreover:

(a) Genitives after the absolute state, e.g. Isaiah 28:1 גֵּֽיא־שְׁמָנִים הֲלוּמֵי יַ֫יִן‎ the fat valley of them that are overcome with wine. The usual explanation that גֵּֽיא־שְׁמָנִים‎ forms one single idea (in German Fettigkeitstal), on which the genitive הֲלוּמֵי יַ֫יִן‎ then depends, in reality explains nothing; the text is almost certainly corrupt. In Deuteronomy 15:18 מִשְׁנֵה‎ would be expected; in Joshua 3:11 הַבְּרִית‎ is a later addition; in Isaiah 32:13 (מָשׂוֹשׂ‎), and Psalms 68:22 (שֵׂעָר‎), the absolute for the construct state probably rests only on the authority of the Masoretes. In Judges 6:25 ff. the text is obviously in confusion. In Judges 8:32 (cf. 6:24) כְּעָפְרָה‎ should come either after וַיִּקָּבֵר‎ or at the end of the verse, unless, with Moore, we omit אֲבִי הָֽע׳‎ as a gloss (from 6:24); in Isaiah 63:11 משֶׁה‎ is probably a gloss on יְמֵי־עוֹלָם‎ which has crept into the text; in 2 Samuel 4:2 לְאִישׁ־בּ֫שֶׁת‎, according to the LXX, has dropped out before בֶּן‎; in Ezekiel 6:11 רָעוֹת‎ is to be omitted with the LXX; if originally in the text, it could only be genitive (= all abominations of evils), not an adjective; Proverbs 21:6 the text is altogether uncertain (the LXX read מֽוֹקְשֵׁי‎ for מְבַקְשֵׁי‎); in 1 Chronicles 9:13 the preposition לְ‎ (after a ל‎) has dropped out before מְלֶאכֶת‎ (cf. 12:25).—Elsewhere (Deuteronomy 3:5, 1 Kings 4:13, 2 Chronicles 8:5) the supposed genitives are to be taken rather as words of nearer definition standing in apposition, i.e. with high walls, gates, and bars. In Jeremiah 8:5 ירושלים‎ is either in apposition to העם הזה‎ or is better (since not in the LXX) omitted as a gloss.

(b) Genitives after a noun with a suffix (where the suffix prevents the direct government by the nomen regens). Thus in Leviticus 27:3, 5, 6, where הַזָּכָר‎ after עֶרְכְּךָ‎[4] might be taken, contrary to the accents, as subject of the following clause; in Leviticus 5:15, 25 the suffix may refer to Moses. In Leviticus 6:3 מִדּוֹ בַד‎ his garment, namely the garment of linen, unless simply in apposition, cf. §131d (or read מִדֵּי‎?); Leviticus 26:42, where בְּרִיתִי יַֽעֲקֹב וגו׳‎ could at most be explained as an ellipse for בְּרִיתִי בְרִית יַֽעֲקֹב‎, cf. §125h (probably, however, it is a case of dittography of the י‎, which was repeated also before אברהם‎; so Valeton, ZAW. xii. 3); equally strange is בְּרִיתִי הַיּוֹם‎ Jeremiah 33:20, &c. On the other hand, אִם יִֽהְיֶה נְבִֽיאֲכֶם יְהֹוָה‎ Numbers 12:6 could not possibly mean if your prophet be a prophet of the Lord; the text is manifestly corrupt (probably נְבִֽיאֲךָ מִיַּהְוֶה‎ is to be read, with Marti). In Psalms 45:7 בִּסְאֲךָ אֱלֹהִים‎ (usually explained as thy divine throne), אלהים‎ is most probably a later addition [another suggestion is to read כֵאלֹהִים‎ like God(’s throne): cf. §141d, note]. In Jeremiah 52:20 two readings are probably combined, לִנְחֻשְׁתָּם‎ without any addition, and לִנְח֫שֶׁת בָּל־הַכֵּלִיס‎. In Numbers 25:12 שָׁלוֹם‎ is in apposition to בְּרִיתִי‎. On דַּרְכֵּךְ זִמָּה‎ Ezekiel 16:27, cf. §131r.

(c) The interposition of a word is assumed between כָּל־‎ (the whole; cf. §127b) and the genitive governed by it in 2 Samuel 1:9, Job 27:3 (עוֹד‎), and, if the text is correct, in Hosea 14:3 (תִּשָּׂא‎). In reality, however, in all three places the genitive relation is destroyed by the transposition of the words (instead of עוֹד כָּל־‎, &c.), and כָּל־‎ is rather to be taken adverbially (equivalent to wholly), e.g. 2 Samuel 1:9 because my life is yet wholly in me, i.e. my whole life; cf. Philippi, Stat. Constr., p. 10.—On the instances in which the original construct state אֵין‎ non-existence is used without a following genitive, see the negative sentences, §152o.

2. The dependence of the nomen rectum on the nomen regens by no means represents merely what is, properly speaking, the genitive relation (see the examples under g–i). Very frequently the nomen rectum only adds a nearer definition of the nomen regens, whether by giving the name, the genus or species, the measure, the material, or finally an attribute of it (genit. epexegeticus or appositionis,[5] see the examples under k–q).

Examples. The nomen rectum represents—

(a) A subjective genitive, specifying the possessor, author, &c., e.g. בֵּית־הַמֶּ֫לֶךְ‎ the king’s house; דְּבַר יְהֹוָה‎ the word of the Lord.

(b) An objective genitive, e.g. Obadiah 1:10 מֵֽחֲמַס אָתִיךָ‎ for the violence done to thy brother[6] (but in Ezekiel 12:19 מֵֽחֲמַס‎ is followed by a subjective genitive); Proverbs 20:2 אֵימַת מֶ֫לֶךְ‎ the terror of a king; Genesis 18:20 זַֽעֲקַת סְדֹם‎ the cry concerning Sodom; Isaiah 23:5 שֵׁמַע צֹר‎ the report of (about) Tyre, cf. 2 Samuel 4:4; Amos 8:10 אֵ֫בֶל יָחִיד‎ the mourning for an only son; Deuteronomy 20:14 שְׁלַל אֹֽיְבֶיךָ‎ praeda hostibus tuis erepta; cf. Isaiah 3:14. In a wider sense this includes such examples as דֶּ֫רֶךְ עֵץ הַֽחַיִּים‎ the way of (i.e. to) the tree of life, Genesis 3:24; cf. Proverbs 7:27, Job 38:20; דֶּ֫רֶךְ הַיָּם‎ the way of (by) the sea, Isaiah 8:23; זִבְחֵי אֱלֹהִים‎ the sacrifices of (i.e. pleasing to) God, Psalms 51:19; שְׁבֻעַת יְהֹוָה‎ the oath of (i.e. sworn before) the Lord, 1 Kings 2:48; דִּבְרֵי לְמוּאֵל‎ the words of (i.e. addressed to) L., Proverbs 31:1.

(c)A partitive genitive; this includes especially the cases in which an adjective in the construct state is followed by a general term, e.g. חַכְמוֹת שָֽׂרוֹתֶיהָ‎ the wisest of her ladies, Judges 5:29; cf. for this way of expressing the superlative, §133h, and also r below.

Merely formal genitives (genit. explicativus or epexegeticus, genit. appositionis) are those added to the construct state as nearer definitions—

(d) Of the name, e.g. נְהַר פְּרָת‎ the river Euphrates; אֶ֫רֶץ בְּנַ֫עַן‎ the land of Canaan; בְּתוּלַת יִשְׂרָאֵל‎ the virgin Israel (not of Israel), Amos 5:2.

(e) Of the genus, e.g. Proverbs 15:20 (21:20) בְּסִיל אָדָם‎ a fool of a man (=a foolish man); cf. Genesis 16:12, Isaiah 1:4, Isaiah 29:19, Hosea 13:2, Micah 5:4, &c.

(f) Of the species, e.g. אֲחֻוַּת קֶ֫בֶר‎ a possession of a burying-place, i.e. hereditary sepulchre, Genesis 23:4, &c.; תְּאֵנֵי הַכַּכֻּרוֹת‎ the early figs, Jeremiah 24:2; אֹ֫הֶל בֵּיתִי‎ the tabernacle of my house, i.e. my dwelling-place, Psalms 132:3.

(g) Of the measure, weight, extent, number, e.g. מְתֵי מִסְפָּר‎ people of number, i.e. few in number, Genesis 34:30, Deuteronomy 26:5; cf. also Ezekiel 47:3–5 waters of the ankles, waters of the loins, waters of swimming, i.e. which reached up to the ankles, or loins, or necessitated swimming; but in verse 4 in apposition (?) מַ֫יִם בִּרְכַּ֫יִם‎.

(h) Of the material[7] of which something consists, e.g. כְּלִי חָ֑רֶשׂ‎ a vessel of earthenware, Numbers 5:17; כְּלֵי כֶ֫סֶף‎ vessels of silver (cf. the French des vases d’or); אֲרוֹן עֵץ‎ an ark of wood, שֵׁ֫בֶט בַּרְזֶל‎ a rod of iron, Psalms 2:9; cf. Genesis 3:21, Genesis 6:14, Judges 7:13, &c. (i) Of the attribute of a person or thing, e.g. Genesis 17:8 אֲחֻזַּת עוֹלָם‎ an everlasting possession; Proverbs 17:8 a precious stone; cf. Numbers 28:6, Isaiah 13:8, Isaiah 28:4, Psalms 23:2, Psalms 31:3, Proverbs 5:19, Proverbs 14:5, Job 41:19, and the examples of the genitive with a suffix given in §135n. Such a periphrasis for the expression of attributes frequently occurs, even when the corresponding adjectives are in use. Thus especially קֹ֫דֶשׁ‎ holiness very frequently serves as a periphrasis for the adjective קָדוֹשׁ‎ (e.g. בִּגְדֵי הַקֹּ֫דֶשׁ‎ the holy garments, Exodus 29:29), since קָדוֹשׁ‎ is used almost exclusively in reference to persons (hence also with עַם‎ and גּוֹי‎ people, and with שֵׁם‎ the name of a person); the only exceptions are מָקוֹם קָדוֹשׁ‎ holy place, Exodus 29:31, &c.; מַ֫יִם קְדשִׁים‎ holy water, Numbers 5:17; קָדוֹשׁ‎ as the predicate of יוֹם‎ day, Nehemiah 8:10 f., and of מַֽחֲנֶה‎ camp, Deuteronomy 23:15. So also the use of צַדִּיק‎ righteous is always confined to persons, except in Deuteronomy 4:8; elsewhere the periphrasis with צֶ֫דֶק‎ or צְדָקָה‎ is always used, e.g. מֹֽאזְנֵי צֶ֫דֶק‎ just balances, Leviticus 19:36.

In a wider sense this use of the genitive also includes statements of the purpose for which something is intended, e.g. צֹאן טִבְחָה‎ sheep for the slaughter, Psalms 44:23; מוּסַר שְׁלוֹמֵ֫נוּ‎ the chastisement designed for our peace, Isaiah 53:5; cf. 51:17 (the cup which causes staggering), Psalms 116:13; finally, also, the description of the material, with which something is laden or filled, e.g. 1 Samuel 16:20 חֲמֹר לֶ֫חֶם וְנֹאד יַ֫יִן‎ an ass laden with bread and a bottle of wine (but probably עֲשָׂרָה‎ is to be read for חֲמֹר‎); cf. Genesis 21:14, Proverbs 7:20, &c.

Rem. 1. Certain substantives are used to convey an attributive idea in the construct state before a partitive genitive; thus מִבְחָר‎ choice, selection, as in Genesis 23:6 מִבְחַר קְבָרֵ֫ינוּ‎ the choice of our sepulchres, i.e. our choicest sepulchres; Exodus 15:4, Isaiah 22:7, Isaiah 37:24; other examples are, Isaiah 1:16 the evil of your doings, emphatically, for your evil doings; Isaiah 17:4, Isaiah 37:24 (=the tall cedars thereof), Psalms 139:22, Job 15:26.—This is the more common construction with the substantive כֹּל‎ entirety, for all, the whole, every, see §127b; it is also frequent with מְעַט‎ a little, for few, 1 Samuel 17:28, &c.

2. To the periphrases expressing attributive ideas (see p above) by means of a genitive construction may be added the very numerous combinations of the construct states אִישׁ‎ a man, בַּעַל‎ master, possessor, בֶּן־‎ son, and their feminines and plurals (including מְתֵי‎ men, used only in the plural), with some appellative noun, in order to represent a person (poetically even a thing) as possessing some object or quality, or being in some condition. In English, such combinations are sometimes rendered by single substantives, sometimes by circumlocution.


(a) Of אִישׁ‎, &c.; אִישׁ דְּבָרִים‎ an eloquent man, Exodus 4:10 (but אִישׁ שְׂפָתַ֫יִם‎ Job 11:2 a man of lips, i.e. a boaster); אִישׁ לָשׁוֹן‎ = a slanderer, Psalms 140:12; אִישׁ דַּ֫עַת‎ a man of knowledge, Proverbs 24:5; אִישׁ חֵמָה‎ a wrathful man, Proverbs 15:18; אִישׁ דָּמִים‎ a man of blood, 2 Samuel 16:7, Psalms 5:7; cf. further, 1 Samuel 16:18, 1 Kings 2:26, Isaiah 53:3, Proverbs 19:6, Proverbs 26:21, Proverbs 29:1, Ezra 8:18; also אֵ֫שֶׁת מִדְיָנִים‎ a contentious woman, Proverbs 27:15; in the plural, e.g. Genesis 6:4 אַנְשֵׁי הַשֵּׁם‎ the men of renown, famous; cf. Genesis 47:6, Isaiah 41:11, Job 34:8, 10 (אַנְשֵׁי לֵבָב‎ men of understanding); with מְתֵי‎, e.g. Isaiah 5:13 (מְתֵי רָעָב‎ famished men; but read probably מְזֵי רָעָב‎ weak with hunger); Psalms 26:4, Job 11:11, Job 22:15.

(b) Of בַּ֫עַל‎, &c.; בַּ֫עַל שֵׂעָר‎ hairy, 2 Kings 1:8; בַּ֫עַל הַֽחֲלֹמוֹת‎ the dreamer, Genesis 37:19; cf. Nahum 1:2, Proverbs 1:17, Proverbs 18:9 (a destroyer), 22:24, 23:2 (disposed to eat, greedy), 24:8; feminine בַּֽעֲלַת־אוֹב‎ a woman that hath a soothsaying spirit, 1 Samuel 28:7; cf. Nahum 3:4; in the plural, e.g. בַּֽעֲלֵי חִצִּים‎ archers, Genesis 49:23, בַּֽעֲלֵי בְרִית‎ confederates, Genesis 14:13; בַּֽעֲלֵי שְׁבוּעָה‎ sworn supporters, Nehemiah 6:18.

(c) Of בֶּן־‎, &c.: בֶּן־חַ֫יִל‎ a hero, warrior, 1 Kings 15:2; בֶּן־מֶ֫שֶׁק‎ heir, Genesis 15:2; בֶּן־שָׁנָה‎ yearling, Exodus 12:5, &c.; בֶּן־מְאַת שָׂנָה‎ centum annos natus, Genesis 21:5; בֶּן־מָ֫וֶת‎ worthy to die, 1 Samuel 20:31 (Luther, 2 Samuel 12:5 ein Kind des Todes); cf. Deuteronomy 25:2 בִּן־הַכּוֹת‎ worthy to be beaten. Feminine, e.g. בַּת־בְּלִיַּ֫עַל‎ a wicked woman, 1 Samuel 1:16; frequently also אִישׁ בְּלִיַּ֫עַל‎, בְּנֵי ב׳‎, אַנְשֵׁי ב׳‎ and even simply בְּלִיַּ֫עַל‎, like the Latin scelus for scelestissimus, 2 Samuel 23:6, Job 34:18. Plural masculine, e.g. בְּנֵי מֶ֑רִי‎ children of rebellion, Numbers 17:25. בֶּן־‎ is used poetically of things without life, e.g. Isaiah 5:1 בֶּן־שָׁ֫מֶן‎ a fat, i.e. a fruitful (hill); Jonah 4:10 בִּן־לַ֫יְלָה‎ i.e. grown in a night; Job 41:20 son of the bow (i.e. an arrow); so also בְּנֵי רֶשֶׁף‎ = sparks, Job 5:7; Lamentations 3:13; בְּנוֹת‎ Ecclesiastes 12:4 the daughters of song, probably meaning the individual notes.

There is another use of בֶּן־‎ or בְּנֵי‎ to denote membership of a guild or society (or of a tribe, or any definite class). Thus בְּנֵי אֱלֹחִים‎ or בְּנֵי הָֽאֱלֹחִים‎ Genesis 6:2, 4, Job 1:6, Job 2:1, Job 38:7 (cf. also בְּנֵי אֵלִים‎ Psalms 29:1, Psalms 89:7) properly means not sons of god(s), but beings of the class of אֱלֹהִים‎ or אֵלִים‎; בְּנֵיֽ־הַנְּבִיאִיס‎ 1 Kings 20:35 (singular in Amos 7:14) persons belonging to the guild of prophets; בֶּן־הָֽרַקָּתִים‎ Nehemiah 3:8 one of the guild of apothecaries, cf. 3:31 where בֶּן־הַצֹּֽרְפִים‎ is to be read. Similarly בְּנֵי שִׁלֵּשִׁים‎ Genesis 50:23 are most probably not great-grandsons but grandsons, i.e. those belonging to the third generation. Cf. also בְּנֵי הַגֵּֽרְשֻׁנִּי‎ Numbers 4:27 f. Gershonites, בְּנֵי הַקְּהָתִים‎ 2 Chronicles 20:19, &c., Kohathites; בְּנֵי קֶ֫דֶם‎ dwellers in the East.

3. Special mention must be made of the not infrequent idiom by which adjectives (sometimes also ordinals, see §134o) are added in the genitive, like substantives, rather than as attributes in the same state, gender, and number as the noun which they qualify; thus, Isaiah 28:4 צִיצַת נֹבֵל‎ the flower of that which fades, for which verse 1 has צִיץ נֹבֵל‎ the fading flower; cf. further, Isaiah 22:24, Jeremiah 22:17 (?), 52:13, Psalms 73:10, Psalms 74:15 (but אֵיתָן‎ may be a substantive), 78:49; also the use of רַע‎ as a substantive, e.g. in Proverbs 2:14 b, 6:24 (אֵ֫שֶׁת רַע‎), &c., analogous to the New Testament phrase ὁ οἰκονόμος τῆς ἀδικίας, Luke 16:8, and the French un homme de bien.[8]—Finally, an adverb (treated as a substantive) may likewise be used as an epexegetical genitive; cf. דְּמֵי חִנָּם‎ blood shed without cause, 1 Kings 2:31; Proverbs 24:28, Proverbs 26:2; Ezekiel 30:16 (יוֹמָם‎).

3. The epexegetical genitives include finally the numerous nearer definitions which follow the coustruct state of adjectives (and of active and passive participles, or verbal adjectives, cf. §116f–l). For, while the word of nearer definition is added to the verb in the accusative (e.g. חָלָה אֶת־רַגְלָיו‎ he was diseased in his feet, 1 Kings 15:23), it may, with participles and verbal adjectives, be either in the accusative (§116f and k) or in the genitive, the case of a word depending on a noun. Such a genitive relation is usually termed an improper annexion. The nearer definition contains a statement either of the material, e.g. Exodus 3:8, &c., אֶ֫רֶץ זָבַת תָלָב וּדְבַשׁ‎ a land flowing with milk and honey; or of the means, e.g. חַלְלֵי־חֶ֫רֶב‎ slain with the sword, Isaiah 22:2; or the cause, Song of Solomon 2:5 sick of love; or of the scope of the attribute,[9] e.g. Genesis 39:6 יְפֵה־תֹ֫אַר‎ fair of form; cf. Genesis 41:2, 4, Exodus 34:6, Isaiah 1:4, Jeremiah 32:19, Nahum 1:3, Psalms 119:1, Job 37:16; or of the manner, e.g. Psalms 59:6 בֹּֽגְדֵי אָ֫וֶן‎ faithless ones of wickedness (wickedly faithless).

Especially frequent is the use of this genitive to name the part of the body described as being affected by some physical or mental condition, e.g. Psalms 24:4 נְקִי בַפַּ֫יִם‎ clean as regards hands, &c.; 2 Samuel 9:3, Isaiah 6:5, Job 17:9; Isaiah 19:10 אַגְמֵי־נָ֫פֶשׁ‎ grieved in soul; 1 Samuel 1:10, Job 3:20. Also such examples as Amos 2:16, Proverbs 19:1, where a suffix is attached to the substantive, must be regarded as instances of the genitive construction, on the analogy of Proverbs 14:2, see §116k.

  1. Very rare, and only possible in very rapid utterance, are such exceptions as Ezekiel 31:16 (מִבְחַר וְטֽוֹב־לְבָנוֹן‎); Proverbs 16:11.—In Isaiah 11:2 the spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the Lord, דַּעַ֫ת‎ may at any rate also be taken as an absolute genitive, so also סֵ֫פֶר‎ Daniel 1:4.
  2. In Psalms 114:1 a second genitive is added even without the copula, but the parallelism of the members renders any misunderstanding impossible.
  3. In almost all these instances the two (or three) genitives form one closely connected whole, as heaven and earth, sons and daughters.
  4. Halévy, J. A. xiv. 548, removes the difficulty by pointing עַרְכֹּךְ‎.
  5. The latter term is preferred especially by König, Theol. Stud. und Krit., 1898, p. 528 ff.
  6. Cf. in Latin a similar use of the genitive after iniuria (Caes. B. G. 1, 30), metus (hostium, Pompeii, &c.), spes, and other words. In Greek, cf. εὔνοια τῶν φίλων, πίστις τοῦ θεοῦ, ὁ λόγος ὁ τοῦ σταυροῦ, 1 Cor. 1:18.
  7. In the almost entire absence of corresponding adjectives (אָרוּז‎ made of cedar, a denominative from אֶ֫רֶז‎, and נָחוּשׁ‎ brazen are the only examples), the language regularly has recourse to the above periphrasis. On the form qāṭûl, as expressing an inherent property, cf. §50f; cf. also the proper name, בַּרְזִלַּי‎ ferreus.
  8. On the other hand, in such passages as Isaiah 36:2 (2 Kings 18:17), Zechariah 14:4, Ecclesiastes 8:10, &c., there is no apparent reason why the Masora requires the construct state instead of the absolute; hence חֵיל‎ Isaiah 36:2 and גֵּיא‎ Zechariah 14:4 must be intended as forms of the absolute state, shortened in consequence of their close connexion.
  9. Cf. the Latin integer vitae scelerisque purus; tristes animi, &c.
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