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Bible Lexicons

Gesenius Hebrew Grammer

Part 72

§72. Verbs ע״וּ‎ (vulgo ע״ו‎), e.g. קוּם‎ to rise up. Paradigm M.

Brockelmann, Semit. Sprachwiss., p. 144 ff.; Grundriss, p. 605 ff.

1. According to §67a a large number of monosyllabic stems were brought into agreement with the triliteral form by a strengthening, or repetition, of the second radical, i.e. of the consonantal element in the stem. In another large class of stems the same object has been attained by strengthening the vocalic element. The ground-form used for these verbs is not, as in other cases (§39a), the 3rd sing. mast. perfect, but always the infinitive construct form (§39b), the û of which is characteristic also of the imperative and of the imperfect indicative Qal. These stems are consequently termed verbs ע״ו‎ or more correctly (see below) ע״וּ‎.[1] 2. As in the case of verbs ע״ע‎, the monosyllabic stem of verbs ע״וּ‎ generally takes the vowel which would have been required in the second syllable of the ordinary strong form, or which belonged to the ground-form, since this is essentially characteristic of the verbal form (§43b; §67b). However, it is to be remarked: (a) that the vowel, short in itself, becomes of necessity long in an open syllable as well as in a tone-bearing closed ultima (except in Hophʿal, see d), e.g. 3rd sing. mast. perf. קָם‎, fem. קָ֫מָה‎, plur. קָ֫מוּ‎, but in a closed penultima קַ֫מְתָּ‎, &c.[2]; (b) that in the forms as we now have them the lengthening of the original short vowel sometimes takes place irregularly. Cf. f.

Intransitive verbs middle e in the perfect Qal have the form מֵת‎ he is dead; verbs middle o have the form אוֹר‎ he shone, בּשׁ‎ he was ashamed, מוֹב‎ he was good.[3] Cf. n–r.

3. In the imperfect Qal, perfect Niphʿal, and throughout Hiphʿîl and Hophʿal the short vowel of the preformatives in an open syllable before the tone is changed into the corresponding tone-long vowel. In Qal and Niphʿal the original ă is the basis of the form and not the ĭ attenuated from ă (§67h; but cf. also h below, on יֵבוֹשׁ‎), hence יָקוּם‎, for yăqûm; נָקוֹם‎ for năqôm; on the other hand, in the perfect Hiphʿîl הֵקִים‎ for hĭqîm; participle מֵקִים‎ (on the Ṣere cf. z); perfect Hophʿal הוּקַם‎ for hŭqam.

A vowel thus lengthened before the tone is naturally changeable and becomes vocal Še when the tone is moved forward, e.g. יְמִיתֶ֫נּוּ‎ he will kill him; so also in the 3rd plur. imperfect Qal with Nûn paragogic; יְמוּת֫וּן‎ (without Nûn יָמ֫וּתוּ‎). The wholly abnormal scriptio plena of ē in הַֽהֵימִיר‎ Jeremiah 2:11 (beside הֵמִיר‎ in the same verse) should, with König, be emended to הֲיָמִיר‎; the incorrect repetition of the interrogative necessarily led to the pointing of the form as perfect instead of imperfect.—But in Hophʿal the û is retained throughout as an unchangeable vowel, when it has been introduced by an abnormal lengthening for the tone-long ō (as in the Hophʿal of verbs ע״ע‎). 4. The cases of unusual vowel lengthening mentioned in b are: imperfect Qal יָקוּם‎ (also in Arabic yăqûmu), but jussive with normal lengthening (§48g), יָקֹם‎, with retraction of the tone יָ֫קָם‎ (yāqŏm), וַיָּ֫קָם‎ (in pause וַיָּ֫קֹם‎); imperative קוּם‎, with normal lengthening of the ŭ in the 2nd plur. fem. קֹ֫מְנָה‎, since, according to §26p, the û cannot be retained in a closed penultima; infinitive construct קוּם‎. In Hiphʿîl the original ĭ is naturally lengthened to î (הֵקִים‎, imperfect יָקִים‎, jussive יָקִם‎, with retraction of the tone יָ֫קֶם‎, וַיָּ֫קֶם‎); on the transference of this î to the Hiphʿîl of the strong verb, cf. §53a.

The following forms require special consideration: the participle Qal קָם‎ is to be traced to the ground-form with â unobscured, Arab. qâtĭl, §9q, and §50b. On this analogy the form would be qâĭm,[4] which after absorption of the ĭ became קָם‎, owing to the predominating character of the â. The unchangeableness of the â (plur. קָמִים‎, constr. קָמֵי‎, &c.) favours this explanation.

In the imperfect Qal, besides the forms with original ŭ (now û) there are also forms with original ă. This ă was lengthened to ā, and then further obscured to ô; hence especially (יָבֹא) יָבוֹא‎, וַיָּבֹא‎, &c., from the perfect בָּא‎ he has come. In the imperfects יֵאוֹר‎ (but cf. וַתָּאֹ֫רְנָה‎ 1 Samuel 14:27) and יֵבוֹשׁ‎ from the intransitive perfects אוֹר‎, בּשׁ‎ (see above, c), most probably also in יֵאֹ֫תוּ‎ 2 Kings 12:9, נֵאוֹת‎ Genesis 34:15 from an unused אות‎ to consent, and perhaps in וַתֵּהֹם‎ 1 Samuel 4:5, &c., as in the cases noticed in §63e and especially §67n, the ē of the preformative is lengthened from ĭ (which is attenuated from original ă) and thus yĭ-băš became yĭ-bāš, and finally yē-bôš. Finally the Niph. נָקוֹם‎ (nă-qām), imperfect יִקּוֹם‎ from yiqqām, originally (§51m) yinqăm, arises in the same way from the obscuring of ā lengthened from ă.

5. In the perfect Niphʿal and Hiphʿîl a וֹ‎ is inserted before the afformatives beginning with a consonant in the 1st and 2nd persons, and ־ֶי‎ regularly (but see Rem.) in the imperfect Qal, sometimes also in the imperfect Hiphʿîl (as in תְּבִיאֶ֫ינָה‎ Leviticus 7:30, cf. תְּהִימֶ֫נַּה‎ Micah 2:12), before the termination of נָה‎. As in verbs ע״ע‎ (§67d and note) these separating vowels serve as an artificial opening of the preceding syllable, in order to preserve the long vowel; in the perfect Hiphʿîl, however, before the וֹ‎, instead of the î an ē is somewhat often found[5] (as a normal lengthening of the original ĭ), especially after wāw consecutive, Deuteronomy 4:39, Deuteronomy 30:1, as well as before the afformatives תֶם‎ and תֶן‎ or before suffixes, Deuteronomy 22:2, 1 Samuel 6:8, 1 Kings 8:34, Ezekiel 34:4. For in all these cases the tone is removed from the וֹ‎ to the following syllable, and this forward movement of the tone produces at the same time a weakening of the î to ē; thus הֵקִים‎, הֲקִימ֫וֹתָ‎ (or הֱק׳‎; on הַֽעֵדֹ֫תָה‎ Exodus 19:23, cf. x), but וַֽהֲקֵֽמֹתָ‎, &c., Exodus 26:30, &c.; Deuteronomy 4:39, Numbers 18:26 (cf., however, וַֽהֲקֵמֹנ֫וּ‎ Micah 5:4). In the same way in the 1st pers. sing. of the perfect Niphʿal, the ô before the separating vowel is always modified to û (נְקוּמ֫וֹתִ׳‎); cf. v. In the imperfect Qal and Hiphʿîl the separating vowel ־ֶי‎ always bears the tone (תְּקוּמֶ֫ינָה‎).

Without the separating vowel and consequently with the tone-long ō and ē instead of û and î we find in imperfect Qal תָּבֹ֫אנָה‎ (see §76g); תָּשֹׁ֫בְןָ‎ Ezekiel 16:55 (also תְּשׁוּבֶ֫ינָה‎ in the same verse); וַתָּשֹׁ֫בְנָה‎ 1 Samuel 7:14 (cf. Ezekiel 35:9 Qe; on the Kethîbh תֵּישַׁ֫בְנָה‎ cf. above, note on §69b); וַתָּאֹ֫רְנָה‎ 1 Samuel 14:27, from אוֹר‎ (Kethîbh וַתִּרְאֶ֫נָה‎ and they saw, see §75w); in Hiphʿîl, e.g. הֵנַ֫פְתָּ‎ Exodus 20:25, also הֲנִיפ֫וֹתִי‎ Job 31:21; וְהֵֽטַלְתִּי‎ Jeremiah 22:26; תָּשֵׁ֫בְנָה‎ Job 20:10; with a separating vowel, e.g. תְּבִיאֶ֫ינָה‎ Leviticus 7:30 from בּוֹא‎. Seghôl without י‎ occurs in the imperfect Qal in תְּמוּתֶ֫נָה‎ Ezekiel 13:19, Zechariah 1:17; and in Hiphʿîl Micah 2:12: the Dageš in the Nûn is, with Baer, to be rejected in all three cases according to the best authorities. Wholly abnormal is תָּקִ֫ימְנָה‎ Jeremiah 44:25, probably an erroneous transposition of ימ‍‎ (for תְּקִמֶ֫ינָה‎), unless it originates from an incorrect spelling תָּקֵ֫ימְנָה‎ or תְּקִימֶ֫נָה‎.

6. The tone, as in verbs ע״ע‎ (cf. §67k), is also generally retained on the stem-syllable in verbs ע״וּ‎ before the afformatives ־ָה‎, וּ‎, ־ִי‎; thus קָ֫מָה‎ (but also בָּזָ֫ה לְךָ‎ 2 Kings 19:21, probably for the sake of rhythmical uniformity with the following לָֽעֲגָה לְךָ‎; after wāw consecutive וְשָׁבָ֫ה‎ Isaiah 23:17); קָ֫מוּ‎ (but also קָמ֫וּ‎, cf. Isaiah 28:7, Isaiah 29:9, Nahum 3:18, Psalms 76:6, Proverbs 5:6, Lamentations 4:18; וְרָצ֫וּ‎ 1 Samuel 8:11; so especially before a following א‎, cf. §49l, Numbers 13:32; וְנָע֫וּ‎ Isaiah 19:1; before ע‎, Psalms 131:1, Proverbs 30:13, Lamentations 4:14); תָּק֫וּמִי‎, יָק֫וּמוּ‎, but before a suffix or with Nûn paragogic וַיְסֻכ֫וּם‎ 2 Chronicles 28:15; יְקוּמ֫וּן‎ Deuteronomy 33:11, &c.

7. The formation of the conjugations Piʿēl, Puʿal, and Hithpaʿēl is, strictly speaking, excluded by the nature of verbs ע״וּ‎. It is only in the latest books that we begin to find a few secondary formations, probably borrowed from Aramaic, on the analogy of verbs ע״ו‎ (with consonantal ו‎, see below, gg); e.g. the Piʿēl עִוֵּד‎ to surround, only in עִוְּדֻ֫נִי‎ Psalms 119:61; and with change of ו‎ to י‎, קִיַּם‎ Esther 9:31, קִיְּמוּ‎ Esther 9:27, impf. וָאֲֽקַיֵ֫מָה‎ Psalms 119:106, infin. קַיֵּם‎ Ezekiel 13:6, Ruth 4:7 &c., Esther 9:21 &c., imperat. קַיְּמֵ֫נִי‎ Psalms 119:28; וְחִיַּכְתֶּם‎ Daniel 1:10 from חוּב‎ to be guilty. The Hithpaʿēl הִצְטַיֵּד‎ Joshua 9:12, which belongs to the older language, is probably a denominative from צַ֫יִד‎. On the other hand the otherwise less common conjugation Pôlēl (see §55c), with its passive and reflexive, is usually employed in the sense of Piʿēl and as a substitute for it, e.g. קוֹמֵם‎ to set up from קוּם‎; מוֹתֵת‎ to slaughter, 1 Samuel 14:13, 1 Samuel 17:51, 2 Samuel 1:9, from מוּת‎; רוֹמֵם‎ to exalt, passive רוֹמַם‎, from רוּם‎; reflexive הִתְעוֹרֵר‎ to stir up oneself (cf. יִתְעֹרָֽר‎ Job 17:8 in pause) from עוּר‎; reciprocal הִתְבּשֵׁשׁ‎ to be ashamed before one another, Genesis 2:25. The conjugation Pilpēl (§55f), on the analogy of verbs ע״ע‎, is less common, e.g., טִלְטֵל‎ to hurl away from טוּל‎; כִּלְכֵּל‎ to contain from כּוּל‎; קַרְקַר‎ to destroy from קוּר‎.

I. On Qal.

1. Of verbs middle e and o, in which, as in the strong verb, the perfect and participle have the same form (§50b), the following are the only examples: מֵת‎ he is dead, fem. מֵ֫תָה‎, 2nd masc. מַ֫תָּה‎ (cf. §44g; §66h); 1st sing. מַ֫תִּי‎, וָמַ֫תִּי‎ (even in pause, Genesis 19:19); plur. מֵ֫תוּ‎, 1st pers. מַ֫תְנוּ‎, in pause מָ֫תְנוּ‎; בּשׁ‎ he was ashamed, בּשְׁתְּ‎, בּ֫שְׁתִּי‎, בּ֫שְׁנוּ‎, בּ֫שׁוּ‎; אוֹר‎ it has shone, plur. א֫וֹרוּ‎; טוֹב‎ to be good, טֹ֫בו‎. Participles מֵת‎ a dead man (plur. מֵתִים‎, מֵתֵי‎); בּוֹשִׁים‎ ashamed, Ezekiel 32:30. For נֵד‎ Isaiah 27:11 read נָד‎, or, with LXX, עַד‎.

Isolated anomalies in the perfect are: וְשָׁבַ֫ת‎ (with the original ending of the fem. for וְשָׁבָ֫ה‎) Ezekiel 46:17 (see §44f); צָקוּן‎ Isaiah 26:16 (see §44l).—In בָּ֫נוּ‎ 1 Samuel 25:8 (for בָּאנוּ‎ from בּוֹא‎) the א‎ has been dropped contrary to custom. In בֹּ֫אוּ‎ Jeremiah 27:18 (instead of בָּ֫אוּ‎) the Masora seems to point to the imperfect יָבֹא֫וּ‎ which is what would be expected; as Yôdh precedes, it is perhaps simply a scribal error.

The form קָם‎ occurs (cf. §9b) with א‎ in the perfect, קָאם‎ Hosea 10:14, also in the participles לָאט‎ softly, Judges 4:21, רָאשׁ‎ poor, 2 Samuel 12:14, Proverbs 10:4, plur. Proverbs 13:23; שָׁאטִים‎ doing despite unto (unless שֹֽׁאֲטִים‎ is to be read, from a stem שׁאט‎ whence שְׁאָט‎ Ezekiel 25:15, Ezekiel 36:5), Ezekiel 28:2426; fem. Ezekiel 16:57; also in Zechariah 14:10 רָאמָה‎ is to be read with Ben-Naphtali for רָֽאֲטָה‎. On the analogy of participles of verbs middle ō (like בּוֹשִׁים‎, see above) קוֹמִים‎ occurs for קָמִים‎ 2 Kings 16:7 and even with a transitive meaning לוֹט‎ occultans, Isaiah 25:7; בּוֹסִים‎ Zechariah 10:5.—Participle passive, מוּל‎ circumcised; but סוּג‎ a backslider, Proverbs 14:14, and סוּרָה‎ put aside, Isaiah 49:21 (cf. Jeremiah 17:13 Qe), are verbal adjectives of the form qāṭûl (§50f), not passive participles. For חֻשִׁים‎ hastening, Numbers 32:17, read חֲמֻשִׁים‎ as in Exodus 13:18; for שׁוּבֵי‎ Micah 2:8 read שָׁבֵי‎.

2. Imperfects in û almost always have the corresponding imperative and infinitive construct in û, as יָקוּם‎, imperative and infinitive קוּם‎ (also defectively written יָקֻם‎, קֻם‎); but יָדוּשׁ‎ he threshes (infin. דּוּשׁ‎), has imperative דּ֫וֹשִׁי‎ (fem.), Micah 4:13; יָמוּט‎ it slippeth, infinitive מוֹט‎ (Psalms 38:17, Psalms 46:3); cf. נוֹחַ‎ (also נוּחַ‎) Numbers 11:25 and נוֹעַ‎ Isaiah 7:2 (elsewhere נוּעַ‎) with the imperfects יָנוּחַ‎ and יָנוּעַ‎; לָעוֹז‎ Isaiah 30:2; שוֹב‎ Joshua 2:16; רוֹם‎ Ezekiel 10:17 (verse 16 רוּם‎).

Where the imperfect (always intransitive in meaning) has ô the imperative and infinitive also have it; thus imperfect (יָבֹא) יָבוֹא‎, infin. and imper. בּוֹא‎ or בֹּא‎[6]; וַיֵּאֹר‎ 2 Samuel 2:32, א֫וֹרִי‎, א֫וֹרוּ‎; יֵבוֹשׁ‎, בּוֹשׁ‎, &c.—יָקוֹט‎ Job 8:14 (if it be a verb at all and not rather a substantive) is formed on the analogy of verbs ע״ע‎, since the imperfect of קוּטֹ‎ appears as אָקוּט‎ in Psalms 95:10. On the other hand יְקשׁוּן‎ (as if from קוֹשׁ‎, on the analogy of יָבוֹא‎, &c.) occurs as imperfect of יָקשׁ‎ (פ״י‎). The imperfect יָדוֹן‎, with ô, Genesis 6:3, probably in the sense of to rule, has no corresponding perfect, and is perhaps intentionally differentiated from the common verb יָדִין‎ to judge (from דִּין‎, ע״י‎). Or can יָדוֹן‎ be a jussive after לֹא‎ (cf. §109d)? Similarly לֹא תָחוֹס עֵינִי (עֵֽינְךָ)‎ might be taken as a case of a jussive after לֹא‎, with irregular scriptio plena (as in Judges 16:30), in Deuteronomy 7:16, Deuteronomy 13:9, Deuteronomy 19:1321, Deuteronomy 25:12, Ezekiel 5:11, Ezekiel 7:49, Ezekiel 8:18, Ezekiel 9:10. But perhaps in all these cases לֹא תָחוּס‎ was originally intended, as in Isaiah 13:18, Jeremiah 21:7, while cases like יָחֹס‎ Psalms 72:13 are to be explained as in §109k.—The infinitive absolute always has ô, e.g. קוֹם יָק֫וּמוּ‎ Jeremiah 44:29.

3. In the imperative with afformatives (ק֫וּמִי‎, ק֫וּמוּ‎) the tone is on the stem syllable (cf., however, עוּרִ֫י‎ Judges 5:12 intentionally varied from ע֫וּרִי‎; also עוּרִ֫י‎ Zechariah 13:7 and Isaiah 51:9 beside ע֫וּרִי כִּ֣ימֵי‎; גִּילִ֫י‎ Zechariah 9:9; צוּרִ֫י‎ Isaiah 21:2, שׁוּבִ֫י‎ Psalms 116:7, likewise for rhythmical reasons). So also the lengthened form, as שׁ֫וּבָה‎ Jeremiah 3:12, Psalms 7:8, and ע֫וּרָה‎ verse 7. But if an א‎ follows in close connexion, the lengthened imperative usually has the form קוּמָ֫ה‎, &c.,[7] in order to avoid a hiatus, e.g. Judges 4:18, Psalms 82:8; hence also before יְהֹוָה‎, Qerê perpetuum אֲדֹנָי‎ (§17c), e.g. Psalms 3:8, Psalms 7:7 קוּמָ֫ה‎ (cf., however, in the same verse ע֫וּרָה‎ and in Jeremiah 40:5, שֻׁ֫בָה‎ before א‎), and so even before ר‎ Psalms 43:1, Psalms 74:22, &c. (רִיבָ֫ה‎).

4. In the jussive, besides the form יָקֹם‎ (see above, f), יָקוֹם‎ also occurs (as subjunctive, Ecclesiastes 12:4; נָסוֹג‎ Psalms 80:19 may also, with Delitzsch, be regarded as a voluntative), incorrectly written plene, and יָקֻ֫ם‎ (Genesis 27:31; cf. Judges 6:18, Proverbs 9:416), which, however, is only orthographically different from יָקוּם‎ (cf. Jeremiah 46:6). In the imperfect consecutive (וַיָּ֫קָם‎, in pause וַיָּ֫קֹם‎, see above, f) if there be a guttural or ר‎ in the last syllable, ă often takes the place of ŏ, e.g. וַיָּ֫נַח‎ and he rested; וַיָּ֫נַע‎ and it was moved; וַיָּ֫סַר‎ and he turned aside, Judges 4:18, Ruth 4:1 (distinguished only by the sense from Hiphʿîl וַיָּ֫סַר‎ and he removed, Genesis 8:13); וַיָּ֫צַר‎ Exodus 21:4, 2 Kings 5:23, 2 Kings 17:5 (but also וַיָּ֫גָר‎ from both גּוּר‎ to sojourn, and גּוּר‎ to fear); וַיָּ֫עַף‎ (to be distinguished from וַיָּ֫עָף‎ and he flew, Isaiah 6:6) and he was weary, Judges 4:21, 1 Samuel 14:2831, 2 Samuel 21:15, but probably in all these cases וַיִּעַף‎ for וַיִּיעַף‎ from יָעֵף‎ is intended. For ותלוש‎ 2 Samuel 13:8 Keth., the Qerê rightly requires וַתָּ֫לָשׁ‎. On the other hand, in an open syllable always וַיָּק֫וּמוּ‎, וַיָּס֫וּרוּ‎, &c. On (וָאָֽקֻם) וָאָֽקוּם‎, see §49e.

Examples of the full plural ending וּן‎ with the tone (see above, l) are תְּמֻת֫וּן‎ Genesis 3:34; יְנוּס֫וּן‎ Psalms 104:7; יְרוּצ֫וּן‎ Joel 2:479.

II. On Niphʿal.

5. The form of the 1st sing. perf. נְקוּמ֫וֹתִי‎, which frequently occurs (נְסוּגֹ֫תִי‎, נְפוּגֹ֫תִי‎, cf. also the ptcp. plur. נְכוּכִים‎, Exodus 14:3), serves as a model for the 2nd sing. נְקוּמ֫וֹתָ‎, נְקוּמוֹת‎, and the 1st plur. נְקוּמ֫וֹנוּ‎ given in the paradigm, although no instances of these forms are found; but of the 2nd plur. the only examples found have ô (not û), viz. נְפֽוֹצֹתֶם‎ ye have been scattered, Ezekiel 11:17, Ezekiel 20:3441, and וּנְקֹֽטֹתֶם‎ and ye shall loathe yourselves, Ezekiel 20:43, Ezekiel 36:31.—To the ĭ (instead of ă) of the preformative may be traced the perfect נֵעוֹר‎ Zechariah 2:17 (analogous to the perfect and participle נִמּוֹל‎, see below, ee), imperfect יֵעוֹר‎ for yiʿʿōr.—The infinitive construct הִדּוּשׁ‎ occurs in Isaiah 25:10; in לֵאוֹר‎ Job 33:30, the Masora assumes the elision of the ה‎ (for לִהֵאוֹר‎); but probably לָאוֹר‎ (Qal) is intended (see §51l).—נַמוֹג‎ Isaiah 14:31, נָסוֹג‎ Isaiah 59:13 are to be regarded as infinitives absolute.

III. On Hiphʿîl, Hophʿal, and Piʿlēl.

6. Examples of the perfect without a separating vowel (see above, k), are: הֵבֵ֫אתָ‎, &c. (see further, §76g); הֵמַ֫תָּה‎ (from מוּת‎) for hēmáth-tā (cf. §20a); הֵכַ֫נּוּ‎ 1st plur. perfect Hiphʿîl from כּוּן‎ 2 Chronicles 29:19, even הֲמִתֶּם‎ (§27s) Numbers 17:6, &c.; cf. 1 Samuel 17:35, 2 Samuel 13:28, also וַֽהֲמִתֶּן‎ Exodus 1:16, and וַֽהֲמִתִּ֫יהָ‎ Hosea 2:5; but elsewhere, with wāw consecutive וְהֵֽמַתִּ֫י‎ Isaiah 14:30; cf. וְהֵֽמַלְתִּ֫י‎ Jeremiah 16:13, and וְהֵֽנַפְתָּ֫‎ Exodus 29:24, &c.—In these cases the ē of the first syllable is retained in the secondary tone; elsewhere in the second syllable before the tone it becomes ־ֱ‎ (1 Chronicles 15:12, &c.) or more frequently ־ֲ‎, and in the syllable before the antepenultima it is necessarily ־ֲ‎ (e.g. וַֽהֲקִֽמֹתִ֫י‎ Genesis 6:18). Before a suffix in the 3rd sing. mase. (except Genesis 40:13) and fem., and in the 3rd plur., the vowel of the initial syllable is Ḥaṭeph-Seghôl, in the other persons always Ḥaṭeph-Pathaḥ (König); on הֲקֵֽמֹתוֹ‎ 2 Kings 9:2, Psalms 89:44, cf. Exodus 19:23, Numbers 31:28, Deuteronomy 4:39, Deuteronomy 22:2, Deuteronomy 27:2, Deuteronomy 30:1, Ezekiel 34:4, and above, i. The 3rd fem. perf. Hiph. הֵסַ֫תָּה‎ 1 Kings 21:25 is quite abnormal for הֵסִ֫יתָה‎ from סוּת‎ or סִית‎.

As in verbs ע״ע‎ with ח‎ for their first radical (§67w), all the forms of עוּד‎ Exodus 19:23 (where against the rule given under i we find הַֽעֵדֹ֫תָה‎ with ē instead of î), Deuteronomy 8:19, Nehemiah 9:34, Jeremiah 42:19, and עוּר‎ Isaiah 41:25, Isaiah 45:13, take Pathaḥ in these conjugations instead of ־ֲ‎. The irregular וְהֽוֹשְׁבוֹתִים‎ Zechariah 10:6 has evidently arisen from a combination of two different readings, viz. וְהֽוֹשַׁבְתִּים‎ (from יָשַׁב‎) and וַֽהֲשִֽׁבוֹתִים‎ (from שׁוּב‎): the latter is to be preferred.—On הֵבִישׁ‎ and הוֹבִישׁ‎ as a (metaplastic) perfect Hiphʿîl of בּוֹשׁ‎, cf. §78b.

7. In the imperative, besides the short form הָקֵם‎ (on הָשַֽׁב‎ Isaiah 42:22 with Silluq, cf. §29q; but in Ezekiel 21:35 for הָשַׁב‎ read the infinitive הָשֵׁב‎) the lengthened form הָקִ֫ימָה‎ is also found. With suffix הֲקִימֵ֫נִי‎, &c. The imperative הָבִיא‎ Jeremiah 17:18 is irregular (for הָבֵא‎ Genesis 43:16); perhaps הָבֵיא‎ (as in 1 Samuel 20:40; cf. 2 Kings 8:6) is intended, or it was originally הָבִ֫יאָה‎.

In the infinitive, elision of the ה‎ occurs in לָבִיא‎ Jeremiah 39:7, 2 Chronicles 31:10 (for לְהָבִיא‎); ־ָה‎ fem. is added in לַֽהֲנָפָה‎ Isaiah 30:28; cf. Esther 2:18, Esther 4:14 and the analogous infinitive Haphʿel in biblical Aramaic, Daniel 5:20.—As infinitive absolute הָכִין‎ occurs in Ezekiel 7:14 (perh. also Joshua 4:3, Jeremiah 10:23).—The participles have ē, on the analogy of the perfect, as the vowel of the preformative, like verbs ע״ע‎ (§67i). On מֵבִי‎ 2 Samuel 5:2, &c. (in Kethîbh), see §74k.

On the shortened forms of the imperfect (יָקֵם‎, וַיַָּקֶם‎, but always וַיָּבֵ֫א‎; in the jussive also with retraction of the tone אַל־תָּ֫שֶׁב‎ 1 Kings 2:20) see above, f. With a guttural or ר‎ the last syllable generally has Pathaḥ (as in Qal), e.g. וַיָ֫עַד‎ and he testified, 2 Kings 17:13; יָרַ֫ח‎ let him smell, 1 Samuel 26:19; וַיָּ֫רַח‎ Genesis 8:21; וַיָּ֫סַר‎ and he took away, Genesis 8:13. The 1st sing. of the imperfect consecutive commonly has the form וָאָֽשִׁ֫יב‎ Nehemiah 2:20, or, more often, defectively וָאָֽעִד‎ 1 Kings 2:42, less frequently the form וָאָֽשֵׁב‎ Joshua 14:7.—For אָסֵף‎ Zephaniah 1:2 (after אָסֹף‎) and in verse 3, read אֹסֵף‎ from אָסַף‎, on the analogy of אֹמֵד‎ §68g: similarly in Jeremiah 8:13 אֹֽסְפֵם‎ instead of אֲסִיפֵם‎.

In the imperfect Pôlēl the tone is moved backwards before a following tonesyllable, but without a shortening of the vowel of the final syllable; e.g. תְּד֫וֹמֵֽם נּ֑וֹי‎ Proverbs 14:34; תְּח֫וֹלֵֽל לְוֹ‎ Job 35:14; cf. Proverbs 25:23, and acc. to Baer וַתּתְבֹּ֫נֵֽן בִּֽי‎ Job 30:20 (ed. Mant., Ginsb. וַתִּתְבֹּנֶן בִּֽי‎), always in principal pause; on the Metheg with Ṣere, cf. §16f γ.—As Pôlal cf. יְרֹעָ֑ע‎ Isaiah 16:10.

As participle Hophʿal הַמּוּשַׁב‎ occurs in close connexion, Genesis 43:12; cf.§65d.

Peculiar contracted forms of Pôlēl (unless they are transitives in Qal) are וַיְכֻנֶ֫נּוּ‎ Job 31:15, יְעוּרֶ֫נּוּ‎ Job 41:2, וַתְּמוּגֵ֫נוּ‎ Isaiah 64:6 for וַיְכֹֽנְנֶ֫נּוּ‎, &c. [but read וַיְכֹנְנֵנוּ‎ (§58k), יְעִירֶנּוּ‎ or יְעוֹרְנֶנּוּ‎, and וַתְּמַגְּנֵנוּ‎]; also תְּרֹמֵם‎ Job 17:4, for תְּדֹֽמְמֵם‎.—In Isaiah 15:5 יְעֹעֵ֫רוּ‎ appears to have arisen from the Pilpel יְעַרְעֵָ֫רוּ‎, the ă after the loss of the ר‎ having been lengthened to ā, which has then been obscured to ô.—For the strange form בִּֽתקֽוֹמֲמֶ֫יךָ‎ Psalms 139:21, which cannot (according to §52s) be explained as a participle with the מ‍‎ omitted, read בְּמִתְק׳‎.

IV. In General.

8. The verbs ע״וּ‎ are primarily related to the verbs ע״ע‎ (§ 67), which were also originally biliteral, so that it is especially necessary in analysing them to pay attention to the differences between the inflexion of the two classes. Several forms are exactly the same in both, e.g. imperfect Qal and Hiphʿîl with wāw consecutive, the whole of Hophʿal, the Piʿlēl of verbs ע״וּ‎, and the Pôʿēl of verbs ע״ע‎; see §67z. Owing to this close relation, verbs ע״וּ‎ sometimes have forms which follow the analogy of verbs ע״ע‎, e.g. perfect Qal בַּז‎ he has despised (from בּוּז‎, as if from בָּזַז‎) Zechariah 4:10; perfect Niphʿal נָמָרֽ‎ Jeremiah 48:11 (for נָמוֹר‎ from מוּד‎, as if from מָרַר‎). The same explanation equally applies to נָֽקְטָה‎ Job 10:1 for נָקַ֫טָּה‎ (cf. § 67 dd) = נָק֫וֹטָה‎ from קוּט‎, and נָ֫קֹטּוּ‎ Ezekiel 6:9 (for נָק֫וֹטוּ‎); יֵר֫וֹמּוּ‎ Ezekiel 10:17 and וַיֵּדֹ֫מּוּ‎ verse 15; הֵדֹ֫מּוּ‎ (imperative) Numbers 17:10; יִסַּג‎ Micah 2:6; Hiphʿîl perfect הֵתַז‎ Isaiah 18:5 for הֵתֵז‎ (cf. §29q), which is for הֵתִיז‎ from תּוּז‎. On the other hand the imperfects יָמֵר‎ Ezekiel 48:14 (unless it be intended for יָמִר‎, cf. Psalms 15:4) and יָפֵחַ‎ Habakkuk 2:3, are to be regarded according to §109i, simply as rhythmically shortened forms of יָמִיר‎ and יָפִיחַ‎.

9. In common with verbs ע״ע‎ (§67g) verbs ע״וּ‎ sometimes have in Niphʿal and Hiphʿîl the quasi-Aramaic formation, by which, instead of the long vowel under the preformative, they take a short vowel with Dages̆ forte in the following consonant; this variety is frequently found even along with the ordinary form, e.g. הִסִּית‎ to incite, imperfect יַסִּית‎ (also הֵסִית‎, יָסִית‎); הִסִּיג‎, imperfect יַסִּיג‎ to remove (from סוּנ‍‎), also Hophʿal הֻסַּג‎ Isaiah 59:14 (on הֻ֣קַּם‎ cf. §29g); sometimes with a difference of meaning, as הֵנִיחַ‎ to cause to rest,[8] but הִנִּיחַ‎ (imperfect יַנִּיחַ‎, consecutive וַתַּנִּ֫חַ‎ Genesis 39:16; imperative חַנַּח‎, plur. הַנִּ֫יחוּ‎) to set down; for וַהֻנִּ֫יחָה‎ (Baer, Ginsburg וְהֻנִ׳‎) Zechariah 5:11 (which at any rate could only be explained as an isolated passive of Hiphʿîl on the analogy of the biblical Aramaic הֳקִימַת‎ Daniel 7:4) we should probably read וַהִנִּיחֻ֫הָ‎ with Klostermann after the LXX. In Daniel 8:11 the Kethîbh הדים‎ is intended for a perfect Hiphʿîl. There is also a distinction in meaning between יָלִיז‎ to spend the night, to remain, and יַלִּין‎ Exodus 16:7 Qe (Kethîbh תּלּוֹנוּ‎; conversely, verse 2 Kethîbh יַלִּ֫ינוּ‎, Qe יִלּ֫וֹנוּ‎), participle מַלִּין‎ Exodus 16:8, Numbers 14:27, Numbers 17:20, to be stubborn, obstinate: in the latter sense from the form יָלִין‎ only וַיָּ֫לֶן‎ is found, Exodus 17:3. Other examples are Niphʿal נִמּוֹל‎ he was circumcised, Genesis 17:26 f.; participle Genesis 34:22 (from מוּל‎, not נָמַל‎); נֵעוֹר‎ he is waked up, Zechariah 2:17 (see above, v); Hiphʿîl הִזִּיל֫וּהַ‎ Lamentations 1:8; יַלִּ֫יזוּ‎ Proverbs 4:21.

Perhaps the same explanation applies to some forms of verbs first guttural with Dageš forte implicitum, which others derive differently or would emend, e.g. וַתַּ֫חַשׁ‎ for וַתָּ֫חַשׁ‎ and she hastened (from חוּשׁ‎) Job 31:5; וַיַּ֫עַט‎ (another reading is וַיָּ֫עַט‎), וַתַּ֫עַט‎ 1 Samuel 15:19, 1 Samuel 25:14 (1 Samuel 14:32 Qe) from עוּט‎ or עִיט‎ to fly at anything. Both, as far as the form is concerned, would be correct apocopated imperfects from חָשָׁה‎ and עָטָה‎ (ל״ה‎), but these stems only occur with a wholly different meaning.

10. Verbs with a consonantal Wāw for their second radical, are inflected throughout like the strong form, provided the first or third radical is not a weak letter, e.g. חָוַר‎, imperfect יֶֽחֱוַר‎ to be white; גָּוַע‎, imperfect יִגְוַע‎ to expire; רָוַח‎ to be wide; צָוַח‎ to cry; Piʿēl עִוֵּל‎, imperfect יְעַוֵּל‎ to act wickedly; עִוֵּת‎ to bend, Hithpaʿēl הִתְעַוֵּת‎ to bend oneself; and this is especially the case with verbs which are at the same time ל״ה‎, e.g. צָוָה‎, Piʿēl צִוָּה‎ to command, קִוָּה‎ to wait, רָוָה‎ to drink, Piʿēl רִוָּה‎ (on אֲרַיָּ֫וֶךְ‎ Isaiah 16:9, see §75dd) and Hiphʿîl הִרְוָה‎ to give to drink, &c.

  1. The term ע״ו‎ was consequent on the view that the Wāw (or י‎ in the case of verbs ע״ו‎) in these stems was originally consonantal. This view seemed especially to be supported by the return of the Wāw in Piʿēl (עִוֵּד‎, the ו‎ usually passing into י‎ as in קִיַּם‎, cf. Arabic qáwwămă), and by certain forms of the absolute state of the nouns of such stems, e.g. מֶ֫וֶת‎ death, compared with מוּת‎ to die. Hence in explaining the verbal forms a supposed stem qawam (in verbs ע״י‎ e.g. šayat) was always assumed, and יָקוּם‎ was referred to an original yaqwŭm, the infinitive absolute קוֹם‎ to original qawôm, the participle passive קוּם‎ to original qawûm. It must, however, be admitted: (1) that forms like עִוֵּד‎, קִים‎ (see m) are only to be found in the latest books, and are hence evidently secondary as compared with the pure Hebrew forms קוֹמֵם‎, &c.; (2) that to refer the verbal forms invariably to the stem קָוַם‎, leads in many cases to phonetic combinations which are essentially improbable, whereas the assumption of original middle-vowel stems renders a simple and natural explanation almost always possible. These ע״וּ‎ stems are therefore to be rigidly distinguished from the real ע״ו‎ stems of the strong forms, such as רָוַח‎, גָּוַע‎, &c. (see below, gg).—As early as the eleventh century the right view with regard to ״וּ‎ stems was taken by Samuel Hannagîd (cf. Bacher, Leben und Werke des AbulwaléÆd, p. 16); recently by Böttcher (Lehrbuch, § 1112), and (also as to ע״ע‎ stems) especially by Müller, Stade, and Wellhausen (see above, §67a, note). On the other hand, the old view of ו‎ and י‎ as consonants has been recently revived by Philippi, Barth, M. Lambert, and especially Brockelmann (op. cit.).
  2. In Aramaic, however, always קָ֫מְתָּ‎; also in Hebrew grammars before Qimḥi קָ֫מְתָּ‎, קָ֫מְתִּי‎, &c., are found, but in our editions of the Bible this occurs only in pause, e.g. קָ֑מְתִּי‎ Micah 7:8, מָ֫תְנוּ‎ 2 Kings 7:34.
  3. According to Stade (Grammatik, §385e and f) the e in מֵת‎ is of the nature of a diphthong (from ai, which arose from the union of the vowel ĭ, the sign of the intransitive, with the ă of the root), and likewise the o in אוֹר‎, &c. (from au). But ô (from au) could not, by §26p, remain in a closed penultima (בּ֫שְׁתָּ‎, &c.); consequently the o of these forms can only be tone-long, i.e. due to lengthening of an original ŭ, and similarly the ē of מֵת‎ to lengthening of an original ĭ. This is confirmed by the fact that the ō in בּשְׁתְּ‎, בּ֫שְׁתִּי‎, בּ֫שְׁנוּ‎ is always, and in בּ֫שׁוּ‎, 3rd plur. perfect, nearly always (the instances are 11 to 2), written defectively. Forms like בּ֫וֹשָׁה‎, בּ֫וֹשׁוּ‎, א֫וֹרוּ‎, &c., are therefore due to orthographic licence.
  4. So in Arabic, prop. qâʾĭm, since the two vowels are kept apart by the insertion of an א‎, cf. Aram. קָאֵם‎; but also contracted, as šâk, hâr, for šâʾĭk, &c. (cf. Wright’s Gramm. of the Arabic Language, 2nd ed. vol. i. p. 164).
  5. וַֽהֲשֵֽׁיבֹתֶם‎ 1 Samuel 6:7 (cf. 2 Chronicles 6:25) could only be an orthographic licence for והשֵֽׁב׳‎; perhaps, however, והשִֽׁיב׳‎ was originally intended.
  6. In 1 Kings 14:12 (בְּבֹאָה‎ before a genitive), the text is evidently corrupt: read with Klostermann after the LXX בְּבֹאֵךְ‎.
  7. Cf. Delitzsch’s commentary on Psalms 3:8.
  8. As the passive of this Hiphʿîl we should expect the Hophʿal הוּנַח‎, which is, no doubt, to be read for הוּנַּח‎ in Lamentations 5:5.
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