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Bible Lexicons

Gesenius Hebrew Grammer

Part 65

§65. Verbs Third Guttural, e.g. שָׁלַח‎ to send.[1]

1. According to §22d, when the last syllable has a vowel incompatible with the guttural (i.e. not an a-sound), two possibilities present themselves, viz. either the regular vowel remains, and the guttural then takes furtive Pathaḥ, or Pathaḥ (in pause Qameṣ) takes its place. More particularly it is to be remarked that—

(a) The unchangeable vowels ־ִי‎, וֹ‎, וּ‎ (§25b) are always retained, even under such circumstances; hence inf. abs. Qal שָׁלוֹחַ‎, part. pass. שָׁלוּחַ‎, Hiph. הִשְׁלִיחַ‎, imperf. יַשְׁלִיחַ‎, part. מַשְׁלִיחַ‎. So also the less firm ō in the inf. constr. שְׁלֹח‎ is almost always retained: cf., however, שְׁלַח‎, in close connexion with a substantive, Isaiah 58:9, and גְּוע‎ Numbers 20:3. Examples of the infinitive with suffixes are בְּבָרְחֲךָ‎ Genesis 35:1; בְּפִגְעוֹ‎ Numbers 35:19; לְרִבְעָהּ‎ Leviticus 18:23, &c.

(b) The imperfect and imperative Qal almost always have ă in the second syllable, sometimes, no doubt, due simply to the influence of the guttural (for a tone-long ō, originally ŭ), but sometimes as being the original vowel, thus יִשְׁלַה‎, שְׁלַח‎, &c.; with suffixes יִשְׁלָחֵ֫נִי‎, שְׁלָחֵ֫נִי‎, see §60c. Exceptions, in the imperfect אסלוח‎ Jeremiah 5:7, Keth. (אֶסְלַח‎ Qe); in the imperative טְבֹחַ‎ Genesis 43:16. On such cases as אֶפְשֳׂעָה‎ Isaiah 27:4, cf. §10h.

(c) Where Ṣere would be the regular vowel of the final syllable, both forms (with ēa and ă) are sometimes in use; the choice of one or the other is decided by the special circumstances of the tone, i.e.:—

Rem. 1. In the absolute state of the participle Qal, Piʿēl and Hithpaʿēl, the forms שֹׁלֵחַ‎ (with suff. שֹֽׁלְחִי‎, but שֹׁלֵֽחֲךָ‎), מְשַׁלֵּחַ‎ (with suff. מְשַׁלּֽחֲךָ‎), and מִשְׁתַּגֵּעַ‎ are used exclusively; except in verbs ל״ע‎ where we find, in close connexion, also נֹטַע‎ Psalms 94:9, רֹגַע‎ Isaiah 51:15, Jeremiah 31:35, רֹקַע‎ Isaiah 42:5, Isaiah 44:24, רוֹקַע‎ Psalms 136:6, שֹׁסָע‎ Leviticus 11:7, all with the tone on the last syllable.—The part. Puʿal is מְרֻבַּע‎ Ezekiel 45:2 according to the best authorities (Kittel מְרֻבָּע‎).

2. Similarly, in the imperf. and inf. Niphʿal, and in the perf. inf. and imperf. Piʿēl the (probably more original) form with ă commonly occurs in the body of the sentence, and the fuller form with ēa in pause (and even with the lesser distinctives, e.g. with Dehi Psalms 86:4 in the imperative Piʿēl; with Ṭiphḥa 1 Kings 12:32 in the infinitive Piʿēl; Jeremiah 4:31 imperfect Hithpaʿēl; Jeremiah 16:6 imperfect Niphʿal), cf. e.g. יִגָּרַע‎ Numbers 27:4, with יִגָּרֵעַֽ‎ Numbers 36:3; וַיִּשָּׁבַע‎ Deuteronomy 1:34, even with retraction of the tone in the inf. abs. Niphʿal הִשָּׁבַע‎ Numbers 30:3 (elsewhere הִשָּׁבֵעַ‎ Jeremiah 7:9, Jeremiah 12:16 twice, in each case without the pause); תְּבַקַּע־‎ Habakkuk 3:9, with תְּבַקֵּֽעַ‎ Ezekiel 13:11; בַּלַּע‎ to devour Habakkuk 1:13, Numbers 4:20 with בַּלֵּ֑עַ‎ Lamentations 2:8; for infinitive Hithpaʿēl, cf. Isaiah 28:20. The infinitive absolute Piʿē̇l has the from שַׁלֵּחַ‎ Deuteronomy 22:7, 1 Kings 11:22; the infinitive construct, on the other hand, when without the pause is always as שַׁלַּח‎ except לְשַׁלֵּחַ‎ Exodus 10:4.— יְזַבֵּחַ‎ Habakkuk 1:16 has ē, though not in pause, and even וַיְזַבֵּחַ‎ 2 Kings 16:4, 2 Chronicles 28:4; but a in pause in the imperative Niphʿal הֵֽאָנַ֑ח‎ Ezekiel 21:11; jussive Piʿēl תְּאַחַר‎ Psalms 40:18; cf. §52n. An example of ă in the imperative Piʿēl under the influence of a final ר‎ is כַּתַּר־‎ Job 36:2, in the imperfect Niphʿal וָתֵּֽעָצַר‎ Numbers 17:13, &c.—In יַפְרִחַ‎ Job 14:9 (cf. Psalms 92:14, Proverbs 14:11), Barth (see above, §63n) finds an i-imperfect of Qal, since the intransitive meaning is only found in Qal.

3. In the 2nd sing. masc. of the imperative, and in the forms of the jussive and imperfect consecutive of Hiphʿîl which end in gutturals, a alone occurs, e.g. הַצְלַח‎ prosper thou, יַבְטַח‎ let him make to trust, וַיַּצְמַח‎ and he made to grow (so in Hithpalpel יִחְמַהְמַהּ‎, &c., Habakkuk 2:3); even in pause וַיַּצְלַ֑ח‎ 1 Chronicles 29:23, and, with the best authorities, וְיוֹכָֽח‎ 1 Chronicles 12:17; וְישַֽׁעֲךֶ‎ Isaiah 35:4 is perhaps to be emended into וְישִֽׁעֲ׳‎ (=וְיוֹשִׁיע׳‎).—In the infinitive absolute Ṣere remains, e.g. הַגְבֵּהַּ‎ to make high; as infinitive construct חוֹכַח‎ also occurs in close connexion (Job 6:26); on הוֹשֵׁעַ‎ as infinitive construct (1 Samuel 25:2633), cf. §53k.

2. When the guttural with quiescent Še stands at the end of a syllable, the ordinary strong form remains when not connected with suffixes, e.g. שָׁלַ֫חְתָּ‎, שָׁלַ֫חְתִּי‎. But in the 2nd sing. fem. perfect a helping-Pathaḥ takes the place of the Še, שָׁכַ֫חַתְּ‎ Jeremiah 13:25 (§28e); also in, 1 Kings 14:3, לָקַ֫חַתְּ‎ is to be read, not לָקַחְתְּ‎.

Rem. The soft combination with compound Še occurs only in the 1st plur. perfect with suffixes, since in these forms the tone is thrown one place farther forward, e.g. יְדַֽעֲנ֫וּךָ‎ we know thee, Hosea 8:2 (cf. Genesis 26:29, Psalms 44:18, Psalms 132:6). Before the suffixes ךָ‎ and בֶם‎, the guttural must have ־ֲ‎, e.g. אֶשְׁלָֽהֲךָ‎ I will send thee, 1 Samuel 16:1; וָֽאֲשַׁלֵּֽחֲךָ‎ Genesis 31:27; אַשְׁמִֽיעֲךָ‎ Jeremiah 18:2.

On the weak verbs ל״א‎, see especially § 74.

Footnotes:
  1. Verbs ל״ה‎ in which the ה‎ is consonantal obviously belong also to this class, e.g. גָּבַהּ‎ to be high, תָּמַהּ‎ to be astonished, מָהַהּ‎ (only in Hithpalpel) to delay.
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