Lectionary Calendar
Monday, April 22nd, 2024
the Fourth Week after Easter
Attention!
StudyLight.org has pledged to help build churches in Uganda. Help us with that pledge and support pastors in the heart of Africa.
Click here to join the effort!

Bible Lexicons

Gesenius Hebrew Grammer

Part 53

§53. Hiphʿîl and Hophʿal.

1. The characteristic of the active (Hiphʿîl) is a prefixed הַ‎ (on its origin see §55i) in the perfect הִ‎ (with the ă attenuated to ĭ, as in Piʿēl), which forms a closed syllable with the first consonant of the stem. The second syllable of the perfect had also originally an ă; cf. the Arabic conj. iv. ’aqtălă, and in Hebrew the return of the Pathaḥ in the 2nd and 1st pers. הִקְטַ֫לְתָּ‎, &c. After the attenuation of this ă to ĭ, it ought by rule to have been lengthened to ē in the tone-syllable, as in Aramaic אַקְטֵל‎, beside הַקְטִל‎ in Biblical Aramaic. Instead of this, however, it is always replaced in the strong verb by î,[1]־ִי‎, but sometimes written defectively ־ִ‎; cf. §9g. Similarly in the infinitive construct הַקְטִיל‎, and in the imperfect and participle יַקְטִיל‎ and טַקְטִיל‎, which are syncopated from יְהַקְטִיל‎ and מְהַקְטִיל‎; §23k. The corresponding Arabic forms (juqtĭl and muqtĭl) point to an original ĭ in the second syllable of these forms. In Hebrew the regular lengthening of this ĭ to ē appears in the strong verb at least in the jussive and in the imperfect consecutive (see n), as also in the imperative of the 2nd sing. masc. (see m); on הַקְטֵ֫לְנָה‎, תַּקְטֵ֫לְנָה‎ cf. §26p. On the return of the original ă in the second syllable of the Imperat., Jussive, &c, under the influence of a guttural, cf. §65f.

In the passive (Hophʿal) the preformative is pronounced with an obscure vowel, whilst the second syllable has ă (in pause ā), as its characteristic, thus:—Perf. הָקְטַל‎ or הֻקְטַל‎, Imperf. יָקְטַל‎ (syncopated from יְהָקְטַל‎) or יֻקְטַל‎, Part. מָקְטָל‎ or מֻקְטָל‎ (from מְהָקְטָל‎); but the infinitive absolute has the form הָקְטֵל‎.

Thus the characteristics of both conjugations are the ה‎ preformative in the perfect, imperative, and infinitive; in the imperfect and participle Hiphʿîl, Pathaḥ under the preformatives, in the Hophʿal ŏ or ŭ.

2. The meaning of Hiphʿîl is primarily, and even more frequently than in Piʿēl (§52g), causative of Qal, e.g. יָצָא‎ to go forth, Hiph. to bring forth, to lead forth, to draw forth; קָדַשׁ‎ to be holy, Hiph. to sanctify. Under the causative is also included (as in Piʿēl) the declarative sense, e.g. הִצְדִּיק‎ to pronounce just; הִרְשִׁיעַ‎ to make one an evil doer (to pronounce guilty); cf. עקשׁ‎, in Hiphʿîl, Job 9:20, to represent as perverse. If Qal has already a transitive meaning, Hiphʿîl then takes two accusatives (see §117cc). In some verbs, Piʿēl and Hiphʿîl occur side by side in the same sense, e.g. אָבַד‎ periit, Piʿēl and Hiphʿîl, perdidit; as a rule, however, only one of these two conjugations is in use, or else they differ from one another in meaning, e.g. כָּבֵד‎ gravem esse, Piʿēl to honour, Hiphʿîl to bring to honour, also to make heavy. Verbs which are intransitive in Qal simply become transitive in Hiphʿîl, e.g. נָטָה‎ to bow oneself, Hiph. to bow, to bend.

Among the ideas expressed by the causative and transitive are included, moreover, according to the Hebrew point of view (and that of the Semitic languages in general, especially Arabic), a series of actions and ideas, which we have to express by periphrasis, in order to understand their being represented by the Hiphʿîl-form. To these inwardly transitive or intensive Hiphʿîls belong: (a) Hiphʿîl stems which express the obtaining or receiving of a concrete or abstract quality. (In the following examples the Qal stems are given, for the sake of brevity, with the addition of the meaning which—often together with other meanings—belongs to the Hiphʿîl.) Thus אהל‎, זהר‎, יפע‎, צוץ‎ to be bright, to shine (to give forth brightness); opposed to חשׁךְ‎ to become dark; אמץ‎, גבר‎, חזק‎ to be strong (to develop strength), עטף‎ to be weak; ארךְ‎ to be long (to acquire length); גבהּ‎ to be high; הום‎ to be in tumult, זעק‎ to cry out, רוע‎, רנן‎ to make a noise, to exult; חלף‎ to sprout (to put forth shoots), cf. פרח‎ to bloom, עדף‎, שׁוק‎ to overflow; חרשׁ‎, חשׁה‎, סכת‎, צמת‎ to be silent (silentium facere, Pliny); מתק‎ to be sweet; צלח‎ to have success; שׁפל‎ to be low; אדם‎ to become red, לבן‎ to become white.

(b) Stems which express in Hiphʿîl the entering into a certain condition and, further, the being in the same: אמן‎ to become firm, to trust in; באשׁ‎ to become stinking; זוד‎ to become boiling, to boil over; חלה‎ to become ill; הסר‎ to come to want; חרה‎ to become hot; יבשׁ‎ to become dry, to become ashamed; יתר‎ to attain superiority; סכן‎ to become familiar; עור‎, קוץ‎ to become awake; קשׁה‎ to become hard; רגע‎, שׁקט‎ to become quiet (to keep quiet); שׁמם‎ to be astonished. The Hiphʿîl forms of some verbs of motion constitute a variety of this class: נגשׁ‎ to draw near; קרב‎ to come near; רחק‎ to withdraw far off (all these three are besides used as causatives); קדם‎ to come before.

(c) Stems which express action in some particular direction: חטא‎ to err; חלק‎ to flatter (to act smoothly); יטב‎ to act well, to do good; סכל‎ to act foolishly, שׂכל‎ to act wisely; ערם‎ to act craftily; צנע‎ to act submissively; רעע‎, רשׁע‎ to act wickedly, godlessly; שׁחת‎, תעב‎ to act corruptly, abominably; שׁלם‎ to act peacefully, to be at peace, to be submissive.

Further, there are in Hiphʿîl a considerable number of denominatives which express the bringing out, the producing of a thing, and so are properly regarded as causatives,[2] e.g. אצר‎ to set over the treasury, Nehemiah 13:13 (unless וָאְַֽצַוֶּה‎ is to be read, as in Nehemiah 7:2); בכר‎ to bring forth a firstborn; גשׁם‎ to cause to rain; זרע‎ to produce seed; ימן‎ (Hiphʿîl הֵימִין‎) to go to the right, cf. הִשְׂמְאִיל‎ to go to the left; פרס‎ to get or to have hoofs; קרן‎ to get or to have horns; שׁכל‎ to produce abortion; שׁלג‎ to become snow-white; שׁמן‎ to grow fat; שׁרשׁ‎ to put forth roots, &c.; so also according to the ordinary acceptation הֶֽאֶזְנִ֫יחוּ‎ Isaiah 19:6, they have become stinking, from אֶזְנָח‎ stinking or stench, with retention of the א‎ prosthetic, §19m (but see below, p). Of a different kind are the denominatives from: אזן‎ (scarcely to prick up the ears, but) to act with the ears, to hear; cf. לשׁן‎ to move the tongue, to slander, and the German äugeln (to make eyes), füsseln, näseln, schwänzeln; שׁבר‎ to sell corn; שׁכם‎ to set out early (to lead the back [of the camel, &c.]?); opposed to הֶֽעֱרִיב‎.

3. The meaning of Hophʿal is (a) primarily that of a passive of Hiphʿîl, e.g. הִשְׁלִיךְ‎ proiecit, הָשְׁלַךְ‎ or הֻשְׁלַךְ‎ proiectus est; (b) sometimes equivalent to a passive of Qal, as נָקַם‎ to avenge, Hoph. to be avenged (but see below, u).

Rem. 1. The î of the 3rd sing. masc. perf. Hiphʿîl remains, without exception, in the 3rd fem. (in the tone-syllable). That it was, however, only lengthened from a short vowel, and consequently is changeable, is proved by the forms of the imperative and imperfect where ē (or, under the influence of gutturals, ă) takes its place. In an open syllable the î is retained almost throughout; only in very isolated instances has it been weakened to Še (see n and o).

2. The infinitive absolute commonly has Ṣere without Yodh, e.g. הַקְדֵּשׁ‎ Judges 17:3; less frequently it takes ־ֵי‎, e.g. הַשְׁמֵיד‎ Amos 9:8; cf. Deuteronomy 15:14, Isaiah 59:4, Jeremiah 3:15, Jeremiah 23:32, Jeremiah 44:25, Job 34:35, Ecclesiastes 10:10. With א‎ instead of ה‎ (probably a mere scribal error, not an Aramaism) we find אַשְׁכֵּים‎ Jeremiah 25:3. Rare exceptions, where the form with Ṣere stands for the infinitive construct, are, e.g. Deuteronomy 32:8 (Sam; בְּהַנְחִיל‎; read perhaps בְּהַנְחִל‎), Jeremiah 44:1925, Proverbs 25:2, Job 13:3 (?); on the other hand, for לַעְשְׂר‎ Deuteronomy 26:12 (which looks like an infinitive Hiphʿîl with elision of the ה‎, for לְהַֽעֲשִׂיר‎) the right reading is simply לְעַשֵּׂר‎, since elsewhere the Piʿēl alone occurs with the meaning to tithe; for בַּעְשֵׂר‎ Nehemiah 10:39 perhaps the inf. Qal (בַּעְשׂר‎) was intended, as in 1 Samuel 8:1517 (=to take the tithe). At the same time it is doubtful whether the present punctuation does not arise from a conflation of two different readings, the Qal and the Piʿēl.

Instead of the ordinary form of the infinitive construct הַקְטִיל‎ the form הִקְטִיל‎ sometimes occurs, e.g. הִשְׁמִיד‎ to destroy, Deuteronomy 7:24, Deuteronomy 28:48; cf. Leviticus 14:46, Joshua 11:14, Jeremiah 50:34, Jeremiah 51:33 and הִקְצוֹת‎ for הַקְצוֹת‎ Leviticus 14:43 from קָצָה‎; scarcely, however, Leviticus 7:35 (see §155l), 2 Samuel 22:1 (Psalms 18:1), 1 Kings 11:16 (after עַד‎), and in the passages so explained by König (i. 276) where הִשְׁאִיר‎ appears after prepositions[3]; [cf. Driver on Deuteronomy 3:3, Deuteronomy 4:15, Deuteronomy 7:24, Deuteronomy 28:55].

With ă in the second syllable there occurs הַזְכַּרְכֶם‎ Ezekiel 21:29 (cf. the substantival infin. הַפְצַ֑ר‎ 1 Samuel 15:23).—In the Aram. manner לְהַשְׁמָעוּת‎ is found in Ezekiel 24:26 (as a construct form) for the infinitive Hiphʿîl (cf. the infinitive Hithpa‛el, Daniel 11:23). On the elision of the ה‎ after prefixes, see q.

3. In the imperative the î is retained throughout in the open syllable, according to i, and consequently also before suffixes (see §61g) and ־ָה‎ paragogic, e.g. הַקְשִׁ֫יבָה‎ attend to, הוֹשִׁ֫יעָה נָּא‎ Psalms 118:25, as in ed. Mant., Jabl;, Baer, not הוֹשִׁיעָ֫ה נָּא‎ as Ginsb. and Kittel; with the tone at the end only הַצְלְיחָה‎ ibid. v. 25b. On the other hand, in the 2nd sing. masc. the original ĭ (cf. Arabic ’áqtĭl) is lengthened to ē, e.g. הַשְׁמֵן‎ make fat, and becomes Seeghôl before Maqqeph, e.g. הַסְכֶּן־נָא‎ Job 22:21.—The form הַקְטִיל‎ for הַקְטֵל‎ appears anomalously a few times: Psalms 94:1, Isaiah 43:8, Jeremiah 17:18 (cf. §69v and §72y); elsewhere the Masora has preferred the punctuation הַקְטֵיל‎, e.g. 2 Kings 8:6; cf. Psalms 142:5.—In Lamentations 5:1 הַבִּ֫יטָה‎ is required by the Qe for הביט‎. 4. In the imperfect Hiphʿîl the shorter form with Ṣere prevails for the jussive in the 3rd masc. and fem. and 2nd masc. sing., e.g. אַל־תַּגְדֵּל‎ make not great, Obadiah 1:12; יַכְרֵת‎ let Him cut off! Psalms 12:4; even incorrectly תַּגֵּיד‎ Exodus 19:3 and יַגֵּיד‎ Ecclesiastes 10:20; cf. also יַבְעֶר־‎ Exodus 22:4, where the jussive form is to be explained according to §109h, and יַֽאֲבֶר‎ Job 39:26 before the principal pause. Similarly, after ו‎ consec., e.g. וַיַּבְדֵּל‎ and He divided, Genesis 1:4. On the other hand, î is almost always retained in the 1st sing., e.g. וָאַֽשְׁמִיד‎ Amos 2:9 (but generally without י‎, as וָאַֽסְתִּר‎ Ezekiel 39:23 f., &c.); cf. §49e and §74l, but also §72aa; in 1st plur. only in Nehemiah 4:3; in the 3rd sing. Psalms 105:28. With ă in the principal pause וַתּוֹתַר‎ Ruth 2:14, and in the lesser pause, Genesis 49:4; before a sibilant (see §29q) וַיַּגַּשׁ‎ Judges 6:19; in the lesser pause וַיַּקַּף‎ Lamentations 3:5. Before Maqqeph the Ṣere becomes Seghôl, e.g. וַיַּֽחֲזֶק־בּוֹ‎ Judges 19:4. In the plural again, and before suffixes, î remains in the forms יַקְטִ֫ילוּ‎, תַּקְטִ֫ילוּ‎, even in the jussive and after ו‎ consecutive, e.g. וַיַּדְבִּ֫יקוּ‎ Judges 18:22. The only exceptions, where the î is weakened to Še, are וַיַּדְרְכוּ‎ Jeremiah 9:2; וַיַּדְבְּקוּ‎ 1 Samuel 14:22, 1 Samuel 31:2, 1 Chronicles 10:2; יַֽעַבְרוּ‎ Jeremiah 11:15; וָֽאוֹצְרָה‎ Nehemiah 13:13, if it is Hiphʿîl of אצר‎, but probably וָֽאֲצַוֶּה‎ is to be read, as in Nehemiah 7:2; perhaps also תַּהְכְּרוּ‎ Job 19:3 (according to others, imperfect Qal). The same weakening occurs also in the imperfect in 3rd and masc. sing. before suffixes, 1 Samuel 17:25, 1 Kings 20:33, Psalms 65:10, and in Job 9:20, unless the form be Piʿēl=וַיְעַקְשֵׁנִי‎, since the Hiphʿîl is not found elsewhere. It is hardly likely that in these isolated examples we have a trace of the ground-form, yaqtĭl, or an Aramaism. More probably they are due partly to a misunderstanding of the defective writing, which is found, by a purely orthographic licence, in numerous other cases (even in 3rd sing. יַשְׁלִ֑ם‎ Isaiah 44:28), and partly are intended, as formae mixtae, to combine the forms of Qal and Hiphʿîl. Instead of the firmly closed syllable, the Masora requires in Genesis 1:11 תַּֽדְשֵׁא‎, with euphonic Ga‛ya (see §16h).

5. In the participle, מ֫וֹצֵא‎ Psalms 135:7 appears to be traceable to the ground-form, maqtĭl; yet the Ṣere may also possibly be explained by the retraction of the tone. The Masora appears to require the weakening of the vowel to Še (see above, n) in מַהְלְכִים‎ Zechariah 3:7 (probably, however, מַֽהֲלָכִים‎ should be read), also in מַחְלְמִים‎ Jeremiah 29:8, מַעְזְרִים‎ 2 Chronicles 28:23 (but as ם‎ precedes, and accordingly dittography may well have taken place, the participle Qal is probably to be read in both places; the reading of the text is perhaps again intended to combine Qal and Hiphʿîl, see above, n), and in the Qe מַחְצְרִים‎ 1 Chronicles 15:24 &c. (where the Kethîbh מַֽחֲצֹֽצְרִים‎ is better).—The fem. is ordinarily pointed as מַזְכֶּ֫רֶת‎ Numbers 5:15, מַשֶּׂגֶת‎ Leviticus 14:21; in pause מַשְׂכָּֽלֶת‎ Proverbs 19:14.

6. In the perfect there occur occasionally such forms as הֶכְלַ֫מְנוּ‎ 1 Samuel 25:7; cf. Genesis 41:28, 2 Kings 17:11, Jeremiah 29:1, Micah 6:3, Job 16:7; with the original ă in the first syllable וְהַרְאֵיתִ֫י‎ Nahum 3:5.—In אֶגְאָֽלְתִּי‎[4] I have stained, Isaiah 63:3, א‎ stands at the beginning instead of ה‎, cf. above, k, on אַשְׁכֵּים‎. On the other hand, וְהֶֽאֶזְנִ֫יחוּ‎ Isaiah 19:6 (see above, g) is a mere error of the scribe, who had the Aramaic form in mind and corrected it by prefixing ה‎.

7. In the imperfect and participle the characteristic ה‎ is regularly elided after the preformatives, thus יַקְמִיל‎, מַקְמִיל‎; but it is retained in the infinitive after prepositions, e.g. לְהַקְמִיל‎. The exceptions are in the imperfect, יְהוֹשִׁיעַ‎ He will save for יוֹשִׁיעַ‎ 1 Samuel 17:47, Psalms 116:6 (in pause); יְהוֹדֶה‎ He will praise for יוֹדֶה‎ Nehemiah 11:17, Psalms 28:7, Psalms 45:18 (cf. the proper name יְהוּכַל‎ Jeremiah 37:3, for which Jeremiah 38:1 יוּכַל‎ [and יְהוֹסֵף‎ Psalms 81:6); [יְהֵילִילוּ‎ (§70d) Isaiah 52:5, יְהָתֵ֫לּוּ‎ Jeremiah 9:4, תְּהָתֵ֫לּוּ‎ Job 13:9] and מְהֻקְצָעוֹת‎ Ezekiel 46:22; in the infinitive (where, however, as in Niphʿal, §51l, the infinitive Qal is generally to be read) לַסְתִּר‎ Isaiah 29:15 for לְהַסְתִּיר‎; לַנְפִּל‎ and לַצְבּוֹת‎ Numbers 5:22; לַֽעֲבִיר‎ 2 Samuel 19:19; לַֽהֲלִק‎ Jeremiah 37:12; לַֽחֲטִיא‎ Ecclesiastes 5:5; לַלְבֵּן‎ (doubly anomalous for לְהַלְבִּין‎) Daniel 11:35; לַשְׁמִעַ‎ Psalms 26:7; לַֽאֲדִיב‎ 1 Samuel 2:33; לַשְׁמִד‎ Isaiah 23:11; וְלַשְׁבִּית‎ Amos 8:4 (certainly corrupt); בָּעִיר‎ for בְּהָעִיר‎ Psalms 73:20 (but in the city is probably meant); לָבִיא‎ Jeremiah 39:7 (2 Chronicles 31:10); לַמְרוֹת‎ Isaiah 3:8, Psalms 78:17; לַנְחוֹתָם‎ Exodus 13:21; כַּנְּלוֹת‎ (see, however, §20h) Isaiah 33:1; לַרְאֹֽתְכֶם‎ Deuteronomy 1:33: cf. further, from verbs ל״ה‎, Numbers 5:22, Jeremiah 27:20; on Deuteronomy 26:12 and Nehemiah 10:39, see above, k; for לַמְחוֹת‎ Proverbs 31:3 read לְמֹחוֹת‎ or לִמְמַחוֹת‎.

8. With regard to the tone it is to be observed that the afformatives וּ‎ and ־ָה‎ in Hiphʿîl have not the tone, even in the perfect with waw consecutive (except in Exodus 26:33 before ה‎, Leviticus 15:29 before א‎, to avoid a hiatus); but the plural ending וּן‎ (see §47m) always has the tone, e.g. תַּקִרִב֫וּן‎ Deuteronomy 1:17.

9. The passive (Hophʿal) has ŭ instead of Qameṣ ḥaṭuph in the first syllable (הֻקְטַל‎), in the strong verb less frequently in the perfect and infinitive, but generally in the participle, through the influence of the initial מ‍‎ (but cf. מָשְׁחָת‎ Proverbs 25:26); e.g. הֻשְׁכַּב‎ Ezekiel 32:32 (beside הָשְׁכְּבָה‎ Ezekiel 32:19); הֻשְׁלַךְ‎ impf. יֻשְׁלַךְ‎, part. מֻשְׁלָךְ‎ 2 Samuel 20:21 (beside הָשְׁלַכְתָּ‎ Isaiah 14:19) הֻמְלַ֫חַתְּ‎ Ezekiel 16:4; in the partic. Hoph. without elision of the ה‎: מְהֻקְצָעוֹת‎ Ezekiel 46:22; on the other hand, verbs פּ״ן‎ always have ŭ (in a sharpened syllable): הֻגַּד‎, יֻגַּד‎ (cf. §9n).

10. The infinitive absolute has in Hophʿal (as in Hiphʿîl) Ṣere in the last syllable, e.g. הָחְתֵּל‎ and הָמְלֵחַ‎ Ezekiel 16:4; הֻגֵּד‎ Joshua 9:24. An infinitive construct does not occur in the strong verb.

11. With regard to the imperative Hophʿal, see above, §46a, note.

12. According to Böttcher (Ausführliches Lehrbuch, § 906) and Barth (see above, §52e) a number of supposed imperfects Hophʿal are, in fact, imperfects of the passive of Qal. As in the case of the perfects passive of Qal (see above, §52e) the question is again of verbs of which neither the corresponding causative (i.e. here the Hiphʿîl), nor the other tense of the same conjugation (i.e. here the perfect Hophʿal) is found; so with יֻקַּם‎ (for יֻנְקַם‎, cf. yuqtălŭ as imperfect Qal in Arabic) and יֻתַּן‎, from נָקַם‎ and נָתַן‎; יֻקַּח‎ from לָקַח‎ (cf. §66g); יוּאָר‎ Numbers 22:6 from אָרַר‎; יֻחַן‎ from חָנַן‎; יוּשָּׁ֑ד‎ Hosea 10:14 (cf. Isaiah 33:1) from שָׁדַד‎; Barth adds the verbs פ״ן‎: תֻּתַּשׁ‎ Ezekiel 19:12 from נתשׁ‎; יֻתָּץ‎ Leviticus 11:35 from נתץ‎; the verbs ע״ע‎: יֻחָ֫קוּ‎ Job 19:23 from חקק‎; יֻכַּת‎ &c. from כּתת‎; the verb ע״וּ‎: יוּדַשׁ‎ from דּוּשׁ‎; the verbs ע״י‎: יוּחָ֫ל‎, יוּשַׁר‎, יוּשַׁת‎ from חִיל‎, שִׁיר‎ and שִׁית‎. On וַיִּ֫ישֶׂם‎ &c., §73f. In point of fact it would be very strange, especially in the case of יֻתַּן‎ and יֻקַּח‎, that of these frequently used verbs, amongst all the forms of Hiphʿîl and Hophʿal, only the imperfect Hophʿal should have been preserved. A passive of Qal is also indicated in the Tellel-Amarna letters, according to Knudtzon, by a number of imperfect forms, which are undoubtedly due to Canaanite influence, cf. Beitr. zur Assyriologie, iv. 410.

Footnotes:
  1. This î may have been transferred originally from the imperfects of verbs ע״וּ‎, as a convenient means of distinction between the indicative and jussive, to the imperfect of the strong verb and afterwards to the whole of Hiphʿîl; so Stade, Philippi, Praetorius, ZAW. 1883, p. 52 f.
  2. The same ideas are also paraphrased by the verb עָשָׂה‎ (to make), e.g. to make fat, for, to produce fat upon his body, Job 15:27; to make fruit, to make branches, for, to put forth, to yield, Job 14:9, Hosea 8:7, cf. the Lat. corpus, robur, sobolem, divitias facere, and the Ital. far corpo, far forze, far frutto.
  3. As to the doubtfulness, on general grounds, of this form of the Inf. Hiph., see Robertson Smith in the Journ. of Philol., xvi. p. 72 f.
  4. Most probably, however, גֵּאָ֫לְתִּי‎ (perfect Piʿēl) is to be read, and the א‎ is only an indication of the change of the perfect into the imperfect, as also previously, by a change of punctuation, וְאדרכם‎ and וְיֵז‎ (instead of וָֽאֶדְ׳‎ and וָיֵּז‎) are made future instead of past. Jewish exegesis applied these Edomoracles to the Roman (i.e. Christian) empire. So G. Moore in Theol. Literaturzeitung, 1887, col. 292.
adsFree icon
Ads FreeProfile