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Bible Lexicons

Gesenius Hebrew Grammer

Part 166

§166. Consecutive Clauses.

1. Consecutive clauses are added by means of simple wāw copulative with the jussive,[1] especially after negative and interrogative sentences, e.g. Numbers 23:19 לֹא אִישׁ אֵל וִיֽכַזֵּב וּבֶן־אָדָם וְיִתְנֶחָ֑ם‎ God is not a man, that he should lie, and (i.e. neither) the son of man, that he should repent; Isaiah 53:2 וְנֶחְמְדֵ֫הוּ‎; Hosea 14:10 מִי חָכָם וְיָבֵן אֵ֫לֶּה נָבוֹן וְיֵֽדָעֵם‎ who is wise, that he may understand these things? prudent, that he may know them? Job 5:12 וְלֹא‎=so that ... not; in Proverbs 30:3 וְ‎ is separated from the predicate by the object. In Genesis 16:10 a negative consecutive clause comes after a cohortative, and in Exodus 10:5 after a perfect consecutive.—On the other hand, in Job 9:32, 33 the jussive in the sense of a consecutive clause is attached without Wāw to the preceding negative sentence (in verse 32 a second jussive follows, likewise without Wāw, for he is not a man, as I am, that I should answer him, that we should come together in judgement). On the imperfect consecutive as expressing a logical consequence, see §111l; on the perfect consecutive as a consecutive clause after a participle, see §112n.

2. Conjunctions introducing consecutive clauses are again (see §157c, note 3) כִּי‎ and אֲשֶׁר‎=so that; especially again after interrogative sentences, according to §107u; cf. Numbers 16:11, כִּי‎ with the imperfect, that ye murmur; but in Genesis 20:10 with the perfect, in reference to an action already completed. On אֲשֶׁר‎ with the imperfect (or jussive) equivalent to so that, cf. further Genesis 13:16, Genesis 22:14; with perfect and imperfect, 1 Kings 3:12, with the demonstrative force clearly discernible, depending on לֵב‎; on אֲשֶׁר לֹא‎=ut non, cf. Deuteronomy 28:35, 1 Kings 3:8, 2 Kings 9:37.

On מִן‎ with a substantive or infinitive as the equivalent of a consecutive clause, see §119y.

  1. That such examples as וִיֽכַזֵּב‎ are to be regarded as jussive is probable from the analogy of Hosea 14:10 and Job 9:33.
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