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Bible Lexicons

Gesenius Hebrew Grammer

Part 165

§165. Final Clauses.[1]

1. Like most of the dependent clauses hitherto treated, the final clause may also be joined by a simple wāw copulative to the main clause, unless the final clause is directly subordinated to the governing verb.

Examples of the connexion: (α) of a final imperfect (or jussive?) with a perfect by means of וְ‎, Lamentations 1:19, see §107q; with an interrogative sentence, 2 Samuel 9:1, 3, Job 38:24; with an optative, Psalms 51:9; with an imperative, 1 Kings 11:21; (β) of a cohortative with an imperative by וְ‎, Genesis 29:21, 1 Samuel 15:16, or a jussive, Nehemiah 2:5 (§108d); (γ) of a jussive with an imperative by וְ‎, Exodus 9:1, 2 Samuel 16:11, 1 Kings 5:20, Psalms 59:14, Psalms 86:17; with a jussive, Job 21:19, or cohortative, §109f, g (cf. also 2 Samuel 24:21 the infinitive with לְ‎, Jonah 1:11 מָה‎ with the 1st plur. imperf., and 2 Chronicles 29:10 עִם־לְבָבִי‎, which are equivalent to cohortatives); (δ) of an imperative with a jussive, cohortative, or interrogative sentence by וְ‎, §110i; (ε) of a perfect consecutive after another perfect consecutive, Leviticus 14:36; after an imperfect, §112m and p; similarly after a jussive, §112q; after an imperative, §112r.—On negative final clauses joined by וְלֹא‎ to the imperfect (so Exodus 28:43, Exodus 30:20; and 2 Samuel 13:25 after אַל־נָא‎ with a jussive in the main clause) see the Rem. on §109g. In Exodus 28:32, Exodus 39:23 the negative final clause is simply connected by לֹא‎.—On the use of an historical statement after verbs of command- ing, where we should expect a final clause (e.g. Nehemiah 13:9 then I commanded, and they cleansed, equivalent to that they should cleanse, and they cleansed; in Job 9:7 a negative final clause is connected in this way by וְלאֹ‎), cf. §120f.

For examples of the direct subordination of the final imperfect (without וְ‎) see §120c.

2. Final conjunctions are לְמַ֫עַן אֲשֶׁר‎ to the end that; also simply לְמַ֫עַן‎ Genesis 12:13, Genesis 27:25, Exodus 4:5, Psalms 51:6, &c.; בַּֽעֲבוּר אֲשֶׁר‎ prop. for the purpose that, Genesis 27:10, and simply בַּֽעֲבוּר‎ Genesis 27:4, Exodus 9:14, Exodus 20:20; also the simple אֲשֶׁר‎[2] Deuteronomy 4:10, 40, 6:3, 32:46, Joshua 3:7, Nehemiah 8:14 f.; negatively, אֲשֶׁר לֹא‎ Genesis 11:7, Genesis 24:3, 1 Kings 22:16; or שֶׁ ּ‎ Ecclesiastes 3:14; also negatively, עַל־דִּבְרַת שֶׁלֹּא‎ for the matter (purpose) that ... not, Ecclesiastes 7:14; לְבִלְתִּי‎ with imperfect, Exodus 20:20, 2 Samuel 14:14 that ... not.—Quite exceptional is the use of מִן־‎ (if the text be right) in Deuteronomy 33:11 מִן־יְקוּמוּן‎, with the imperfect, equivalent to that ... not [in prose, מִקּוּם‎].

Rem. All the conjunctions here mentioned are naturally always used with the imperfect, see §107q (on the apparent exception in Joshua 4:24, see §74g).—On the negative conjunctions אַל‎ and פֶּן‎ that not, lest, see §152f and w. On the infinitive with לְ‎[3] (also לְמַ֫עַן‎ Genesis 18:19, Genesis 37:22, &c.) as the equivalent of a final clause (Genesis 11:5, Genesis 28:4, &c.), see §114f, h, p. On the continuation of such infinitival constructions by means of the finite verb, see §114r. On the negation of the final infinitive by לְבִלְתִּי‎, §114s. On the preposition מִן‎ with a substantive or infinitive as the equivalent of a negative final clause (Genesis 31:29, 1 Samuel 15:23, &c.), see §119x and y.

  1. Cf. H. G. T. Mitchell, Final Constructions of Biblical Hebrew, Leipzig, 1879.
  2. In Ezekiel 36:27 a final clause is introduced by אֵת אֲשֶׁר‎, thus at the same time taking the form of an object-clause.
  3. On לְ‎ as a supposed conjunction (equivalent to the Arabic li) 1 Kings 6:19, see §66i.
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