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Bible Lexicons

Gesenius Hebrew Grammer

Part 57

C. Strong Verb with Pronominal Suffixes.[1]

The accusative of the personal pronoun, depending on an active verb,[2] may be expressed (1) by a separate word, אֵת‎ the accusative sign (before a suffix אֶת‎, אֹת‎) with the pronominal suffix, e.g. קָטַל אֹתוֹ‎ he has killed him; or (2) by a mere suffix, קְטָלָ֫הוּ‎ or קְטָלוֹ‎ he has killed him. The latter is the usual method (§33), and we are here concerned with it alone.[3] Neither of these methods, however, is employed when the accusative of the pronoun is reflexive. In that case a reflexive verb is used, viz. Niphʿal or Hithpaʿēl (§§51 and 54), e.g. הִתְקַדֵּשׁ‎ he sanctified himself, not קִדְּשׁוֹ‎, which could only mean he sanctified him.[4]

Two points must be specially considered here: the form of the suffix itself (§58), and the form which the verb takes when suffixes are added to it (§§5961).

  1. This subject of the verbal suffixes is treated here in connexion with the strong verb, in order that both the forms of the suffixes and the general laws which regulate their union with verbal forms may be clearly seen. The rules which relate to the union of the suffixes with weak verbs will be given under the several classes of those verbs.
  2. An accusative suffix occurs with Niphʿal in Psalms 109:3 (since נִלְחַם‎ is used in the sense of to attack), and according to some, in Isaiah 44:21; with Hithpaʿēl Isaiah 14:2 (הִתְנַחֵל‎ to appropriate somebody to oneself as a possession); cf. above, §54f, and §117w.
  3. On the cases where אֵת‎ is necessary, see §117e.
  4. The exceptions in Jeremiah 7:19, Ezekiel 34:2-8.10 are only apparent. In all these instances the sharp antithesis between אֹתָם‎ (themselves) and another object could only be expressed by retaining the same verb; also in Exodus 5:19 אֹתָם‎ after an active verb serves to emphasize the idea of themselves.
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