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Bible Lexicons

Gesenius Hebrew Grammer

Part 67

§67. Verbs ע״ע‎, e.g. סָבַב‎ to surround.
Brockelmann, Semit. Sprachwiss., p. 155 ff.; Grundriss, p. 632 ff. See B. Halper, 'The Participial formations of the Geminate Verbs' in ZAW. 1910, pp. 42 ff., 99 ff., 201 ff. (also dealing with the regular verb).

1. A large number of Semitic stems have verbal forms with only two radicals, as well as forms in which the stem has been made triliteral by a repetition of the second radical, hence called verbs ע״ע‎. Forms with two radicals were formerly explained as being due to contraction from original forms with three radicals. It is more correct to regard them as representing the original stem (with two radicals), and the forms with the second radical repeated as subsequently developed from the monosyllabic stem.[1] The appearance of a general contraction of triliteral stems is due to the fact that in biliteral forms the second radical regularly receives Dageš forte before afformatives, except in the cases noted in §22b and q. This points, however, not to an actual doubling, but merely to a strengthening of the consonant, giving more body to the monosyllabic stem, and making it approximate more to the character of triliteral forms.

The development of biliteral to triliteral stems (ע״ע‎) generally takes place in the 3rd sing. masc. and fem. and 3rd plur. perfect Qal of transitive verbs, or at any rate of verbs expressing an activity, e.g. סָבַב‎, סָֽבְבָה‎, סָֽבְבוּ‎: חָנַן‎ Genesis 33:5 (but with suffix חַנַּ֫נִי‎, ver. 11); sometimes with an evident distinction between transitive and intransitive forms, as צָרַר‎ to make strait, צַר‎ to be in a strait; see further details, including the exceptions, in aa. The development of the stem takes place (a) necessarily whenever the strengthening of the 2nd radical is required by the character of the form (e.g. חִלֵּל‎, שֻׁדֵּד‎), and (b) as a rule, whenever the 2nd radical is followed or preceded by an essentially long vowel, as, in Qal, סָבוֹב‎, סָבוּב‎, in Pôʿl and Pôʿal, סוֹבֵב‎, סוֹבַב‎.

2. The biliteral stem always (except in Hiphʿîl and the imperfect Niphʿal, see below) takes the vowel which would have been required between the second and third radical of the ordinary strong form, or which stood in the ground-form, since that vowel is characteristic of the form (§43b), e.g. תַּם‎ answering to קָטַל‎, תַּ֫מָּה‎ to the ground-form qăṭălăt, תַּ֫מּוּ‎ to the ground-form qăṭălû; infinitive, סֹב‎ to קְטֹל‎.

3. The insertion of Dageš forte (mentioned under a), for the purpose of strengthening the second radical, never takes place (see §20l) in the final consonant of the word, e.g. תַּם‎, סֹב‎, not תַּםּ‎, סֹבּ‎; but it appears again on the addition of afformatives or suffixes, e.g. תַּמּ֫וּ‎, סֹ֫בּוּ‎, סַבּ֫וּנִי‎, &c.

4. When the afformative begins with a consonant (נ‍‎, ת‎), and hence the strongly pronounced second radical would properly come at the end of a closed syllable, a separating vowel is inserted between the stem-syllable and the afformative. In the perfect this vowel is וֹ‎, in the imperative and imperfect ־ֶי‎, e.g. סַבּ֫וֹתָ‎, סַבּ֫וֹנוּ‎, imperfect תְּסֻבֶּ֫ינָה‎ (for sabb-tā, sabb-nû, tasōbb-nā). The artificial opening of the syllable by this means is merely intended to make the strengthening of the second radical audible.[2]

The perfect תַּ֫מְנוּ‎ (for תַּמּ֫וֹנוּ‎) Numbers 17:28, Psalms 64:7 (Jeremiah 44:18 תָּֽמְנוֹ‎ with Silluq), owing to omission of the separating vowel, approximates, if the text is right, to the form of verbs ע״וּ‎ (cf. קַ֫מְנוּ‎ from קוּם‎).

5. Since the preformatives of the imperfect Qal, of the perfect Niphʿal, and of Hiphʿîl and Hophʿal throughout, before a monosyllabic stem form an open syllable, they take a long vowel before the tone (according to §27e), e.g. imperfect Hiphʿîl יָסֵב‎ for yă-sēb, imperative הָסֵב‎ for yă-sēb, &c. Where the preformatives in the strong verb have ĭ, either the original ă (from which the ĭ was attenuated) is retained and lengthened, e.g. יָסֹב‎ in imperfect Qal for yă-sōb, or the ĭ itself is lengthened to ē, e.g. הֵסֵב‎ perfect Hiphʿîl for hĭ-sēb (see further under h). The vowel thus lengthened can be maintained, however, only before the tone (except the û of the Hophʿal, הוּסַב‎ for hŭ-săb); when the tone is thrown forward it becomes Še, according to §27k (under א‎ and ה‎ compound Še), e.g. תָּסֹב‎, but תֵּסֻבֶּ֫ינָה‎; imperfect Hiphʿîl תָּסֵב‎, but תְּסִבֶּ֫ינָה‎; perfect הֲסִבֹּתִי‎, &c.

Besides the ordinary form of the imperfects, there is another (common in Aramaic), in which the imperfect Qal is pronounced יִסֹּב‎ or יִסַּב‎, the first radical, not the second, being strengthened by Dageš forte, cf. יִשֹּׁם‎ 1 Kings 9:8, וַיִּקֹּד‎ Genesis 24:26; with a in the second syllable, יִגָּ֑ר‎ Leviticus 11:7, יִדַּל‎ Isaiah 17:4, וַיִּשַּׁח‎ Isaiah 2:9, &c., יִדֹּם‎ Amos 5:13 and frequently, וָאֶֽכֹּת‎ Deuteronomy 9:21, &c., יִסֹּב‎ (turn intrans.) 1 Samuel 5:8, &c., וַיִּקֹּב‎ Leviticus 24:11, יִתֹּם‎ Ezekiel 47:12, &c., יִחַם‎ (with Dageš forte implicitum) 1 Kings 1:1; in the plural, יִתַּ֫מּוּ‎ Numbers 14:35, &c. (in pause יִתָּ֫מּוּ‎ Psalms 102:28); perhaps also יִמַּל‎, יִמַּךְ‎ (unless these forms are rather to be referred to Niphʿal, like יִדָּ֑מּוּ‎ 1 Samuel 2:9; יִמָּֽלוּ‎ Job 24:24); with suffix תִּקֳּבֶ֫נּוּ‎ occurs (cf. §10h) in Numbers 23:25; Imperfect Hiphʿîl יַתֵּם‎, Hophʿal יֻבַּת‎, &c. The vowel of the preformative (which before Dageš is, of course, short) follows the analogy of the ordinary strong form (cf. also u and y). The same method is then extended to forms with afformatives or suffixes, so that even before these additions the second radical is not strengthened, e.g. וַיִּקְּד֫וּ‎ Genesis 43:28, &c., for וַיָּקֹ֫דּוּ‎ and they bowed the head; וַיַּבְּתוּ‎ and they beat down, Deuteronomy 1:44 (from כָּתַת‎); וַיִּתְּמוּ‎ Deuteronomy 32:8; יִדְּמוּ‎ Exodus 15:16, Job 29:21 (cf., however, וַיַּסֵּ֫בּוּ‎ Judges 18:23, 1 Samuel 5:8, יֻכַּ֫תּוּ‎ Jeremiah 46:5, Job 4:20). To the same class of apparently strong formations belongs תִּצַּ֫לְנָה‎ (without the separating vowel, for תְּצִ֫לָּינָה‎, cf. 1 Samuel 3:11 and below, p) they shall tingle, 2 Kings 21:12, Jeremiah 19:3.—On the various forms of the Niphʿal, see under t.

Rem. According to the prevailing view, this strengthening of the first radical is merely intended to give the bi-literal stem at least a tri-literal appearance. (Possibly aided by the analogy of verbs פ״ן‎ as P. Haupt has suggested to me in conversation.) But cf. Kautzsch, ‘Die sog. aramaisierenden Formen der Verba ע״ע‎ im Hebr.’ in Oriental. Studien zum 70. Geburtstag Th. Nöldekes, 1906, p. 771 ff. It is there shown (1) that the sharpening of the 1st radical often serves to emphasize a particular meaning (cf. יִגָּר‎, but יְגֹרֵ֫הוּ‎, יָחֵל‎ and יַחֵל‎, יִסֹּב‎ and יָסֹב‎, יִשֹּׁם‎ and תֵּשַׁם‎), and elsewhere no doubt to dissimilate the vowels (as יִגָּר‎, יִדַּל‎, never יָגַר‎, יָדַל‎, &c.): (2) that the sharpening of the 1st radical often appears to be occasioned by the nature of the first letter of the stem, especially when it is a sibilant. Whether the masoretic pronunciation is based on an early tradition, or the Masora has arbitrarily adopted aramaizing forms to attain the above objects, must be left undecided. 6. The original vowel is retained, see f, (a) in the preformative of the imperfect Qal יָסֹב‎ for yă-sōb (cf. §§47b, 63b, and for verbs ע״וּ‎ § 72); (b) in the perfect Niphʿal נָסַב‎ for nă-săb (§51a); (c) in Hophʿal הוּסַב‎, with irregular lengthening (no doubt on the analogy of verbs פ״ו‎) for hōsăb from hŭ-sab, imperfect יוּסַב‎ from yŭ-sab, &c.

On the other hand, an already attenuated vowel (i) underlies the intransitive imperfects Qal with ă in the second syllable (probably for the sake of dissimilating the two vowels), e.g. יֵמַד‎ for yĭ-măr (see p); and in the preformative of Hiphʿîl הֵסֵב‎ from hĭ-sēb (ground-form הַקְטֵל‎, §53a), as well as of the participle מֵסֵב‎ (ground-form מַקְטֵל‎), on the analogy of the perfect. In the second syllable of the Perf. the underlying vowel is ĭ, attenuated from an original ă, which in the strong verb is abnormally lengthened to î (§53a). The lengthened from ĭ is, of course, only tone-long, and hence when without the tone and before Dageš forte we have e.g. הֲסִבּ֫וֹתָ‎. On the retention of the original ă in the second syllable, cf. v.

7. The tone, as a general rule, tends to keep to the stem-syllable, and does not (as in the strong verb) pass to the afformatives ־ָה‎, וּ‎ and ־ִי‎ (2nd sing. fem. imperfect); e.g. 3rd sing. fem. perfect חַ֫תָּה‎, in pause חָ֫תָּה‎; with ר‎ and gutturals מָ֫רָה‎ (for מַ֫רָּה‎), שָׁ֫חָה‎ Psalms 44:26; on the other hand, with wāw consecutive וְרַבָּ֫ה‎ Isaiah 6:12 (but וָחָֽיָה‎ Exodus 1:16). In the 3rd plur. perfect the tone-syllable varies; along with דַּ֫לּוּ‎, קַ֫לּוּ‎, we also find דַּלּ֫וּ‎ and קַלּ֫וּ‎, רַבּ֫וּ‎ Isaiah 59:12, שַׁח֫וּ‎ Habakkuk 3:6, &c.; but in pause always חָ֫תּוּ‎, תָּ֫מּוּ‎, &c. The tone likewise remains on the stem-syllable in the imperfect Qal in תָּסֹ֫בִּי‎, יָסֹ֫בּוּ‎; perfect Hiphʿîl הֵסֵ֫בָּה‎, הֵסֵ֫בּוּ‎; imperfect תָּסֵ֫בִּי‎, יָ֫סֵבּוּ‎ &c. In the forms with separating vowels, the tone is moved forward to these vowels (or to the final syllable, cf. ee), e.g. סַבּ֫וֹתָ‎, תְּסֻבֶּ֫ינָה‎, &c.; except before the endings תֶם‎ and תֶן‎ in the perfect, which always bear the tone. This shifting of the tone naturally causes the shortening of the merely tone-long vowels ē and ō to ĭ and ŭ (or ŏ, see n), hence הֲסִבּ֫וֹתָ‎ from הֵסֵב‎, תֲּסֻבּ֫ינָה‎ from יָסֹב‎; on cases in which the vowel of the preformative becomes Še, see above, f

8. In several verbs ע״ע‎, instead of Piʿēl, Puʿal and Hithpaʿēl, the less frequent conjugation Pôʿēl, with its passive and reflexive, occurs (most probably on the analogy of the corresponding forms of verbs ע״וּ‎, cf. §72m), generally with the same meaning,[3] e.g. עוֹלֵל‎ to ill-treat, passive עוֹלַל‎, reflexive הִתְעוֹלֵל‎ (from עָלַל‎; cf. the Hithpôʿēl from רָעַע‎ and פַּרַד‎ Isaiah 24:19 f.); in a few verbs also Pilpēl (§55f) is found, e.g. גִּלְגֵּל‎ to roll, Hithpalpēl הִתְגַּלְגֵּל‎ to roll oneself (from גָּלַל‎); imperative with suffix סַלְסְלֶהָ‎ exalt her, Proverbs 4:8; שִֽׁעֲשַׁע‎ to comfort, to delight in; passive שָֽׁעֳשַׁע‎ to be caressed (from שָׁעַע‎). These forms cannot appear in a biliteral form any more than Piʿēl, Puʿal, and Hithpaʿēl; cf. עִוְעִים‎ (Isaiah 19:14) and קַוְקָו‎ (Isaiah 18:27).—For תִּתָּבָר‎ 2 Samuel 22:27 read, according to Psalms 18:27, תִּתְבָּרָר‎.

Remarks
I. On Qal.

1. In the perfect, isolated examples are found with ō in the first syllable, which it is customary to refer to triliteral stems with middle ō (like יָכֹל‎, §43a); viz. רֹ֫מּוּ‎ they are exalted, Job 24:24 to רָמֹם‎; רֹ֫בּוּ‎ they shot, Genesis 49:23 to רָבֹב‎; זֹ֫דוּ‎ Isaiah 1:6 to זָרֹר‎. But this explanation is very doubtful: זֹ֫רוּ‎ especially is rather to be classed among the passives of Qal mentioned in §52e.

2. Imperfects Qal with ō in the second syllable keep the original a in the preformative, but lengthen it to ā, as being in an open syllable, hence יָחֹן‎, יָמֹד‎, יָעֹז‎, יָרֹן‎, יָרֹעַ‎ (trans. he breaks in pieces, but יֵרַע‎ intrans.= he is evil); imperfects with ă have, in the preformative, an ē, lengthened from ĭ. See the examples below, under p, §63c and e, §72h, and specially Barth in ZDMG. 1894, p. 5 f.

The Ḥōlĕm of the infinitive, imperative, and imperfect (סֹב‎, יָסֹב‎) is only tone-long, and therefore, as a rule, is written defectively (with a few exceptions, chiefly in the later orthography, e.g. צוֹר‎ bind up, Isaiah 8:16; גּוֹל‎ Psalms 37:5; דּוֹם‎ ver. 7; לָבֽוֹז‎ for לָבֹז‎ to plunder, Esther 3:13, Esther 8:11). When this ō loses the tone, it becomes in the final syllable ŏ, in a sharpened syllable ŭ, or not infrequently even ŏ (see above, k). Examples of ŏ are: (a) in a toneless final syllable, i.e. before Maqqeph or in the imperfect consecutive, רָן־‎ (rŏn) to rejoice, Job 38:7; וַיָ֫סָב‎ Judges 11:18 (once even with ŭ in a toneless final syllable, וַיָּ֫רֻם‎ Exodus 16:20); on the other hand, in the plur. וַיָּסֹ֫בּוּ‎, fem. וַתְּסֻבֶּ֫ינָה‎; (b) before a tone-bearing afformative or suffix, e.g. imperative 2nd sing. fem. רָנִּ֫י‎, גָּזִּ֫י‎ (cf. ff); חָנֵּ֫נִי‎ pity me; סָלּ֫וּהָ‎ Jeremiah 50:26; יְשָׁדֵּם‎ Proverbs 11:3 Qe; תְּחָגֻּֽהוּ‎ Exodus 12:14 (for the defective writing, cf. יְסֻבֻּ֫הוּ‎ Job 40:22). In יָחְנְךָ֫‎ Genesis 43:29, Isaiah 30:19 (for יִחָנְךָ‎) this ŏ is thrown back to the preformative.

On the 2nd plur. fem. imperat. עֹ֫רָה‎ make yourselves naked Isaiah 32:11, cf. the analogous forms in §48i.-Quite abnormal is the infinitive absolute רֹ֫עָה‎ Isaiah 24:19 (as ה‎ follows, probably only a case of dittography for רֹעַ‎, cf. קֹב‎ Numbers 23:25 and שֹׁל‎ Ruth 2:16); so also are the imperatives קָֽבָה־לִּי‎ Numbers 22:1117, and אָֽרָה־לִּי‎ Numbers 22:6, Numbers 23:7, with ה‎ paragogic. We should expect קֻ֫בָּה‎, אֹ֫רָה‎. If these forms are to be read qŏballî, ʾŏrallî, they would be analogous to such cases as מִדְבַּ֫רָה‎ (§90i), the addition of the paragogic ־ָה‎ causing no change in the form of the word (קָב־‎ like רָן־‎ above). If, however, as Jewish tradition requires, they are to be read qāballî, ʾārallî, then in both cases the Qameṣ must be explained, with Stade, as the equivalent of ō (קֹֽבָה־לִּי‎, &c.; cf. §9v). Still more surprising is קָבְנוֹ‎ curse him, Numbers 23:13, for קֻבֶּ֫נּוּ‎ or קָבּ׳‎.[4]

3. Examples with Pathạ in the infinitive, imperative, and imperfect are בַּר‎ (in לְבָרָם‎ to prove them, Ecclesiastes 3:18); רָד‎ Isaiah 45:1; שַׁךְ‎ Jeremiah 5:26; בְּשַׁגָּם‎ in their error, Genesis 6:3 (so ed. Mant., but there is also good authority for בְּשַׁגַּם‎, from שַׁ·‎ = שֶׁ·‎ = אֲשֶׁר‎ and גַּם‎ also; so Baer and Ginsburg). Also גַּל‎ take away, Psalms 119:22; and the imperfects יֵחַם‎ it is hot, Deuteronomy 19:6, &c. (on the ē of the preformative cf. n); יֵמַר‎ it is bitter, Isaiah 24:9; יֵצַר‎ it is straitened; יֵרַךְ‎ it is soft, Isaiah 7:4; תֵּשַׁם‎ it is desolate, Ezekiel 12:19 (in pause תֵּשָֽׁם‎ Genesis 47:19); וַתֵּקַ֫ל‎ she was despised, Genesis 16:4 (but elsewhere in the impf. consec. with the tone on the penultima, e.g. וַיֵּ֫צֶר‎ Genesis 32:8, &c.; וַיֵּ֫רַע‎ Genesis 21:11, &c., cf. Ezekiel 19:7); in the 1st sing. imperfect אֵיתָ֑ם‎[5] Psalms 19:14, abnormally written fully for אֵתָם‎, unless אֶתָּם‎ is to be read, as in some MSS., on the analogy of the 3rd sing. יִתֹּם‎.—In the impf. Qal of שׁלל‎ the reading of Habakkuk 2:8 varies between יְשַׁלּ֫וּךָ‎ (Baer, Ginsb.) and יְשָׁלּ֫וּךָ‎ (ed. Mant., Jabl.).— The following forms are to be explained with Barth (ZDMG. xliii, p. 178) as imperfects Qal with original ĭ in the second syllable, there being no instances of their Hiphʿîl in the same sense: וַיָּ֫גֶל‎ Genesis 29:10; יָגֵן‎ Isaiah 31:5, &c.; וַיָּסֶךְ‎ Exodus 40:21, Psalms 91:4, &c.; perhaps also תְּצִלֶּ֫ינָה‎ 1 Samuel 3:11 and יָהֵל‎ Job 31:26, &c.; in accordance with this last form, (בְּ)הִלּוֹ‎ Job 29:3 would also be an infinitive Qal, not Hiphʿîl (for בַּֽהֲהִלּוֹ‎), as formerly explained below, under w. Finally the very peculiar form וַתָּ֫רִץ‎ Judges 9:53 may probably be added to the list.

Imperfects, with an original u in the second syllable, are also found with this ŭ lengthened to û (instead of ō), e.g. יָרוּן‎, if the text is correct, in Proverbs 29:6; יָשׁוּד‎ Psalms 91:6 (unless it be simply an imperfect from שׁוּד‎ to be powerful, to prevail); יָרוּץ‎ (if from רצץ‎) Isaiah 42:4, &c. (also defectively אָרֻץ‎ Psalms 18:30; but in Ecclesiastes 12:6, according to Baer, וְתָרוּץ‎); תִּתֻּם‎ Ezekiel 24:11 (on the sharpening of the ת‎ cf. g above).[6]

A similar analogy with verbs ע״וּ‎ is soon in the infinitives לָבוּר‎ (for בֹּד‎) Ecclesiastes 9:1; בְּחֻקוֹ‎ Proverbs 8:27 (cf. בְּחוּקוֹ‎ Proverbs 8:29) for בְּחֻקּוֹ‎, and in the imperfect אֲמֻֽשְׁךָ‎ Genesis 27:21. (The forms חַנּוֹת‎ in Psalms 77:10, שַׁמּוֹת‎ Ezekiel 36:3, חַלּ֫וֹתִי‎ Psalms 77:11, formerly treated here as infinitives from ע״ע‎ stems, are rather to be referred to ל״ה‎ stems, with Barth, Wurzeluntersuchungen, Lpz. 1902, p. 21.) On other similar cases, see below, under ee. For examples of the aramaïzing imperfect, see above, g.

4. In the participle, the aramaïzing form שֹֽׁאֲסַ֫יִךְ‎ for שֹֽׁסְסַ֫יִךְ‎ occurs in Kethîbh, Jeremiah 30:16 (the Qe indicates a participle from שָׁסָה‎); רֹעָה‎ Proverbs 25:19 appears to be a contraction from רֹֽעֲעָה‎, part. fem. = breaking in pieces.
II. On Niphʿal.

5. Besides the ordinary form of the perfect נָסַב‎ with Pathaḥ (in pause נָסָב‎) and the participle נָסָב‎ with Qameṣ in the second syllable, there is also another with Ṣere, and a third with Ḥolem, e.g. perfect נָמֵס‎ it melts, Ezekiel 21:12, Ezekiel 22:15; נָסֵ֫בָּה‎ (for נָסַבָּה‎) Ezekiel 26:2; part. נָמֵס‎ molten, 1 Samuel 15:9, Nahum 2:11; נָקֵל‎ it is a light thing, 2 Kings 20:10, Isaiah 49:6 (perf. נָקַל‎); with ō, e.g. נָגֹ֫לּוּ‎ they are rolled together, Isaiah 34:4; cf. Isaiah 63:19, Isaiah 64:2, Amos 3:11, Nahum 1:12, Ecclesiastes 12:6b. In the imperfect with ō in the second syllable, on the analogy of verbs ע״וּ‎ (from which König would also explain the perfects with ō), we find תִּדֹּ֫מִּי‎ thou shalt be brought to silence, Jeremiah 48:2 (unless this form should be referred to Qal with Qimḥi, Olshausen, König); יֵרוֹעַ‎ he suffers hurt, Proverbs 11:15, Proverbs 13:20; תֵּרוֹץ‎ (for tirrōṣ) Ezekiel 29:7; with ē in the second syllable תֵּחֵל‎ she profanes herself, Leviticus 21:9, but וָֽאֵחַל‎ Ezekiel 22:26, and יֵחָ֑ל‎ Isaiah 48:11, יֵחַת‎ Isaiah 7:8, &c. For infinitives, cf. הִמֵּס‎ to melt, Psalms 68:3 (as inf. constr.; 2 Samuel 17:10 as inf. absol.); again, with compensatory lengthening in the first syllable, הֵחֵל‎ Ezekiel 20:9, Ezekiel 14:22, but with suffix הֵֽחַלּוֹ‎ Leviticus 21:4; also הִבּוֹז‎ to be plundered, and הִבּוֹק‎ to be emptied, Isaiah 24:3; in the imperative, only הִבָּ֫רוּ‎ be ye clean, Isaiah 52:11. On הֵרֹ֫מּוּ‎ get you up, Numbers 17:10, and the corresponding imperf. יֵרֹ֫מּוּ‎ Ezekiel 10:17, &c., cf. dd.

Examples of the perfect Niphʿal with sharpening of the initial syllable are, נִחַל‎ it is profaned, Ezekiel 22:16, Ezekiel 25:3 (from חָלַל‎); נִחַר‎ (from חָרַר‎) Psalms 69:4, Psalms 102:4 (also נָחַר‎ Jeremiah 6:29); נִחַת‎ fractus est (from חָתַת‎) Malachi 2:5; cf. with this in the participle, נֵֽחָמִים‎ (for niḥḥāmîm) Isaiah 57:5, and נֵֽאָרִים‎ Malachi 3:9: in the imperative and infinitive Niphʿal such a virtual strengthening of the guttural after preformatives never occurs.—The occurrence of u instead of ô as a separating vowel in the perfect נְשַׁדֻּ֫נוּ‎ Micah 2:4 is abnormal.

III. On Hiphʿîl and Hophʿal.

6. The second syllable in Hiphʿîl sometimes has Pathaḥ instead of Ṣere, especially under the influence of ר‎ and the gutturals, e.g. perfect הֵמַר‎ he made bitter, הֵשַׁח‎ he bowed, הֵפַר‎ he hath broken, Genesis 17:14, in pause, cf. §29q; otherwise הֵפֵר‎, plur. הֵפֵ֫רוּ‎ Isaiah 24:5. In הֵפִיר‎ Psalms 33:10, Ezekiel 17:19, cf. Psalms 89:34, and in הֵשׂ֫ירוּ‎ Hosea 8:4 (perhaps also in יְחִיתַן‎ Habakkuk 2:17, but cf. §20n) there is an assimilation to the corresponding forms of verbs ע״וּ‎, see z. Also הֵצַר‎ Deuteronomy 28:52, הֵתַז‎ (in pause) Isaiah 18:5; inf. לְהָבַֽר‎ to cleanse, Jeremiah 4:11, in pause. But also with other consonants, e.g. הֵדַק‎ 2 Kings 23:15, הֵקַל‎ Isaiah 8:23; הֵרַךְ‎ Job 23:16; plur. הֵסַ֫בּוּ‎ 1 Samuel 5:910 (and so usually in the 3rd plur. perf, except before ר‎ and gutturals, e.g. הֵרֵ֫עוּ‎); imper. הָשַׁ֑ע‎ besmear, Isaiah 6:10; plur. הָשַׁ֑מּוּ‎ be astonished, Job 21:5; imperfect תָּרַ֫ע‎ Thou dost afflict; part. מֵצַל‎ (on ē in the first syllable, see under i) shadowing, Ezekiel 31:3 (but מֵסִיךְ‎ Judges 3:24 is assimilated to the form of verbs ע״וּ‎, unless, with Moore, we simply read מֵסֵךְ‎, or, with incorrect spelling, מֵסֵיךְ‎. So in the imperative הֲמִישֵׁ֫נִי‎ Judges 16:26 Qe, and in the infinitive הֲתִֽמְךָ‎ is Judges 33:1).

The ē of the second syllable, when without the tone, may become ĕ, e.g. הֵ֫תֶל בִּי‎ Genesis 31:7 (see also x). It is unusual (cf. §53k) to find the ē written fully as in the infinitive לְהָפֵיר‎ Zechariah 11:10. Instead of Ḥaṭeph-Pathaḥ a Ḥaṭeph-Seghôl is found under the preformative in הֱקִלֹּתַ֫נִי‎ 2 Samuel 19:44, and a Pathaḥ occurs before ח‎ (with a virtual sharpening of the ח‎) in such forms as הַֽחִתֹּ֫תָ‎ Isaiah 9:3; cf. Genesis 11:6, Deuteronomy 2:31, Deuteronomy 3:24, 1 Samuel 22:15, Esther 6:13—in all these cases before חִ‎.—On בְּהִלּוֹ‎ Job 29:3, see above, p: on וְהַחְתַּתִּ֫י‎ Jeremiah 49:37, see below, dd.

7. In the imperfect consecutive of verbs whose second radical is a guttural, ă is retained (§22d) in the second syllable instead of ĕ, e.g. וַיָּ֫רַע‎ 1 Kings 16:25: so also with ר‎, as וַיָּ֫צַר‎ 2 Chronicles 28:20, Deuteronomy 2:9—but cf. also וַיָּ֫פֶר‎ Nehemiah 4:9.

8. Aramaïzing forms (but cf. Rem. §67g) in Hiphʿîl and Hophʿal are, וַיַּסֵּב‎ Exodus 13:18, &c.; cf. Judges 18:23; אַל־תַּמֵּר‎ Exodus 23:21, but read אַל־תֶּ֫מֶר‎ from מָרָה‎: וַיַּכְּתוּ‎ Deuteronomy 1:44 (cf. Numbers 14:45), but וַיַּסֵּ֫בּוּ‎ Judges 18:23, 1 Samuel 5:8, 2 Chronicles 29:6; אַחֵל‎ profanabo, Ezekiel 39:7; תַּתֵּס‎ Job 22:3; without elision of the ה‎ (cf. §53q), וַיְהַתֵּל‎ 1 Kings 18:27, but Jeremiah 9:4 יְהָתֵ֫לוּ‎, Job 13:9 תְּהָתֵ֫לּוּ‎; with î in the second syllable יַשִּׁים‎ Jeremiah 49:20, Jeremiah 50:45; cf. וַנַּשִּׁים‎ Numbers 21:30; in the perfect הִזִּי֫לוּהָ‎ Lamentations 1:8. In Hophʿal, הֻמְּכוּ‎ they are brought low, Job 24:21; יֻכַּת‎ he is smitten, Isaiah 24:12 (plur. יֻכַּ֫תּוּ‎ Jeremiah 46:5, Micah 1:7); in pause, יֻחָֽקוּ‎ Job 19:23, but also יֻכַּ֑תּוּ‎ Job 4:20 (so Baer, Ginsb., but ed. Mant., Jabl. יֻכָּתּוּ‎); with ŏ in the initial syllable, הָשַּׁמָּהֿ‎ (infinitive with suffix = הָשַּׁמָּהּ‎, cf. §91e) Leviticus 26:34 f., cf. 2 Chronicles 36:21; בָּהְשַׁמָּה‎, with irregular syncope for בְּהָשַּׁ׳‎, Leviticus 26:43.

IV. In General.

9. Verbs ע״ע‎ are most closely related as regards inflexion to verbs ע״וּ‎ (§ 72). The form of verbs ע״ע‎ is generally the shorter (cf. e.g. יָסֹב‎ and יָקוּם‎, הֵסֵב‎ and הֵקִים‎); in a few cases, however, the two classes exactly coincide, e.g. in the imperfect Qal and Hiphʿîl with wāw consecutive, in Hophʿal and in the less common conjugations (see above, l).

10. The developed forms (with three radicals), as mentioned in a, are especially frequent in the 3rd sing. masc. and fem., and the 3rd plur. perf. Qal (i.e. in forms without an afformative or with an afformative beginning with a vowel) of transitive verbs, or verbs, at any rate, expressing action, e.g. סָבַב‎, סָֽבְבוּ‎ (but before a suffix also סַבּ֫וּנִי‎, as well as סְבָב֫וּנִי‎, שַׁדּ֫וּנִי‎ &c.); זָמַם‎, זָֽמֲמָה‎, אָֽפֲפוּ‎, &c. Sometimes the contracted, as well as the uncontracted form, is found, e.g. בָּזַז‎ to plunder, plur. בָּֽזְזוּ‎; in other parts, only בָּזַ֫זְנוּ‎ Deuteronomy 2:35, as well as בַּזּ֫וֹנוּ‎ Deuteronomy 3:7 זָמַ֫מְתִּי‎ Zechariah 8:1415 and זַמֹּ֫תִי‎ Jeremiah 4:28. Other examples of biliteral forms in 2nd sing. masc. are Deuteronomy 25:12, Proverbs 30:32; in 1st sing., Joshua 5:9. A part from Qal the only example of a developed form is וְהַחְתַּתִּ֫יּ‎ Jeremiah 49:37.

On the other hand, the biliteral forms are the more common in the 3rd sing. and plur. of perfects which are intransitive, and express a state; cf. דַּק‎ Deuteronomy 9:21 (Exodus 32:20 דָּ֑ק‎; elsewhere always a transitive verb); חַת‎, fem. חַ֫תָּה‎; מַר‎, fem. מָ֫רָה‎ (for marrā); צַר‎, fem. צָ֫רָה‎ (cf. וְחָ֫רָה‎ Ezekiel 24:11); רַךְ‎, שַׁח‎, fem. שַׁ֫חָה‎, תַּם‎ &c.; plur. חַ֫תּוּ‎, תַּ֫מּוּ‎ &c. (but on the tone, cf. ee below). Exception, עָֽשְׁשָׁה‎ Psalms 6:8.

The intransitive but developed perfects דָּֽלֲלוּ‎ (also דַּ֫לּוּ‎), חָלַל‎, נָֽדְדָה‎, נָֽדְדוּ‎ (in pause נָדָ֫דוּ‎), סָרַר‎, עָֽשֲׁשָׁה‎ (plur. in pause עָשֵֽׁשׁוּ‎ Psalms 31:11), צָֽלֲלוּ‎, שָֽׁחֲחוּ‎ (also שַׁ֫חוּ‎), almost all have, as Mayer Lambert observes, at least an active, not a stative meaning. Triliteral forms of the infinitive after לְ‎ are לִסְבֹּב‎ Numbers 21:4; לִשְׁדוֹד‎ Jeremiah 47:4; לִגְזׄז‎ Genesis 31:19 (also לָגֹז‎ Genesis 38:13); cf. also לַחְמָם‎ Isaiah 47:14, in subordinate pause, for לַֽחֲמַם‎; with suffix לַֽחֲנַנְכֶם‎ Isaiah 30:18, and, from the same form חֲנַן‎, with retraction and modification of the vowel, לְחֶנְנָהּ‎ Psalms 102:14; also שְׂחוֹחַ‎ Isaiah 60:14, בִּגְזׄז‎ 1 Samuel 25:2, כִּמְסֹס‎ Isaiah 10:18, בַּֽעֲזוֹז‎ Proverbs 8:28, בִּצְרוֹר‎ Proverbs 26:8.—Imperative שָׁדְדוּ‎ Jeremiah 49:28 (cf. §20b, and ibid. also on חַֽנְנֵ֫נִי‎ Psalms 9:14); in the imperfect, יִדּוֹד‎ Nahum 3:7 (Psalms 68:13; cf. Genesis 31:40) from נדד‎; the strong form here, after the assimilation of the Nûn, was unavoidable. On the other hand, יְשָׁדְדֵם‎ Jeremiah 5:6 is anomalous for יְשְׁדֵּם‎ (Proverbs 11:3 Qe; the eastern school read the Poʿēl ישׁודדם‎ in the Kethîbh); the strengthening of the second radical has been afterwards resolved by the insertion of a vocal Še. Cf. also יֶֽחֱנַן‎ Amos 5:15 (elsewhere יָחֹן‎). In Niphʿal, the triliteral form יִלָּבֵב‎ is found, Job 11:12; in Hiphʿil, all the forms of רנן‎, thus imperative הַרְנִ֫ינוּ‎, imperfect תַּרְנִין‎; infinitive הַשְׁמֵם‎ Micah 6:13; participle מַשְׁמִים‎ Ezekiel 3:15. That the developed (triliteral) forms possess a certain emphasis is seen from their frequent use in pause, as in Psalms 118:11 after a biliteral form (סַבּ֫וּנִי גַם־סְבָב֫וּנִי‎).

11. The above-mentioned (see g) neglect of the strengthening in aramaïzing forms, such as יִדְּמוּ‎ and the like, occurs elsewhere tolerably often; in the perfect Qal תַּ֫מְנוּ‎ for תַּמּ֫וֹנוּ‎ Numbers 17:28 (Jeremiah 44:18; cf. above, e); imperfect נָבֹ֫זָה‎ 1 Samuel 14:36 (־ָה‎ parag. without any influence on the form, cf. o); even with the firm vowel reduced to vocal Šewâ; נָֽבְלָ֫ה‎ Genesis 11:7 for נָבֹ֫לָּה‎ (cohortative from בָּלַל‎); יָֽזְמ֫וּ‎ for יָזֹ֫מּוּ‎ ibid. ver. 6, they purpose; following the analogy of verbs ע״וּ‎, אֲמֻֽשְׁךָ‎ (see above, r); from intransitive imperfects Qal, תֵּֽצְרִי‎ Isaiah 49:19 (plur. masc. Job 18:7); יֵֽרְעוּ‎ Nehemiah 2:3; also תִּישָׁ֑מְנָה‎ Ezekiel 6:6 (for which read תֵּישׁ׳‎=תֵּשׁ׳‎) might be explained in the same way.—Perfect Niphʿal נָֽסְבָ֫ה‎ for נָסַ֫בָּה‎ Ezekiel 41:7; נָֽזְלוּ‎ Judges 5:5 for נְמַלְתֶּם ;נָזֹ֫לּוּ‎ for נְמַלֹּתֶם‎ Genesis 17:11 (as if from מָלַל‎ not מוּל‎ to circumcise), cf. Isaiah 19:3, Jeremiah 8:14; imperfect תִּמַּ֫קְנָה‎ Zechariah 14:12; participle נֵֽחָמִים‎, cf. u. So also נָפַץ‎ 1 Samuel 13:11, נָֽפְצָה‎ Genesis 9:19 (cf. Isaiah 33:3), are perfects Niphʿal from פצץ‎ (= פּוּץ‎), not Qal from נָפַץ‎.—In Hiphʿîl הֵתַ֫לְתָּ‎ (for הֲתִלֹּ֫תָ‎) Judges 16:10 (2 Samuel 15:34); הֵעֵ֫זָה‎ for הֵעֵ֫וָּה‎ Proverbs 7:13 (cf. Song of Solomon 6:11, Song of Solomon 7:13).

No less irregular is the suppression of the vowel of the stem-syllable in לְהַפְרְכֶם‎ Leviticus 26:15.—On the perfect דַּלְיוּ‎ Proverbs 26:7, cf. §75u.

12. Cases in which the tone is thrown forward on the afformatives (see k) are (a) in the perfect, the 1st sing. regularly (but cf. וַֽהֲצֵרֹ֫תִי‎ Jeremiah 10:18 before לָהֶם‎) after ו‎ consec., Exodus 33:1922, 2 Kings 19:34, &c., also Isaiah 44:16 (חַמּוֹתִ֖י‎ before ר‎); Psalms 92:11 (but the text is certainly corrupt; see the Lexicon), Psalms 116:6, perhaps also Job 19:17, וְחַנֹּתִֹי‎ (though in this passage, and in Psalms 17:3, the form might be an infinitive in ôth; see Delitzsch on Job 19:17); in the 2nd sing. וְקַצֹּתָ֫ה‎ (before א‎) Deuteronomy 25:12; in the 3rd plural, רַבּ֫וּ‎ multi sunt, Psalms 3:2, Psalms 104:24, Jeremiah 5:6, 1 Samuel 25:10; רַכּ֫וּ‎ they are soft, Psalms 55:22 קַלּ֫וּ‎ they are swift, Jeremiah 4:13, Habakkuk 1:8; זַכּ֫וּ‎ they are pure, Job 15:15, Job 25:5, Lamentations 4:7; שַׁח֫וּ‎ they did bow, Habakkuk 3:6; חָר֫וּ‎ they are burned, Isaiah 24:6. A by form of שָׁתוּ‎ (ע״וּ‎, cf. §72dd) is שַׁתּ֫וּ‎ Psalms 49:15, Psalms 73:9.

(b) In the imperative (a command in an emphatic tone) רָנִּ֫י‎ sing, Isaiah 54:1, Zephaniah 3:14, Zechariah 2:14; רָנּ֫וּ‎ Isaiah 44:23, Isaiah 49:13, Jeremiah 31:7 (but רֹ֫נִּי‎ lament, Lamentations 2:19), חָגִּ֫י‎ keep (thy feasts), Nahum 2:1, Jeremiah 7:29; עוּזָּ֫ה‎ (= עֻזָּה‎) before א‎, Psalms 68:29. On the retention of the short vowels ŭ (ŏ) and ĭ before Dageš forte, in place of the tone-long ō and ē, see above, k; on the change of the vowel of the preformative into Še, when it no longer stands before the tone, see g.

Footnotes:
  1. So (partly following Ewald and Böttcher) A. Müller, ZDMG. xxxiii. p. 698 ff.; Stade, Lehrbuch, §385b, c; Nöldeke, and more recently Wellhausen, ‘Ueber einige Arten schwacher Verba im Hebr.’ (Skizzen u. Vorarb. vi. 250 ff.). Against Böttcher see M. Lambert, REJ. xxxv. 330 ff., and Brockelmann, as above.
  2. Of all the explanations of these separating vowels the most satisfactory is that of Rödiger, who, both for the perfect and imperfect (Ewald and Stade, for the imperfect at least), points to the analogy of verbs ל״ה‎. We must, however, regard סַבּ֫וֹתָ‎ as formed on the analogy not of גָּלִ֫יתָ‎, but (with P. Haupt) of a form גָּל֫וֹתָ‎ (= gālautā, cf. Arab. ġazauta), while תְּסֻבֶּינָה‎ follows the analogy of תִּגְלֶינָה‎. [See also Wright, Comp. Gr., 229 f.]
  3. Sometimes both Piʿēl and Pôʿēl are formed from the same stem, though with a difference of meaning, e.g. רִצֵּץ‎ to break in pieces, רֹצֵץ‎ to oppress; חִנֵּן‎ to make pleasing, חוֹנֵן‎ to have pity; סִבֵּב‎ to turn, to change, סוֹבֵב‎ to go round, to encompass.
  4. For נוֹ‎ as suffix of the 3rd person a parallel might be found in יֶשְׁנוֹ‎, §100o, and probably also in the Nûn of the Phoenician suffix נם‎: cf. Barth, ZDMG. xli. p. 643, and the note on §100o.
  5. Also in Ezekiel 6:6, instead of תִּישָׁ֑מְנָה‎, which could only come from ישׁם‎, תֵּי֚שׁ׳‎ is intended, and יֶאְשְׁמוּ‎ in the same verse is probably only an error for יֵשַׁ֫מּוּ‎.
  6. According to Stade, Grammatik, § 95, Rem., the pronunciation with û, since it also appears in Neo-Punic [and in Western Syriac, see Nöldeke, Syr. Gramm., § 48], was that of everyday life.
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