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Bible Lexicons

Gesenius Hebrew Grammer

Part 60

§60. Imperfect with Pronominal Suffixes.

In those forms of the imperfect Qal, which have no afformatives, the vowel ō of the second syllable mostly becomes ־ְ‎ (simple Šewâ mobile), sometimes ־ֳ‎; thus in the principal pause, Numbers 35:20, Isaiah 27:3, Isaiah 62:2, Jeremiah 31:33, Ezekiel 35:6, Hosea 10:10; before the principal pause, Psalms 119:33; before a secondary pause, Ezekiel 17:23; even before a conjunctive accent, Joshua 23:5. Before ־ְךָ‎, ־ְכֶם‎, however, it is shortened to Qameṣ ḥaṭuph, e.g. יִשְׁמָרְךָ‎ (but in pause יִשְׁמְרֶ֫ךָ‎ or יִשְׁמְרֶ֫ךָּ‎; with Nûn energicum, see §58i), יִשְׁמָרְכֶם‎, &c. Instead of תִּקְטֹ֫לְנָה‎, the form תִּקְטְלוּ‎[1] is used for the 2nd and 3rd fem. plur. before suffixes in three places: Jeremiah 2:19, Job 19:15, Song of Solomon 1:6.

Rem. 1. יְחָבְרְךָ‎ Psalms 94:20 is an anomalous form for יַחְבָּרְךָ‎ (cf. the analogous יָחְנְךָ‎ §67n) and יִֽפְגָֽשְׁךָ‎ (so Baer; others יִפְגָּֽשְׁךָ‎) Genesis 32:18 for יִפְגָּֽשֲׁךָ‎. To the same category as יְחָבְרְךָ‎ belong also, according to the usual explanation, תָּֽעָבְדֵם‎ (from תַּֽעֲבֹד‎), Exodus 20:5, Exodus 23:24, Deuteronomy 5:9, and נָֽעָב׳‎ Deuteronomy 13:3. As a matter of fact, the explanation of these forms as imperfects of Qal appears to be required by the last of these passages; yet why has the retraction of the ŏ taken place only in these examples (beside numerous forms like יַֽעַבְדֵ֫נִי‎)? Could the Masora in the two Decalogues and in Exodus 23:24 (on the analogy of which Deuteronomy 13:3 was then wrongly pointed) have intended an imperfect Hophʿal with the suffix, meaning thou shalt not allow thyself to be brought to worship them?

Verbs which have a in the second syllable of the imperfect, and imperative, Qal (to which class especially verba tertiae and mediae gutturalis belong, §64 and §65) do not, as a rule, change the Pathaḥ of the imperfect (nor of the imperative, see §61g) into Še before suffixes; but the Pathaḥ, coming to stand in an open syllable before the tone, is lengthened to Qameṣ, e.g. וַיִּלְבָּשֵׁ֫נִי‎ Job 29:14; יִגְאָל֫וּהוּ‎ Job 3:5; וַיִּשְׁלָחֵם‎ Joshua 8:3; יִקְרָאֻ֫הוּ‎ Psalms 145:18; but יִקְרְאוֹ‎ Jeremiah 23:6, is probably a forma mixta combining the readings יִקְרָאוֹ‎ and יִקְרְאוּ‎, cf. §74e.

2. Not infrequently suffixes with the connecting vowel a are also found with the imperfect, e.g. תִּדְבָּקַ֫נִי‎ Genesis 19:19, cf. Genesis 29:32, Exodus 33:20, Numbers 22:33, 1 Kings 2:24 Qe, Isaiah 56:3, Job 9:18; also ־ַ֫נִּי‎, Genesis 27:1931, Job 7:14, Job 9:34, Job 13:21 (in principal pause); וַיַּכִּירָהּ‎ Genesis 37:33, cf. Genesis 16:7, 2 Samuel 11:27, Isaiah 26:5, Job 28:27, 1 Chronicles 20:2; יַכִּירָ֑נוּ‎ Isaiah 63:16 (manifestly owing to the influence of the preceding יְדָעָ֫נוּ‎); יִלְבָּשָׁם‎ Exodus 29:30, cf. Exodus 2:17, Numbers 21:30, Deuteronomy 7:15, Psalms 74:8; even אֲמִילַֽם‎ Psalms 118:10821112; וַיּֽוֹשִׁיעָן‎ Exodus 2:17, and יְחִיתַֽן‎ Habakkuk 2:17 (where, however, the ancient versions read יְחִתֶּ֫ךָ‎); even יִרְדְּפוֹ‎ (ô from āhu) Hosea 8:3; cf. Exodus 22:29, Joshua 2:4 (but read וַתִּצְפְּנֵם‎); 1 Samuel 18:1 Keth., 1 Samuel 21:14 (where, however, the text is corrupt); 2 Samuel 14:6 (where read with the old versions וַיַּךְ‎); Jeremiah 23:6 (see §74e), Psalms 35:8, Ecclesiastes 4:12.—On pausal Seghôl for Ṣere in וַֽאֲבָֽרֲכָֽם‎ Genesis 48:9 and וַתְּאַֽלֲצֶ֑הוּ‎ (so Baer, but ed. Mant., Ginsb. וַתְּאַלְצֵ֑הוּ‎) Judges 16:16, see §29q.

3. Suffixes are also appended in twelve passages to the plural forms in וּן‎, viz. תְּדַכְּאוּנַ֫נִי‎, will ye break me in pieces? Job 19:2; יְשָֽׁרְת֑וּנֶךְ‎ (here necessarily with a connecting vowel) Isaiah 60:710; Proverbs 5:22 (וֹ‎ but probably corrupt); elsewhere always without a connecting vowel; יִקְרָאֻ֫נְנִי‎ with two other examples Proverbs 1:28, Proverbs 8:17, Hosea 5:15; cf. ־֫וּנְךָ‎ Psalms 63:4, Psalms 91:12; ־ֻ֫נְהוּ‎ Jeremiah 5:22; ־֫וּנְהָ‎ Jeremiah 2:24, all in principal pause. [See Böttcher, Lehrb., § 1047 f.]

4. In Piʿēl, Pôʿēl, and Poʿlēl, the Ṣere of the final syllable, like the ō in Qal, becomes vocal Še; but before the suffixes ־ְךָ‎ and ־ְכֶם‎ it is shortened to Seghôl, e.g. יְקַבֶּצְךָ‎ Deuteronomy 30:4, Psalms 34:12, Isaiah 51:2. With a final guttural, however, אֲשַׁלֵּֽחֲךָ‎ Genesis 32:27; also in Proverbs 4:8, where with Qimḥi תְּכַבֵּ֫דְךָ‎ is to be read. ē is retained in the tone-syllable; an analogous case in Hiphʿîl is וְיַגֵּ֫דְךָ‎ Deuteronomy 32:7. Less frequently Ṣere is sharpened to Ḥireq, e.g. אֲאַמִּצְכֶם‎ Job 16:5, cf. Exodus 31:13, Isaiah 1:15, Isaiah 52:12; so in Poʿlēl, Isaiah 25:1, Psalms 30:2, Psalms 37:34, Psalms 145:1, and probably also in Qal אֹֽסִפְךָ‎ 1 Samuel 15:6; cf. §68h.

5. In Hiphʿîl the î remains, e.g. תַּלְבִּישֵׁ֫נִי‎ Job 10:11 (after wāw consecutive it is often written defectively, e.g. וַיַּלְבִּשֵׁם‎ Genesis 3:21 and ofton); but cf. above, f, Deuteronomy 32:7. Forms like תַּעְשְׁרֶ֫נָּה‎ thou enrichest it, Psalms 65:10, 1 Samuel 17:25, are rare. Cf. §53n.

6. Instead of the suffix of the 3rd plur. fem. (ן‎), the suffix of the 3rd plur. masc. (ם‎) is affixed to the afformative וּ‎, to avoid a confusion with the personal ending וּן‎; cf. וַיְמַלְאוּם‎ Genesis 26:15 (previously also with a perf. סִתְּמוּם‎); Genesis 26:18, Genesis 33:13, Exodus 2:17 (where וַיּֽוֹשִׁעָן‎ occurs immediately after); Exodus 39:1820, 1 Samuel 6:10 (where also בְּנֵיהֶם‎ is for בְּנֵיהֶן‎, a neglect of gender which can only be explained by §135o).—For יַֽהַרְגֻן‎ Zechariah 11:5 read perhaps יַֽהַרְגֵן‎ with M. Lambert.

  1. This form is also found as feminine without a suffix, in Jeremiah 49:11, Ezekiel 37:7. In the latter passage וַתִּקְרְבוּ‎ is probably to be regarded, with König, as a clumsy correction of the original וַיִּק׳‎, intended to suggest the reading וַתִּקְרַ֫בְנָה‎, to agree with the usual gender of עֲצָמוֹת‎.
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