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Bible Lexicons

Gesenius Hebrew Grammer

Part 152

§152. Negative Sentences.

1. Besides the use of rhetorical questions (§§150d, 151a), independent sentences are made negative by the adverbs לֹא‎ (Job 6:21, where instead of the Keth. לוֹ‎ we must evidently read לֹא‎; perhaps preserved as a substantive) = the Greek οὐ, not, אַל־‎ = μή (Job 24:25 as a substantive), אֵין‎ (it is) not; טֶ֫רֶם‎ not yet, אֶ֫פֶס‎ not, אַפְסִי‎ (cf. §90m) not. The forms בַּל‎, בְּלִי‎, בִּלְתִּי‎ not belong almost entirely to poetry.—With regard to לֹא‎ and אֵין‎ the main distinction is that verbal-clauses (rarely noun-clauses, see e) are regularly negatived by לֹא‎ (besides its use as negativing single words[1]), while אֵין‎ is used exclusively with noun-clauses (see the examples below).

The conjunctions פֶּן־‎ and לְבִלְתִּי‎ that not, serve to negative dependent clauses. The particular uses of these particles are as follows:—

(a) לֹא‎ (less frequently לוֹא‎), like οὐ, οὐκ, is used regularly for the objective, unconditional negation, and hence is usually connected with the perfect or imperfect (as indicative); on לֹא‎ with the imperfect to express an unconditional prohibition, see §107o; on its use with the jussive, see §109d.—On לֹא‎ for הֲלֹא‎ nonne, in interrogative sentences, cf. §150a. In connexion with כֹּל‎, כָּל־‎ (= any), לֹא‎ is used to express an absolute negation, nullus, none whatever (cf. the French ne... personne, ne... rien), usually in the order לֹא... כֹּל‎, e.g. Genesis 3:1 לֹא תֹֽאכְלוּ מִכֹּל עֵץ הַגָּן‎ ye shall not eat of any tree of the garden; 9:11, Exodus 10:15, Exodus 20:10, Leviticus 7:23, Deuteronomy 8:9, Jeremiah 13:7, Jeremiah 32:17 (לֹא... כָּל־דָּבָר‎ nothing at all; cf. the same statement in the form of a rhetorical question, Jeremiah 32:27); Proverbs 12:21, Proverbs 30:30 לֹא... מִפְּנֵי־כֹל‎ and turneth not away for any; 2 Chronicles 32:15; but cf. also the inverted order, Exodus 12:16 בָּל־מְלָאכָה לֹא־יֵֽעָשֶׂה‎ no manner of work shall be done; 12:43, 15:26, 22:21, Leviticus 16:17, Job 33:13, Daniel 11:37. The meaning is different when בֹּל‎ by being determinate is used in the sense of whole, e.g. Numbers 23:13 כֻּלּוֹ לֹא תִרְאְה‎ thou shalt not see them all, but only a part.

Analogous to לֹא... כֹּל‎ is the use of אִישׁ... לֹא‎ Genesis 23:6, &c., in verbal-clauses in the sense of no one at all, not a single one. On אֵין־כֹּל‎ nothing at all, see under p.

Rem. 1. The examples in which לֹא‎ is used absolutely as a negative answer, equivalent to certainly not! no! must be regarded as extremely short verbal-clauses, e.g. Genesis 19:2 (לֹא‎ according to the context for לֹא נָסוּר‎ &c.); 23:11, 42:10, Haggai 2:12, Job 23:6, sometimes with a following כִּי‎ but, Genesis 19:2 (see above); Joshua 5:14, 1 Kings 3:22.

2. The negation of noun-clauses by לֹא‎ (as opposed to the regular negationd by אֵין‎) always includes a certain emphasis, since the force of the negation falls rather upon a particular word (cf. e.g. Ezekiel 36:32), than upon the whole clause. In 2 Samuel 3:34 יָדֶ֫יךָ לֹֽא־אֲסוּרוֹת‎ thy hands were not bound, a participle is thus specially negatived by לֹא‎; cf. Psalms 74:9, where, however, לֹא‎ is separated from the participle by אִתָּ֫נוּ‎, and Job 12:3. As a rule, noun-clauses with a pronominal subject are thus negatived by לֹא‎, Genesis 20:12, Numbers 35:23 (Deuteronomy 4:42, Deuteronomy 19:4); 1 Samuel 15:29, 2 Samuel 21:2, Jeremiah 4:22, Psalms 22:7, Job 28:14, parallel with אֵין‎; generally with לֹא‎ before a substantival predicate, e.g. Exodus 4:10 לֹא אִישׁ דְּבָרִים אָנֹ֫כִי‎ I am not a man of words; Amos 5:18.—Noun-clauses with a substantival subject, Genesis 29:7, Numbers 23:19, Isaiah 22:2, Isaiah 44:19, Haggai 1:2, Psalms 22:3, Job 9:32, Job 18:17, Job 21:9, Job 22:16, Job 36:26 (with וְ‎ of the apodosis); 41:2; in Job 9:33 even לֹא יֵשׁ‎ non est is used instead of אֵין‎.—In Proverbs 18:5 לֹא‎ is used before an adjectival predicate; in 1 Samuel 20:26 (where a preceding noun-clause is negatived by בִּלְתִּי‎) read לֹא טֹהָר‎ with the LXX, for לֹא טָהוֹר‎. On לֹא‎ for אֵין‎ in circumstantial clauses to express attributive ideas, see u below.

3. As a rule לֹא‎ stands immediately before the verb, but sometimes is separated from it (frequently to bring into special prominence another word which follows it); thus Job 22:7, Ecclesiastes 10:10 before the object and verb; Numbers 16:29 before the subject and verb; Deuteronomy 8:9, 2 Samuel 3:34, Psalms 49:18, Psalms 103:10, Job 13:16, Job 34:23 before a complementary adjunct. In Deuteronomy 32:5 לֹא‎ according to the accentuation even stands at the end of the clause (they offend him not); but undoubtedly לֹא בָנָיו‎ are to be taken together.—On the position of לֹא‎ with the infinitive absolute, see §113v.

(b) אַל־‎ is used like μή and ne to express a subjective and conditional negation, and hence especially in connexion with the jussive (§109c and e) to introduce prohibitions, warnings, negative desires, and requests. On אַל־‎ with the imperfect, see §107p; with the cohortative, see §108c; on 2 Kings 6:27, see §109h.

Rem. 1. אַל־‎ (like לֹא‎, see note on a above) maybe used to form a compound word, as in Proverbs 12:28 אַל־מָוֶת‎ not-death (immortality); though all the early versions read אֶל־מָוֶת‎. The instances in which אַל‎ appears to stand absolutely, equivalent to no, certainly not (like μή for μὴ γένηται), e.g. Ruth 1:13 אַל בְּנׄתַי‎ nay, my daughters, and Genesis 19:18, Genesis 33:10 (אַל־נָא‎), are also due (see under c) to extreme shortening of a full clause (in 2 Samuel 13:25 such a clause is repeated immediately afterwards); thus in 2 Samuel 1:21, Isaiah 62:2, Psalms 83:2 יְהִי‎ is evidently to be supplied, and in Joel 2:13, Amos 5:14, Proverbs 8:10 the corresponding jussive from the preceding imperatives, in Proverbs 17:12 from the preceding infinitive absolute.

2. אַל־‎, like לֹא‎, regularly stands immediately before the verb, but in Isaiah 64:8, Jeremiah 10:24, Jeremiah 15:15, Psalms 6:2, Psalms 38:2 before another strongly emphasized member of the sentence.[2]

(c) אֵין‎ construct state (unless it be sometimes merely a contracted connective form, cf. שְׁנֵים‎ for שְׁנַ֫יִם‎ §97d) of אַ֫יִן‎ non-existence (as also the absolute state, see below) is the negative of יֵשׁ‎ existence; cf. e.g. Genesis 31:29 with Nehemiah 5:5. As יֵשׁ‎ (he, she, it is, was, &c.) includes the idea of being in all tenses, so אַ֫יִן‎, אֵין‎ includes the idea of not being in all tenses. Hence—

(1) The absolute state אַ֫יִן‎, with an evident transition to the meaning of a verbal predicate, there does not exist, always follows the word negatived, e.g. Isaiah 37:3 (2 Kings 19:3) וְכֹחַ אַ֫יִן לְלֵדָה‎ and strength does not exist to bring forth; Genesis 2:5 אַ֫יִן‎ was not present; Exodus 17:7 אִם־אָֽיִן‎ or is he not? after הֲיֵשׁ‎ is he...? (cf. Numbers 13:20); Leviticus 26:37, Numbers 20:5, Judges 4:20 (אָֽיִן‎ no). In 1 Samuel 9:4 and 10:14 אַ֫יִן‎ is used in reference to a plural; 1 Kings 18:10, Isaiah 41:17, Isaiah 45:21, Isaiah 59:11, Micah 7:2, Proverbs 13:4, Proverbs 25:14, Job 3:9 וָאַ֫יִן‎ and let there be none, let none come! Ecclesiastes 3:19.—Cf. finally אִם־אַ֫יִן‎ if it be not so, Genesis 30:1, Exodus 32:32, Judges 9:15, 2 Kings 2:10.—Quite anomalous is אַ֫יִן‎ Job 35:15 before a perfect as an emphatic negation; the text, however, can hardly be correct.

(2) The construct state אֵין‎ stands in its natural position immediately before the substantive whose non-existence it predicates, or before the subject of the sentence which is to be negatived. To the former class belong also the very numerous instances in which אֵין‎ is joined to a participle, e.g. 1 Samuel 26:12 וְאֵין רֹאֶה וְאֵין יוֹדֵעַ וְאֵין מֵקִיץ‎ and there was not one seeing, &c., i.e. and no man saw it, nor knew it, neither did any awake; so especially וְאֵין‎ with a participle in subordinate circumstantial or descriptive clauses, such as Isaiah 5:29 וְיַפְלִיט וְאֵין מַצִּיל‎ and he shall carry it away, while there is none delivering, i.e. without any one’s delivering it; Psalms 7:3, &c.; Leviticus 26:6 &c., וְאֵין מַֽחֲרִיד‎ without any one’s making you afraid; cf. §141e. אֵין‎ is used as the negation of an entire noun-clause, e.g. in Genesis 39:23, Numbers 14:42 אֵין יְהוַֹה בִּקִרְבְּכֶם‎ the Lord is not among you; Genesis 37:29 אֵֽין־יוֹסֵף בַּבּוֹר‎ Joseph was not in the pit.

(3) When the subject which is to be negatived is a personal pronoun, it is joined as a suffix to אֵין‎, according to §100o, e.g. אֵינֶ֫נִּי‎ I am not, was not, shall not be; אֵֽינְךָ‎, fem. אֵינֵךְ‎, thou art not, &c.; אֵינֶ֫נּוּ‎, fem. אֵינֶ֫נָּה‎ he, she is not, &c.; also absolutely, Genesis 42:13 he is (5:24 he was) no longer alive; אֵינָם‎ they are not, &c. When the accompanying predicate is a verb, it follows again (see l) in the form of a participle, since אֵין‎ always introduces a noun-clause, e.g. Exodus 5:10 אֵינֶ֫נִּי נׄתֵן‎ I will not give; 8:17, Deuteronomy 1:32.

Rem. In Nehemiah 4:17 אֵין אֲנִי‎ for אֵינֶ֫נִּי‎ is due to its being co-ordinate with three other (substantival) subjects; these are again expressly summed up in אֵֽין־אֲנַחְנוּ‎.—In Haggai 2:17 אֵין אֶתְכֶם‎ the pronominal complement of אֵין‎ appears to follow with the sign of the accusative;[3] but most probably we should read with the LXX שֻֽׁבְכֶם‎ for אֶתְכֶם‎.

(4) The fact that אֵין‎ (like אַ֫יִן‎) always includes the idea of a verb (is not, was not, &c.) led finally to such a predominance of the verbal element, that the original character of אֵין‎ as a construct state (but cf. i above) was forgotten, and accordingly it is very frequently separated from its noun (substantive or participle); especially so by the insertion of shorter words (of the nature of enclitics), e.g. בּוֹ‎ Isaiah 1:6, לוֹ‎ Leviticus 11:10, 12, לָהּ‎ Genesis 11:30, גַּם‎ Psalms 14:3, שָׁם‎ Judges 18:10, Exodus 12:30; but cf. also Psalms 5:10, Psalms 6:6, Psalms 32:2, and אֵין‎ used absolutely in Exodus 22:2, 1 Kings 8:9, Ruth 4:4.—Hence, finally, even the transposition of אֵין‎ and its noun became possible, e.g. Genesis 40:8 and 41:15 וּפֹתֵר אֵין אֹתוֹ‎ and an interpreter there is not of it; Genesis 47:13, Judges 14:6, 1 Samuel 21:2, Isaiah 1:30, Jeremiah 30:13, Habakkuk 2:19, Proverbs 5:17 (וְאֵין‎=neve sint; cf. k above, on Job 3:9); 30:27.—In Genesis 19:31, Exodus 5:16 אֵין‎ is placed between the subject and predicate.

Rem. 1. Like לֹא... כֹּל‎ or כֹּל... לֹא‎ (see b above) so also אֵין כֹּל‎ expresses an absolute negation, e.g. Ecclesiastes 1:9 אֵין כָּל־חָדָשׁ‎ there is no new thing, &c.; 2 Samuel 12:3, Daniel 1:4 (cf. also אֵין מְא֫וּמָה‎ there is nothing, 1 Kings 18:43, Ecclesiastes 5:13); as also כָּל־... אֵין‎ Habakkuk 2:19; cf. מְא֫וּמָה אֵין‎ Judges 14:6.

2. Undoubtedly akin to אֵין‎ in origin is the negative syllable אִי‎ occurring in the two compounds אִי כָבוֹד‎ (as a proper name, 1 Samuel 4:21; Baer אִֽי־כָבוֹד‎) and אִֽי־נָקִי‎ not innocent, Job 22:30; but the proper name אִֽיתָמָר‎ is doubtful, and the fem. אִיזֶ֫בֶל‎ very doubtful. In Ethiopic this אִי‎ is the most common form of negation, prefixed even to verbs.

(d) טֶ֫רֶם‎ not yet, when referring to past time is used, as a rule (§107c), with the imperfect, Genesis 2:5 כֹּל... טֶ֫רֶם‎ none... yet; see b and p above; Genesis 19:4, Genesis 24:45, Joshua 2:8, 1 Samuel 3:3; with the imperfect in the sense of a present, Exodus 10:7 הֲטֶ֫רֶם תֵּדַע‎ knowest thou not yet? Exodus 9:30; but cf. Genesis 24:15, and בְּטֶ֫רֶם‎ with the perfect in Psalms 90:2 (but see §107c), Proverbs 8:25.

(e) אֶ֫פֶס‎ (prop. a substantive, cessation) no longer, including the verbal idea of existing, cf. Deuteronomy 32:36, Isaiah 45:6, 14, 46:9; used absolutely, Amos 6:10 in the question הַאֶ֫פֶס עוֹד אִישׁ‎ is there none left? &c., 2 Samuel 9:3; frequently also in the sense of non nisi; with ־ִי‎ paragogic (§90m) אַפְסִי‎ Isaiah 47:8, 10, Zephaniah 2:15 אֲנִי וְאַפְסִי עוֹד‎ I am, and there is none else.

(f) בַּל‎,[4] in poetic and prophetic style, and with a certain emphasis,=לֹא‎, is used with the imperfect, e.g. Isaiah 26:14, Isaiah 33:20, 23 (immediately afterwards with a perfect); Hosea 7:2, Psalms 49:13, Proverbs 10:30 (but Isaiah 14:21 before the jussive,=אַל־‎); before an adjective, Proverbs 24:23; before a preposition, Psalms 16:2, Proverbs 23:7.

(g) בְּלִי‎ with a perfect, Genesis 31:20, Isaiah 14:6; with an imperfect, Job 41:18; to negative a participle, Hosea 7:8, Psalms 19:4; to negative an adjective, 2 Samuel 1:21.

(h) בִּלְתִּי‎ to negative an adjective, 1 Samuel 20:26; on בִּלְתִּי‎ Ezekiel 13:3, see x; on לְבִלְתִּי‎ as the regular negative with the infinitive construct, see §114s; on לְבִלְתִּי‎ as a conjunction, see x below.

On אִם‎ as a negative particle in oaths (verily not), see §149c above.

Rem. on לֹא‎, אֵין‎, בְּלִי‎. To the category of negative sentences belongs also the expression of negative attributes by means of לֹא‎, בְּלִי‎ not (both so used almost exclusively in poetic language) or אֵין‎ with a following substantive, mostly in the simplest form of circumstantial clause; e.g. 2 Samuel 23:4 בּ֫קֶֹר לֹא עָבוֹת‎ a morning when there are not clouds, i.e. a cloudless morning; cf. Job 12:24, Job 26:2 b, 38:26 (לֹא־אִישׁ‎ where no man is, i.e. uninhabited); 1 Chronicles 2:30, 32 לֹא בָנִים‎ childless; so also בְּלִי‎ e.g. Job 24:10 and אֵין‎ e.g. Psalms 88:5 I am as a man אֵֽין־אֱיָל‎ there is not help, i.e. like a helpless man; Isaiah 9:6 אֵֽין־קֵץ‎ endless; 47:1, Hosea 7:11; אֵֽין־מִסְפָּר‎ countless, Song of Solomon 6:8, &c., but usually (Psalms 104:25, &c.) like a proper circumstantial clause (cf. §141e) connected by Wāw, וְאֵֽין־מִסְפָּר‎.—Less frequently such periphrases take the form of relative clauses (cf. §155e), e.g. Job 30:13 לֹא עֹזֵר לָ֫מוֹ‎ they for whom there is no helper, i.e. the helpless (but probably עֹזֵר‎ is only an intrusion from 29:12, and we should read עֹצֵר‎ without any one’s restraining them; in 29:12 translate the fatherless and him that had none to help him; in Psalms 72:12 וְאֵֽין־ע׳‎ is used in the same sense); Habakkuk 1:14; with אֵין‎ Isaiah 45:9 thy work is that of a man who hath no hands; Zechariah 9:11 out of the waterless pit.[5]

How far such compounds finally came to be regarded by the language simply as negative adjectives, may be seen partly from the fact that they (as also relative clauses analogous to the above) are frequently co-ordinated with real adjectives, Joel 1:6, Psalms 72:12, Job 29:12; cf. also Isaiah 59:10, where כְּאֵֽין־עֵינַ֫יִם‎ is parallel with כַּֽעִוְרִים‎; partly from their being introduced by the sign of the dative לְ‎, e.g. Isaiah 40:29 (= and to the powerless); Job 26:2 a.3, Nehemiah 8:10.

(i) פֶּן־‎ lest, that not, at the beginning of a clause expressing a fear or precaution, hence especially after such ideas as fearing, Genesis 32:12, &c. (cf. δείδω μή, vereor ne), taking heed, frequently after הִשָּׁ֫מֶר‎, הִשָּֽׁמְרוּ‎ Genesis 24:6, Genesis 31:24, &c., taking care, 2 Kings 10:23, &c. Not infrequently the idea on which פֶּן־‎ depends, is only virtually contained in the main clause, e.g. Genesis 19:19 I cannot escape to the mountain (because I am afraid), פֶּן־תִּדְבָּקַנִי הָֽרָעָה‎ lest some evil overtake me; Genesis 26:9, Genesis 38:11; also in Genesis 44:34 from the rhetorical question how shall I... ? we must understand I cannot, governing פֶּן‎. This is especially the case after an appeal to do or not to do an action by which something may be prevented (in which case פֶּן־‎ is simply equivalent to the final ne); cf. e.g. Genesis 11:4, Genesis 19:15, Numbers 20:18 (where פֶּן־‎ lest is separated from the verb by a strongly emphasized substantive); Judges 15:12 after swear unto me; Proverbs 24:18.—In Genesis 3:22 and now, lest he put forth his hand, &c., פֶּן־‎ is to be regarded as virtually dependent on a cohortative, which immediately afterwards (verse 23) is changed into an historic tense; cf. also Genesis 26:7, Genesis 31:31, Genesis 42:4 Exodus 13:17, 1 Samuel 13:19, 1 Samuel 27:11, Psalms 38:17, in every case after כִּי אָמַ֫רְתִּי‎, כִּי אָמַר‎, &c.=I thought, &c., I must beware lest, &c.

Rem. According to §107q, פֶּן־‎ is naturally followed by the imperfect; for the exceptions, 2 Samuel 20:6, 2 Kings 2:16, see §107q, note 3; cf. moreover, 2 Kings 10:23 רְאוּ פֶּן־יֶשׁ־פֹּה‎ look lest there be here, &c. (k) לְבִלְתִּי‎ that... not, with the imperfect, Exodus 20:20, 2 Samuel 14:14 (in Jeremiah 23:14 read the infinitive שׁוּב‎ for שָׁ֫בוּ‎, in 27:8 יָבֹ֫אוּ‎ for בֹּ֫אוּ‎). In Ezekiel 13:3 בִּלְתִּי ירָאוּ‎ is a relative clause governed by לְ‎= according to things which they have not seen.

2. Two negatives in the same sentence do not neutralize each other (as in nonnulli, non nemo), but make the negation the more emphatic (like οὐκ οὐδείς, οὐκ οὐδαμῶς, nulli—non, nemo non); e.g. Zephaniah 2:2 (if the text is correct) בְּטֶ֫רֶם לֹֽא־יָבוֹא‎ before there shall (not) come.[6] This especially applies to the compounds formed by the union of אֵין‎ or בְּלִי‎ with מִן־‎ without (§119y), e.g. Isaiah 5:9 (6:11) מֵאֵין יוֹשֵׁב‎ (for which in Jeremiah 2:15 מִבְּלִי ישֵׁב‎), prop. without no inhabitant, i.e. so that no inhabitant is left there. On the other hand, in Isaiah 50:2 מֵאֵין מַ֫יִם‎ the מִן־‎ is causative, because there is no water; as also in Exodus 14:11 הֲמִבְּלִי אֵין־‎ is it because there were no...? 2 Kings 1:3, 6, 16. In Ecclesiastes 3:11 מִבְּלִי אֲשֶׁר לֹא‎ except that (yet so that man cannot, &c.).

3. The negative sometimes extends its influence from the first to a second negative sentence parallel with it (which may or may not have Wāw) ; e.g. 1 Samuel 2:3 talk not so much arrogancy; let (not) boasting come out of your mouth; Exodus 28:43, Leviticus 19:12, Leviticus 22:9, 15 f., Numbers 16:14, Numbers 23:19, Deuteronomy 7:25, Isaiah 23:4, Isaiah 28:27, Isaiah 38:18, Isaiah 47:14, Ezekiel 16:47, Psalms 9:19, Psalms 13:5, Psalms 35:19, Psalms 38:2, Psalms 44:19, Psalms 75:6, Job 28:17 (so לָ֫מָּה לֹא‎ why... not? in Job 3:11 also affects the parallel clause).

Footnotes:
  1. Especially in compounds, e.g. לֹא־אֵל‎ lit. a no-God (Germ. Ungott)who is indeed called a god, but is not really a god, Deuteronomy 32:21; לֹא אֱלֹהַּ‎ verse 17, cf. Jeremiah 5:7, 2 Chronicles 13:9; לֹא־עָם‎ lit. a not-people (Germ. Unvolk), Deuteronomy 32:21; לֹא דָבָר‎ a nothing, Amos 6:13; לֹא עֵץ‎ lit. not-wood, Isaiah 10:15; לֹא־אִישׁ‎, לֹֽא־אָדָם‎ lit. not-man, superhuman (of God), Isaiah 31:8; לֹא־עֶ֫דֶק‎ unrighteousness, Jeremiah 22:13, cf. Ezekiel 22:29; לֹא־סְדָרִים‎ disorder, Job 10:22; לֹֽא־חָמָם‎ not-violence, 16:17; after לְ‎ Job 26:2 f. (לֹא־כֹחַ‎, לֹא־עֹז‎ helplessness, לֹא חָכְמָה‎ insipientia); cf. also Isaiah 55:2 בְּלוֹא לְשָׂבְעָה‎ for what is unsatisfying; Psalms 44:13, Job 8:11, Job 15:32, 1 Chronicles 12:33.—In Numbers 20:5 a construct state with several genitives is negatived by לֹא‎.—Also לֹא‎ is used with an infinitive, Numbers 35:23; with an adjective, לֹא חָכָם‎ unwise, Deuteronomy 32:6, Hosea 13:13; לֹֽא־חָסִיד‎ impius, Psalms 43:1; לֹא־עָז‎ and לֹֽא־עָצוּם‎ not strong, Proverbs 30:25 f.; לֹא־כֵן‎ unsuitably, 2 Kings 7:9; לֹא־טוֹב‎ not-good, Isaiah 65:2, Ezekiel 20:25, &c.; לֹא טָהוֹר‎ not-clean, 2 Chronicles 30:17; with a participle, e.g. Jeremiah 2:2 (unsown); (6:8, Ezekiel 4:14, Ezekiel 22:24, Zn 2:1, 3:5; the Masora, however, requires נֻחָ֫מָה‎ in Isaiah 54:11, נֶֽעֱזָ֫בָה‎ in 62:12, נוֹשָׁ֫בָה‎ in Jeremiah 6:8, רֻחָ֫מָה‎ in Hosea 1:6, i.e. always 3rd sing. fem. perf. in pause = she was not comforted, &c., and consequently not compounds, but either relative clauses or (Isaiah 54:11, Hosea 1:6, and especially 2:25) main clauses instead of proper names.—On the above compounds generally, cf. the dissertation mentioned in §81d, note 2; on their use in sentences expressing a state, to convey attributive ideas, see u below.
  2. In Jeremiah 51:3 the pointing אֶל־‎ occurs twice instead of אַל־‎, and is thus, in the opinion of the Masoretes, equivalent to against him that bendeth; but undoubtedly we should read אַל־‎.
  3. According to De Lagarde, Novae psalterii graeci editionis specimen, p. 26, יְשׁוּעָ֫תָה‎ Psalms 3:3 is also an accusative after אֵין‎.
  4. Evidently from בָּלָה‎ to waste away, from which stem also בְּלִי‎ and בֶּ֫לֶת‎ (whence בִּלְתִּי‎ §90m), originally substantives, are formed.
  5. In Proverbs 9:13 (perhaps also 14:7; but see Delitzsch on the passage) a verbal-clause is used co-ordinately in this way as a periphrasis for an adjective.
  6. In 1 Kings 10:21 אֵין־כֶּ֫סֶף‎ goes with what precedes and must be emended, with the LXX and Lucian, to כִּי הַכֶּ֫סֶף‎.
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