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Bible Lexicons

Gesenius Hebrew Grammer

Part 71

§71. Verbs פ״י‎. Third Class, or Verbs with Yôdh assimilated.

In some verbs פ״י‎, the Yôdh (or the original Wāw) does not quiesce in the preceding vowel, but is regarded as a full consonant, and, like Nûn,[1] is assimilated to the following consonant. These forms, therefore, belong properly to the class of strong verbs. Assimilation invariably takes place in יָצַע‎ (prop. וצע‎) to spread under; Hiphʿîl הִצִּיעַ‎, Hophʿal הֻצַּע‎; יָצַת‎ to burn, imperfect יִצַּת‎, Niphʿal נִצַּת‎, Hiphʿîl הִצִּית‎ (in Isaiah 27:4 also אַצִּיתֶ֫נָּה‎ is to be read with König; in 2 Samuel 14:30 the Masora has rightly emended the Kethîbh והוציתיה‎, which could only be the 1st sing. perf. of a verb פ״ו‎, to the imperative וְהַצִּית֫וּהָ‎ in agreement with the context and all the early versions); יָצַג‎, Hiphʿîl הִצִּיג‎ to place, Hophʿal הֻצַּג‎; and probably also in the forms ordinarily derived from נָצַב‎, viz. נִצַּב‎ (Niphʿal), הִצִּיב‎, יַצִּיב‎, הֻצַּב‎; at any rate a stem יָצַב‎ is implied by the Hithpaʿēl הִתְיַצֵּב‎; instead of the anomalous וַתֵּֽתַצַּב‎ Exodus 2:4 read with the Samaritan ותתיצב‎, i.e. וַתִּתְיַצֵּב‎. Besides the common form we find once אֶצֹּק‎ in Isaiah 44:3 (from יָצַק‎ to pour) with a transitive meaning, beside וַיֵּ֫צֶק‎ intransitive, 1 Kings 22:35. Elsewhere the imperfect consecutive has the form וַיִּצֹק‎ Genesis 28:18, Genesis 35:14, &c., cf. §69f, where also other forms of יָצַק‎ are given; וַיִּ֫יצֶר‎ and יִּצֹּר‎ (Isaiah 44:12, Isaiah 49:8, Jeremiah 1:5 Qe), from יָצַר‎ to form, are, however, used in the same sense. Cf. also אֶסֳּרֵם‎ Hosea 10:10; וַיִּשַּׁ֫רְנָה‎ (for וַתִּ׳‎ according to §47k) 1 Samuel 6:12; לִיסֹּד‎ 2 Chronicles 31:7 (cf. §69n) and מוּסָּד‎ Isaiah 28:16. This assimilation is found always with sibilants (most frequently with צ‍‎) except in the case of וַיִּקַּץ‎ 1 Kings 3:15 (so ed. Mant., Ginsb., Kittel; but Jabl., Baer וַיִּקַץ‎) and in הֻ֫לֶּדֶת‎ Genesis 40:20, Ezekiel 16:5 (cf. הוּלֶּדֶת‎ verse 4), infinitive Hophʿal of יָלַד‎ (cf. נוּלְּדוּ‎ §69t).

  1. These verbs, like verbs ע״ע‎ (cf. above, note on §67g), may perhaps have been influenced by the analogy of verbs פ״ן‎.
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