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Bible Lexicons

Gesenius Hebrew Grammer

Part 75

§75. Verbs ל״ה‎, e.g. גָּלָה‎ to reveal. Paradigm P.

Brockelmann, Semit. Sprachwiss., p. 149 ff.; Grundriss, p. 618 ff.—G. R. Berry, ‘Original Waw in ל״ה‎ verbs’ in AJSL. xx. 256 f.

These verbs, like the verbs פ״י‎ (§§69, 70), belong to two different classes, viz. those originally ל״ו‎ and those originally ל״י‎,[1] which in Arabic, and even more in Ethiopic, are still clearly distinguished. In Hebrew, instead of the original ו‎ or י‎ at the end of the word, a ה‎ always appears (except in the ptcp. pass. Qal) as a purely orthographic indication of a final vowel (§23k); hence both classes are called ל״ה‎, e.g. גָּלָה‎ for גָּלַי‎ he has revealed; שָׁלָה‎ for שָׁלֵו‎ he has rested. By far the greater number of these verbs are, however, treated as originally ל״י‎; only isolated forms occur of verbs ל״ו‎.

שָׁלָה‎ to be at rest may be recognized as originally ל״ו‎, in the forms in which the Wāw appears as a strong consonant, cf. 1st sing. perfect Qal שָׁלַ֫וְתִּי‎ Job 3:26, the participle שָׁלֵו‎ and the derivative שַׁלְוָה‎ rest; on the other hand the imperfect is יִשְׁלָ֫יוּ‎. (with Yôdh). In עָנָה‎ (Arab. עני‎) to answer, and עָנָה‎ (Arab. ענו‎)[2] to be afflicted, are to be seen two verbs originally distinct, which have been assimilated in Hebrew (see the Lexicon, s. v. עָנָה‎). Of quite a different class are those verbs of which the third radical is a consonantal ה‎ (distinguished by Mappîq). These are inflected throughout like verbs tertiae gutturalis. Cf. §65 note on the heading.

The grammatical structure of verbs ל״ה‎ (see Paradigm P) is based on the following laws:—

1. In all forms in which the original Yôdh or Wāw would stand at the end of the word, it is dropped (cf. §24g) and ה‎ takes its place as an orthographic indication of the preceding long vowel. Such an indication would have been indispensable, on practical grounds, in the still unvocalized consonantal text. But even after the addition of the vowel signs, the orthographic rule remained, with insignificant exceptions (see §8k, and ā in קָטַ֫לְתָּ‎, &c.), that a final vowel must be indicated by a vowel letter. In verbs ל״ה‎ the ה‎ which is here employed as a vowel letter is preceded by the same vowel in the same part of the verb throughout all the conjugations. Thus the endings are—

־ָה‎ in all perfects, גָּלָה‎, נִגְלָה‎, גִּלָּה‎, &c.

־ֶה‎ in all imperfects and participles, יִגְלֶה‎, גֹּלֶה‎, &c.

־ֵה‎ in all imperatives, גְּלֵה‎, גַּלֵּה‎, &c.

־ֹה‎ in the infinitive absolute (גָּלֹה‎, &c.), except in Hiphʿîl, Hophʿal, and generally also Piēl, see aa and ff.

The participle passive Qal alone forms an exception, the original י‎ (or ו‎, see v) reappearing at the end, גָּלוּי‎; and so also some derived nouns (§84ac, ε, &c.).

The infinitive construct always has the ending וֹת‎ (with ת‎ feminine); Qal גְּלוֹת‎, Piʿēl גַּלּוֹת‎, &c.; for exceptions, see n and y.

These forms may be explained as follows:—in the perfect Qal גָּלָה‎ stands, according to the above, for (י‎)גָּלַ‎, and, similarly, in Niphʿal, Puʿal, and Hophʿal. The Piʿēl and Hithpaʿēl may be based on the forms קִטַּל‎, הִתְקָטַּל‎ (§52l; and §54k), and Hiphʿîl on the form הִקְטַל‎, on the analogy of the ă in the second syllable of the Arabic ʿáqtălă (§53a). Perhaps, however, the finalā of these conjugations simply follows the analogy of the other conjugations.

The explanation of the final tone-bearing ־ֶה‎ of the imperfect is still a matter of dispute. As to the various treatments of it, see Barth, Nominalbildung, i. p. xxx ff, with § 136, Rem., and ZDMG. xliv. 695 f., against Philippi’s objections in the Zeitschrift für Völkerpsychologie, 1890, p. 356 f.; also ZDMG. lvi. 244, where Barth appeals to the rule that, in the period before the differentiation of the North Semitic dialects, final iy becomes ־ֶ‎ (constr. ־ְה‎), not î; M. Lambert, Journ. Asiat. 1893, p. 285; Prätorius, ZDMG. lv. 365. The most probable explanation now seems to be, first, that the uniform pronunciation of all imperfects and participles with Seghôl in the last syllable merely follows the analogy of the impf. Qal, and secondly, that the Seghôl of the impf. Qal does perhaps ultimately represent a contraction of the original termination ־ַי‎ (= ai), although elsewhere (e.g. in the imperative of ל״ה‎) ai is usually contracted to ê. 2. When the original Yôdh stands at the end of the syllable before an afformative beginning with a consonant (ת‎, נ‍‎) there arises (a) in the perfects, primarily the diphthong ai (־ַי‎). In the middle of the word this ought always to be contracted to ê (־ֵי‎), but this ê is only found consistently in the passive conjugations, whilst regularly in Qal, and frequently in the other active and reflexive conjugations (especially in Piʿēl), it appears as î (cf. x, z, ee). This î, however, in the perf. Qal is not to be explained as a weakening of an original ê, but as the original vowel of the intransitive form. It then became usual also in the transitive forms of Qal (and in some other conjugations on this analogy), whereas e.g. in Syriac the two kinds of forms are still carefully distinguished.—(b) In the imperfects and imperatives, ־ֶי‎ with the tone always appears before the afformative נָה‎. On the most probable explanation of this ־ֶי‎, see above, e.

Summary. Accordingly before afformatives beginning with a consonant the principal vowel is—

In the perfect Qal î, e.g. גָּ֫לִיתָ‎;

In the perfects of the other active and reflexive conjugations, sometimes ê, sometimes î, גִּלֵּ֫יתָ‎ and גִּלִּ֫יתָ‎; נִגְלֵ֫יתָ‎ and נִגְ֫לִיתָ‎;

In the perfects passive always ê, e.g. גֻּלֵּ֫יתָ‎;

In the imperfects and imperatives always ־ֶי‎, e.g. גְּלֶ֫ינָה‎, תִּגְלֶ֫ינָה‎.

The diphthongal forms have been systematically retained in Arabic and Ethiopic; only as an exception and in the popular language is the diphthong contracted. In Aramaic the contracted forms predominate, yet the Syriac, for example, has in Qal 2nd pers. sing. gelait (but 1st pers. sing. גְּלִית‎), and so too the Western Aramaic גְּלַיתָ‎, but also גְּלֵיתָ‎.

3. Before the vocalic afformatives (וּ‎, ־ִי‎, ־ָה‎) the Yôdh is usually dropped altogether, e.g. גָּלוּ‎ (ground-form găl̆yû), תִּגְלִי‎, participle fem. גֹּלָה‎, plur. masc. גֹּלִים‎; yet the old full forms also not infrequently occur, especially in pause, see u. The elision of the Yôdh takes place regularly before suffixes, e.g. גָּֽלְךָ‎ (see ll).

4. In the 3rd sing. fem. perfect, the original feminine ending ־ַת‎ was appended to the stem; hence, after elision of the Yôdh, arose properly forms like גָּלָת‎, with ā, in the final syllable with the tone, This form, however, has been but rarely preserved (see below, m). The analogy of the other forms had so much influence, that the common ending ־ָה‎ was added pleonastically to the ending ־ָת‎. Before the ־ָה‎ the vowel of the ending ־ָת‎, which thus loses the tone, becomes Še, and thus there arise such forms as גָּֽלְתָה‎, נִגְלְתָה‎, &c. (but in pause גָּלָ֫תָה‎, &c.).

For similar cases see §70d; §91m. 5. Finally, a strongly-marked peculiarity of verbs ל״ה‎ is the rejection of the ending ־ֶה‎ in forming the jussive and the imperfect consecutive. This shortening c curs in all the conjugations, and sometimes also involves further changes in the vocalization (see o, y, bb, gg). Similarly, in some conjugations a shortened imperative (cf. §48k) is formed by apocope of the final ־ֵה‎ (see cc, gg).

6. The ordinary form of the imperfect with the ending ־ֶה‎ serves in verbs ל״ה‎ to express the cohortative also (§48c); cf. Genesis 1:26, Genesis 2:18, 2 Chronicles 25:17, &c. With a final ־ָה‎ there occur only: in Qal, אֶשְׁעָה‎ Psalms 119:117, אֶֽהֱמָ֑יָה‎ (with the י‎ retained, see below, u) Psalms 77:4; and in Hithpaʿēl וְנִשְׁתָּ֫עָה‎ Isaiah 41:23 (with Ṭiphḥa, therefore in lesser pause).

I. On Qal .

1. The older form of the fem. of the 3rd sing. perf. גָּלָת‎, mentioned above, under i (cf. §74g), is preserved in עָשָׂת‎ (before א‎) Leviticus 25:21 (cf. 2 Kings 9:37 Kethîbh)[3]; likewise in Hiphʿîl הִרְצָת‎ (before א‎) Leviticus 26:34; הֶלְאָ֑ת‎ Ezekiel 24:12; and in Hophʿal הָגְלָת‎ (before יְ‎) Jeremiah 13:19.—The 2nd sing. fem. is also written ־ִיתְ‎; thus in the textus receptus וְהָיִיתְ‎ 2 Samuel 14:2, and always in Baer’s editions (since 1872), as in most other verbs; חָזִיתְ‎ and גִּלִּיתְ‎ Isaiah 57:8; עָשִׂיתְ‎ Jeremiah 2:23, Ezekiel 16:48, &c. (so וְהוֹצֵאתְ‎ 1 Kings 17:13 from יָצָא‎). In the 3rd pers. plur. the tone, instead of keeping its usual place (גָּלוּ֫‎, &c.), is retracted in Psalms 37:20, כָּ֫לוּ‎, both on account of the pause and also in rhythmical antithesis to the preceding כָּלוּ֫‎; also in Isaiah 16:8 תָּעוּ‎ (according to Delitzsch for the sake of the assonance with נָגָ֫עוּ‎); and in Job 24:1 חָ֫זוּ‎.—On the tone of the perfect consecutive see §49k.

2. The infin. absol. frequently has וֹ‎ (probably a survival of the older orthography) for ־ֹה‎, e.g. הָיוֹ‎ Genesis 18:18; עָשׂוֹ‎ Jeremiah 4:18, &c., Ezekiel 31:11; קָנוֹ‎ 2 Samuel 24:24; רָאוֹ‎ Genesis 26:28, Isaiah 6:9 (cf. 1 Samuel 6:12), &c., beside רָאֹה‎. The form שָׁתוֹת‎ Isaiah 22:13 (beside שָׁתוֹ‎ in the same verse) appears to have been chosen on account of its similarity in sound to שָׁחֹט‎; so in Isaiah 42:20 Qe and Hosea 10:4, אָלוֹת‎ (unless it is a substantive, oaths) and כָּדֹת‎; cf. also עָרוֹת‎ Habakkuk 3:13.—Conversely, instead of the infinitive construct גְּלוֹת‎ such forms are occasionally found as גְּלֹה‎ or גְּלוֹ‎, cf. רְאֹה‎ Genesis 48:11; קְנֹה‎ Proverbs 16:16; עֲשׂה‎ Genesis 50:20, Psalms 101:3, also עֲשׂוֹ‎ Genesis 31:28 (cf. Proverbs 31:4), and even with the suffix הוּ‎ the very remarkable form עֲשׂ֫הוּ‎ Exodus 18:18.[4]—The feminine form רַֽאֲוָה‎ (for דְאוֹת‎) Ezekiel 28:17, analogous to nouns like גַּֽאֲוָה‎ (cf. §45d), is strange, but הֱיֵה‎ as infin. Ezekiel 21:15 is quite inexplicable.—The forms הֹגוֹ‎ and הֹרוֹ‎ Isaiah 59:13 are perhaps to be regarded with Barth, Nominalbildung, §51a, as infinitives absolute of the passive of Qal (see above, §53u), not of Pôʿēl.—The 2nd sing. masc. imperative וֶחְֽיֶה‎ occurs in the principal pause in Proverbs 4:4 and Proverbs 7:2; but probably these forms are simply to be attributed to a Masoretic school, which in general marked the difference between certain forms by the use of é for ē, and conversely ē for é; cf. the analogous examples in §52n, and especially §75hh, also Kautzsch, Grammatik des Bibl.-Aram., § 17, 2, Rem. 1.—On the reading וּֽרֲאֵ֫ינָה‎ Song of Solomon 3:11 (for וּֽרֲאֶ֫ינָה‎, on the analogy of the reading מְצֵ֫אנָה‎, &c., §74h), see Baer’s note on the passage.

3. The shortening of the imperfect (see above, k, and the note on hh) occasions in Qal the following changes:

(a) As a rule the first radical takes a helping Seghôl, or, if the second radical is a guttural, a helping Pathaḥ (according to §28e). Thus יִ֫גֶל‎ for יִגְלְ‎; וַיִּ֫בֶז‎ and he despised, Genesis 25:34; וַיִּ֫בֶן‎ and he built; יִ֫שַׁע‎ he looks; וַיִּ֫מַח‎ and he destroyed, Genesis 7:23.

(b) The ĭ of the preformative is then sometimes lengthened to ē, e.g. יֵ֫רֶא‎ he sees. This, however, mostly happens only after the preformative ת‎, whilst after י‎ the homogeneous ĭ remains, e.g. וַתֵּ֫כֶל‎ (but יִ֫כֶל‎), וַתֵּ֫פֶן‎ (but יִ֫פֶן‎), וַתֵּ֫רֶב‎ (but וַיִּ֫רֶב‎); with middle guttural תֵּ֫תַע‎, וַתֵּ֫כַהּ‎ Job 17:7 (from כָּהָה‎). The unusual position of the tone in תֵּרֵ֫א‎ Zechariah 9:5, וְתֵרֵ֫א‎ Micah 7:10 (so Baer and Ginsb.; ed. Mant. יִרֶ֫א‎, וְיִרֶ֫א‎) is best explained (except in יֵרֶ֫א‎ Genesis 41:33, before פ‎) on the analogy of קוּמָ֫ה‎, &c., §72s, as due to the following א‎. But cf. also hh

(c) The helping vowel is elsewhere not used under the circumstances mentioned in §28d; וַיִּשְׁבְּ‎ Numbers 21:1, Jeremiah 41:10, cf. וַיִּפְתְּ‎ Job 31:27; on the other hand, with ĭ lengthened into ē (see p) וַיֵּשְׁתְּ‎, וַיֵּבְךְּ‎, וַיֵּרְדְּ‎, יֵשְׂטְ‎. The form יֵ֫רֶא‎ he sees, occurs parallel with וַיַּרְא‎ and he saw (but 3rd fem. always וַתֵּ֫רֶא‎), the latter with the original Pathaḥ on account of the following ר‎, and identical with the 3rd sing. masc. of the imperf. consec. Hiphʿîl, 2 Kings 11:4.

(d) Examples of verbs primae gutturalis (§ 63), and at the same time ל״ה‎, are וַיַּ֫עַשׂ‎, in pause וַיָּ֫עַשׂ‎ and he made, from עָשָׂה‎; וַיַּ֫עַן‎ and he answered, from עָנָה‎ (always identical with the corresponding forms in Hiphʿîl), וַיַּ֫חַץ‎ and he divided, from חצה‎. On some similar forms of פ״א‎ see §76d.—In the following cases the initial (hard) guttural does not affect the form: וַיִּ֫חַר‎ and he was wroth, וַיִּ֫חַן‎ and he encamped (3rd plur. וַיִַּֽחֲנוּ‎), יִ֫חַדְּ‎ (with Dageš lene and Še) let it rejoice, Job 3:6; cf. Exodus 18:9.—On וַיִּז‎, וְיֵז‎, וַיֵּט‎ (ל״ה‎ as well as פ״ן‎), &c., see §76b, c, f.

(e) The verbs הָיָה‎ to be, and חָיָה‎ to live, of which the shortened imperfects ought to be yihy and yiḥy, change these forms to יְהִי‎ and יְחִי‎, the second Yôdh being resolved into î at the end of the word; but in pause (§29n) יֶ֫הִי‎, יֶ֫תִי‎, with the original ă modified to Seghôl with the tone (cf. also nouns like בְּכִי‎ for bakhy. in pause בֶּ֫כִי‎; עֳנִי‎ for ‛ŏny, &c., §84ac, and §93x). For תֶּ֫שִׁי‎, however, in Deuteronomy 32:18, since no verb שָׁיָה‎ exists, we must read either תֵּשׁ‎, or better תִּשֶּׁה‎ (Samaritan תשא‎), as imperfect Qal of נָשָׁה‎ to forget.—Analogous to יְהִי‎ from הָיָה‎, there occurs once, from הָוָה‎ to be, the form יְהוּא‎ for יְהוּ‎ he will be, Ecclesiastes 11:3, but no doubt הוּא‎ is the right reading.

The full forms (without apocope of the ־ֶה‎, cf. §49c) not infrequently occur after wāw consecutive, especially in the 1st pers. and in the later books, e.g. וָֽאֶרְאֶה‎ and I saw, twenty times, and Joshua 7:21 in Kethîbh, but never in the Pentateuch (וָאֵ֫רֶא‎ fifteen times, of which three are in the Pent.); also in the 3rd pers. וַיִּרְאֶה‎ Ezekiel 18:28, Job 42:16 Qere; וַיַּֽעֲשֶׂה‎ and he made, four times (but וַיַּ֫עַשׂ‎ over 200 times); cf. also Judges 19:2 (וַתִּזְנֶה‎); 1 Kings 10:29 (וַתַּֽעֲלֶה‎); Deuteronomy 1:16 (וָֽאֲצַוֶּה‎), and Genesis 24:48. So also occasionally for the jussive, cf. Genesis 1:9, Genesis 41:34, Jeremiah 28:6.—For the well attested, but meaningless תִּֽירְאוּ‎ Job 6:21 (doubtless caused by the following וַתִּירָֽאוּ‎), read תִּרְאוּ‎ ye see, with Ginsburg.

4. The original י‎ sometimes appears even before afformatives beginning with a vowel (cf. above, h and l), especially in and before the pause, and before the full plural ending ־וּן‎, or where for any reason an emphasis rests on the word. Perfect חָסָ֫יָה‎ Psalms 57:2, חָסָ֫יוּ‎ Deuteronomy 32:37, cf. Psalms 73:2 Qe; imperative בְּעָ֫יוּ‎ Isaiah 21:12. Imperfect יֶאֱֽחָ֑יוּ‎ Job 16:22, Job 30:14 (without the pause, Psalms 68:32); יִשְׁלָ֫יוּ‎ Psalms 122:6, Job 12:6, cf. Psalms 77:4; יִרְבְּיֻן‎ Deuteronomy 8:13; Psalms 36:9: more frequently like יִשְׁתָּיוּן‎ Psalms 78:44; Isaiah 17:12, Isaiah 21:12, Isaiah 26:11, Isaiah 31:3, Isaiah 33:7, Isaiah 41:5, Psalms 36:8, Psalms 39:7, Psalms 83:3; before a suffix, Job 3:25. Also in Proverbs 26:7 דָּֽלְיוּ‎, as perf. Qal from דָּלָה‎, was perhaps originally intended, but hardly דָּלָ֫יוּ‎, since these full forms, though they may stand out of pause, do not begin sentences; דַּ֫לְיוּ‎ probably points to דַּ֫לּוּ‎ from דָּלַל‎ as the right reading, since the sense requires an intransitive verb. Cf. further, v, x, dd, gg.

5. The participle active (cf. Vollers, ‘Das Qâtil-Partizipium,’ ZA. 1903, p. 312 ff., and on the participles of ל״ה‎, ibid., p. 316 ff.), besides feminine forms like עֹלָה‎ Judges 20:31, &c., רֹאָה‎ Proverbs 20:12, has also a feminine which retains the 3rd radical י‎, viz. בּֽוֹכִיָּה‎ ( =בֹּכָה‎) weeping, Lamentations 1:16; הֽוֹמִיָּה‎ tumultuous, Isaiah 22:2 (plur. Proverbs 1:21); צֽוֹפִיָּה‎ spying, Proverbs 31:27, פֹּֽרִיָּה‎ fruitful, Psalms 128:3, plur. אֹֽתִיּוֹת‎ the things that are to come, Isaiah 41:23. With the ordinary strong inflexion י‎ appears in עֹֽטְיָה‎ Song of Solomon 1:7, but perhaps there also עֹֽטִיָּה‎ was intended, unless it should be טֹֽעִיָּה‎ a wanderer. For רֹאָ֫נִי‎ Isaiah 47:10, רֹאֵ֫נִי‎ is to be read.—On עשֵֹׁה‎ 1 Kings 20:40 for עשֶֹׁה‎, cf. §116g, note.—In the participle passive the 3rd radical still sometimes appears as ו‎ (§24b), cf. עָשׂוּ‎ made, Job 41:25, צָפוּ‎ Job 15:22, contracted from עָשׂוּו‎, צָפוּו‎; and before a formative ending, it even has its consonantal sound, העשוום‎ (read הָֽעֲשׂוּוִם‎) 2 Kings 23:4; עשוות‎ (read asûwôth) 1 Samuel 25:18 Kethîbh, נטוות‎ (read neṭûwôth) Isaiah 3:16 Kethîbh. The shortening of the ûin רְאֻיּוֹת‎ Esther 2:9 is irregular.

6. The defective writing is rare in such forms as וְהָיִ֫תָ‎ 2 Samuel 15:33; בָּנִ֫תִי‎ 1 Kings 8:44, cf. 1 Kings 9:3; וַתִּדְלֶ֫נָה‎ Exodus 2:16 (cf. Jeremiah 18:21, Jeremiah 48:6, 1 Chronicles 7:15, Job 17:5, &c.), and the pronunciation תִּרְאֶ֫ינָּה‎ Micah 7:10, cf. תַּֽעֲנֶ֑נָּה‎ Judges 5:29 (unless they are sing. with suff. of the 3rd sing. fem.). Both cases are probably to be explained according to §20i.

II. On Niphʿal.

7. Here the forms with ־ֵי‎ in the 1st and 2nd pers. sing. of the perfect predominate ־ִי‎ only in נִקִּ֫יתָ‎ Genesis 24:8); on the other hand in the 1st plur, always ־ִי‎, as נִגְלִ֫ינוּ‎ 1 Samuel 14:8. No examples of the 2nd plur. occur.—With י‎ retained in pause נִטָּ֔יוּ‎ Numbers 24:6; once with an initial guttural נִֽחֲרוּ‎ Song of Solomon 1:6 for נֶֽחֱרוּ‎, probably arising from the ordinary strong form niḥru, but the harshness of ח‎ immediately followed by ר‎ is avoided by pronouncing the ח‎ with Ḥaṭeph-Pathaḥ.—In the 3rd sing. fem. נִשְׁתָּֽוָה‎ Proverbs 27:15 (in pause for נִשְׁתְּוָה‎) ו‎ and ת‎ may be transposed for euphonic reasons; but probably we should simply read נִשְׁוָ֫תָה‎.—Among Niphʿal forms of ל״ה‎ must be classed, with Buxtorf and others (cf. Nöldeke, ZDMG. xxx. 185), נַֽאֲנָה‎ from אָוָה‎, not Pi‛lel of נאה‎ = נאו‎; hence, according to §23d, נָאווּ‎ they are beautiful (for נַֽאֲווּ‎) Isaiah 52:7, Song of Solomon 1:10; but in Psalms 93:5, where Baer requires נָֽאֲוָה‎, read נַֽאֲנָה‎ with ed. Mant., Ginsb.

8. The apocope of the imperfect causes no further changes beyond the rejection of the ־ֶה‎, e.g. יִגָּל‎ from יִגָּלֶה‎; in one verb middle guttural, however, a form occurs with the Qameṣ shortened to Pathaḥ, viz. יִמַּח‎ (for יִמָּח‎) Psalms 109:13, as in verbs ע״ע‎; but in pause תִּמָּֽח‎ verse 14. Cf. bb.—The infinitive absolute נִגְלוֹת‎ emphasizing an infinitive construct, 2 Samuel 6:20, is very extraordinary; probably it is a subsequent correction of an erroneous repetition of הגלות‎.—The infin. constr. לְחֵֽרָאֹה‎ occurs in Judges 13:21, 1 Samuel 3:21 for לְהֵֽרָאֹת‎; cf. above, n.—On the infinitive Niphʿal with the ה‎ elided, see §51l.—The irregular תֵּֽעֲלוּ‎ Ezekiel 36:3 has probably arisen from a combination of the readings תַּֽעֲלוּ‎ (Qal) and תֵּֽעָלוּ‎ (Niphʿal). Similarly the solecism נְמִבְזָה‎ 1 Samuel 15:9 might be due to a combination of the participle fem. Niphʿal (נִבְּזָה‎, cf. נַחְלָה‎, נֶחְפָּה‎, נַֽעֲשָׂח‎) with the Hophʿal (מֻבְזָה‎); but it is more correct, with Wellhausen, to explain the מ‍‎ from a confusion with נמס‎ and to read, in fact, נִבְזָח וְנִמְאָ֫סָת‎.

III. On Piʿēl, Pôʿēl, Puʿal, and Hithpaʿēl.

9. In the 1st and 2nd persons of the perfect Piʿēl the second syllable in most of the instances has ־ִי‎ on the analogy of Qal (see f), as דִּמִּ֫יתָ‎, קִוִּ֫יתִי‎; always so in the first plur., and before suffixes, e.g. כִּסִּ֫ינוּ‎ Genesis 37:26, דִּכִּיתָ֫נוּ‎ Psalms 44:20. The form with ־ֵי‎ is found only in the 1st sing. (e.g. Joel 4:21; Isaiah 5:4, Isaiah 8:17 along with the form with î). On the tone of the perf. consec. Pi‛el of ל״ה‎, see §49k.—Hithpaʿēl has (besides ־ֵי‎ Jeremiah 17:16) as a rule ־ִי‎ (Proverbs 24:10, 1 Kings 2:26, Jeremiah 50:24). On the other hand, Puʿal always has ־ֵי‎, e.g. עֻשֵּׂ֫יתִי‎ Psalms 139:15.—A 1st sing. perfect Pô‛ēl שׁוֹשֵׂ֫תִי‎ ( =שׁוֹוסֵיתִי‎) occurs in Isaiah 10:13.

10. The infinitive absolute Piʿēl takes the form כַּלֵּה‎, קַוֵּה‎ (like קַטֵּל‎, the more frequent form even in the strong verb, see §52o); with ô only in Psalms 40:2 קַוֹּה‎; with ôth Habakkuk 3:13 עָרוֹת‎ (cf. above, n). On הֹגוֹ‎ and הֹרוֹ‎, infinitives absolute of the passive of Qal, not of Pô‛ēl, see above, n.—As infinitive construct חַכֵּי‎ occurs in Piʿēl, Hosea 6:9 (only orthographically different from חַכֵּה‎, if the text is correct); לְכַלֵּא‎ Daniel 9:24 (on the א‎ see rr); עַד־לְכַלֵּה‎ 2 Chronicles 24:10, 2 Chronicles 31:1, for which in 2 Kings 13:1719, Ezra 9:14 עד־כַּלֵּה‎ with infin. abs.; in Puʿal עֻנּוֹת‎ Psalms 132:1.

11. The apocopated imperfect must (according to §20l) lose the Dageš forte of the second radical, hence וַיְצַו‎ and he commanded, תְּעַר‎ (for תְּעָרֶה‎=te‛arrè) Psalms 141:8; cf. Genesis 24:20; even in the principal pause אַל־תְּגַֽל‎ Proverbs 25:9; Hithpaʿēl וַיִּתְגַּל‎ and he uncovered himself, Genesis 9:21; תִּתְרַע‎ Proverbs 22:24; cf. Psalms 37:178. With the lengthening of Pathaḥ to Qameṣ, וַיְתָו‎ and he made marks, 1 Samuel 21:14 (but read with Thenius וַיָּ֫תָף‎, and instead of the meaningless וַיְשַׁנּוֹ‎ ibid. read וַיְשַׁן‎). In Hithpaʿēl אַל־תִּתְגָּר‎, in close connexion, Deuteronomy 2:919; תִּשְׁתָּע‎ Isaiah 41:10; according to Qimḥi also יִתְאָו‎, תִּתְאָו‎ Psalms 45:12, Proverbs 23:36, Proverbs 24:1, 1 Chronicles 11:17, whilst Baer and Ginsburg read with the best authorities יִתְאַו‎, תִּתְאַו‎ (but cf. König, Lehrgeböude, i. 597).[5]—On אֲחַוְךָ‎ Job 15:17 (for אֲחַוְּךָ‎) cf. §20m; on אּכָלְךָ‎ Exodus 33:3, see §27q; on יְרַד‎ Judges 5:13, see §69g. Finally, on דַּלְיוּ‎, which is referred to Piʿēl by some, as a supposed imperative, see above, u.

12. Examples of apocopated imperatives in Piʿēl and Hithpaʿēl are: צַו‎, also צַוֵּה‎ command thou, גַּל‎ open thou, Psalms 119:1822; מַן‎ prepare thou, Psalms 61:8; נַס‎ for נַסֵּה‎ prove thou, Daniel 1:12; הִתְחָ֑ל‎ feign thyself sick, 2 Samuel 13:5; cf. Deuteronomy 2:24.—On רַבֶּה‎ Judges 9:29, cf. §48l.—In Psalms 137:7 עָ֫רוּ‎ rase it, is found twice instead of עָר֫וּ‎ (for ‛arrû) for rhythmical reasons (cf., however, וִיעָ֫רוּ‎ in the imperfect, 2 Chronicles 24:11).

13. Examples of forms in which the Yôdh is retained are the imperfects תְּדַמְּיוּן‎ Isaiah 40:18, cf. verse 25 and Isaiah 46:5; יְכַסְיֻמ֑וּ‎ they cover them, Exodus 15:5; participle Puʿal מְמֻֽחָיִם‎ Isaiah 25:6; for אֲרַיָּ֫וֶךְ‎ Isaiah 16:9 (from רָוָה‎) read with Margolis, אֲרַוַּ֫יִךְ‎.

IV. On Hiphʿîl and Hophʿal.

14. The 3rd sing.perfect Hiphʿîl sometimes has Seghôl in the first syllable instead of ĭ (§53p), especially in הֶגְלָה‎ (but perfect consecutive וְהִגְלָה‎ 2 Kings 24:14), הֶרְאָה‎, הֶלְאָה‎; also with suffixes, e.g. הֶגְלָם‎ 1 Chronicles 8:7, הָלְאָ֑נִי‎ Job 16:7, וְהֶפְדָּהּ‎ Exodus 21:8. The Seghôl also occurs in the 1st sing., e.g. הָלְאֵתִ֫יךָ‎ Micah 6:3. On וְהַרְאֵיתִי‎ Nahum 3:5, cf. §53p. The forms with ê in the second syllable (also written defectively, as וְהִכֵּתִ֫י‎ Jeremiah 21:6) are found throughout in the 1st sing. (except Proverbs 5:13), rarely in the 2nd sing. masc., and never in the 1st plur. In the other persons they are about equally common with î, except in the 2nd plur., where î predominates. Before suffixes the forms with î predominate throughout; cf., however, ê in Exodus 4:12, Micah 6:3, Proverbs 4:11. On the tone of the perf. consec. Hiph. of ל״ה‎, see §49k. In Hophʿal only ־ֵי‎ occurs in the 2nd syllable.

15. In the infinitive Hiphʿîl of רָבָה‎ to be abundant, besides the construct הַרְבּוֹת‎ we find the absolute הַרְבָּה‎ taking the place of the common form הַרְבֵּה‎, which had come to be used invariably (but König calls attention to its use as infinitive construct in Ezekiel 21:20) as an adverb, in the sense of much; in 2 Samuel 14:11 the Qe requires הַרְבַּת‎ for the Kethîbh הַרְבִּית‎, an evident scribal error for הַרְבּוֹת‎. Cf. Genesis 41:49, Genesis 22:17, Deuteronomy 28:63; the pointing הַרְבֶּה‎ Jeremiah 42:2 probably arises from regarding this form as a noun.—On הַמְּרוֹת‎ Job 17:2 (with Dageš f. dirimens) see §20h.—In 2 Kings 3:24 הַכּוֹת‎ (before א‎) is probably infinitive absolute, used in order to avoid the hiatus, cf. §113x, and on a similar case in Qal, see above, n.—On the infinitives with elision of the ה‎, cf. §53q.

16. The shortened imperfect Hiphʿîl either takes no helping vowel, as יַפְתְּ‎ let him enlarge, Genesis 9:27; יַרְדְּ‎ he shall subdue, Isaiah 41:2; וַיַּשְׁקְ‎ and he watered, Genesis 29:10, &c.; וַיַּרְא‎ and he showed, 2 Kings 11:4 (see §28d): or else has a helping vowel, as יֶ֫גֶל‎ (for יַ֫גֶל‎, see §27r), e.g. 2 Kings 18:11; וַיֶּ֫פֶר‎ Psalms 105:24; וַתֶּ֫מֶר‎ Ezekiel 5:6; וַיֶּ֫תַע‎ 2 Chronicles 33:9; וארב‎ i.e. probably וָאֶ֫רֶב‎ Joshua 24:3 Kethîbh (וָאַֽרְבֶּה‎ Qe).—Examples of verbs first guttural: וַיַּ֫עַל‎ Numbers 23:2, וָאַ֫עַל‎, &c., which can be distinguished as Hiphʿîl from the similar forms in Qal only by the sense.—The apocopated imperative Hiphʿîl always (except in verbs פ״ן‎, e.g. הַךְ‎, הַט‎, §76c) has a helping vowel, Seghôl or Pathaḥ, e.g. הֶ֫רֶב‎ increase thou (for harb, הַרְבֵּה‎) Psalms 51:4 Qe, also Judges 20:38; where, however, it cannot be explained the text stands; הֶ֫רֶף‎ let alone (for הַרְףְּ‎, הַרְפֵּה‎ Deuteronomy 9:14, &c.; הַ֫עַל‎ (for הַֽעֲלֵה‎) Exodus 8:1, Exodus 33:12; but for הָשַׁע‎ Psalms 39:14, which could only be imperative Hiphʿîl of שָׁעַע‎ (=smear over, as in Isaiah 6:10), read with Baethgen שְׁעֵה‎ look away.—The imperfect Hiphʿîl with Yôdh retained occurs only in תּוֹגְיוּן‎ Job 19:2, from יָגָה‎. Cf. u.
V. In General.

17. In Aramaic the imperfect and participle of all the conjugations terminate in ־ֵא‎ or ־ֵי‎. The Hebrew infinitives, imperatives, and imperfects in ־ֵה‎, less frequently ־ֵא‎ or ־ֵי‎, may be due to imitation of these forms. On the infinitive construct Piʿēl חַכֵּי‎, see above, aa; imperative Qal הֱוֵא‎ Job 37:6 (in the sense of fall); imperfect יֵרֵא‎ let him look out, Genesis 41:33 (but see above, p); יַֽעֲשֵׂה‎ he will do, Isaiah 64:3; אַל־תִּֽהְיֵה‎ Jeremiah 17:17; אַל־תֹּבֵא‎ consent thou not, Proverbs 1:10; אַל־תַּֽעֲשֵׂה‎ do thou not, 2 Samuel 13:12 (the same form in Genesis 26:29, Joshua 7:9, Jeremiah 40:16 Qe); אֶֽהְיֵה‎ (so Baer and Ginsburg, after cod. Hillel, &c.) I will be, Jeremiah 31:1; וַנַּֽעֲשֵׂה‎ Joshua 9:24; תִּרְאֵה‎ Daniel 1:13. Cf. also in Niphʿal יִמָּצֵה‎ Leviticus 5:9; תִּבָּנֵה‎ (according to Qimḥi) Numbers 21:27; in Piʿēl תְּגַלֵּה‎ Leviticus 18:7812821117, Leviticus 20:19, in each case לֹא תְגַלֵּה֑‎, beside תְּגַלֶּה‎ with a minor distinctive; יֲנַקֵּ֑ה‎ (Baer יְנַפֶּה‎) Nahum 1:3; אֱזָרֵה‎ Ezekiel 5:12 (with Zaqeph; Baer אֱזָרֶה‎). The fact, however, that a great number of these forms occur in pause and represent at the same time a jussive or voluntative (Joshua 7:9), suggests the view that the Ṣere is used merely to increase the emphasis of the pausal form, and at the same time to make a distinction in sound between the jussive or voluntative and the ordinary imperfect.[6] Elsewhere (Genesis 26:29, Leviticus 5:9, Jeremiah 40:16, Daniel 1:13; according to Baer also Micah 7:10, Zechariah 9:5) the pronunciation with ê is probably intended to soften the hiatus caused by a following א‎ or ע‎; cf. the analogous cases above, §74l.

The ending ־ִי‎ appears to stand for ־ֶה‎ in the imperfect Qal in וַתִּזְנִי־שָׁם‎ and there hath she played the harlot, Jeremiah 3:6; perhaps, however, the 2nd sing. fem. is intended, or it may have been introduced into the text of Jeremiah from Ezekiel 16:15, &c. Still more strange is it in the imperfect Hiphʿîl אַל־תֶּ֑מְתִי‎ Jeremiah 18:23; but the Mil‛ēl-tone probably points to תֶּ֫מַח‎ as the correct reading (cf. Nehemiah 13:14). The ־ִי‎ stands for ־ָה‎ in the perfect Hiphʿîl הֶֽחֱלִי‎ he made sick, Isaiah 53:10, which is probably for החליא‎ from חלא‎, a secondary form of חלה‎; see rr. The plur. הִמְסִיו‎ (Baer הִמְסִיוְ‎) they made to melt, Joshua 14:8, is a purely Aramaic form.

18. In two verbs the rare conjugation Pa‛lēl or its reflexive (§55d) occurs: מְטַֽחֲוֵי‎ archers, Genesis 21:16 (from טָחָה‎); but most frequently in שָׁחָה‎ to bend, Pa‛lēl שַֽׁחֲוָה‎ not in use, whence reflexive הִשְׁתַּֽחֲוָה‎ to bow oneself, to prostrate oneself, 2nd pers. in ־ִ֫ יתָ‎ and 1st pers. in ־ֵ֫ יתִי‎, imperfect יִשְׁתַּֽחֲוֶה‎, consecutive 3rd sing. masc. וַיִּשְׁתַּ֫חוּ‎ for wayyištaḥw (analogous to the noun-forms, like שָׂ֫חוּ‎ for saḥw); 3rd plur. יִשְׁתַּֽחֲווּ‎.—Instead of the aramaizing infinitive with suffix בְּהִשְׁתַּֽחֲיָיָֽתִי‎ 2 Kings 5:18 read with König בְּהִשְׁתַּֽחֲווֹתִי‎; in Ezekiel 8:16 מִשְׁתַּֽחֲוִיתֶם‎ is still more certainly a scribal error for מִשְׁתַּֽחֲוִים‎.

19. Before suffixes in all forms ending in ה‎, a connecting vowel is employed instead of the ה‎ and the connecting vowel which precedes it (§58f), e.g. נָחַ֫נִי‎ Genesis 24:27; in pause עָנָ֫נִי‎ 1 Kings 2:30, &c., even with lesser disjunctives, Psalms 118:5, Proverbs 8:22, or with a conjunctive accent, 1 Samuel 28:15 (but Baer עָנַ֫נִי‎), Job 30:19; cf. §59h; עָֽנְךָ֫‎, in pause עָנָךְ‎, Isaiah 30:19 (and even when not in pause Jeremiah 23:37) or like קָנֶ֫ךָ‎ Deuteronomy 32:6; וְיַרְבֶּ֑ךָ‎, וְיַפְרְךָ‎ Genesis 28:3; cf. also עָנָ֫הוּ‎, עָנָם‎, imperfect יַֽעֲנֵ֫הוּ‎, יַֽעַנְךָ֫‎ Hiphʿîl הִכַּ֫נִי‎, הָֽעֶלְךָ֫‎, הִכֶּ֫הוּ‎.

Only very seldom does the imperat. or impf. end in ־ֵי‎ before suffixes, e.g. אַפְאֵיהֶם‎ Deuteronomy 32:26; יְכַסֵּ֫ימוֹ‎ Psalms 140:10 Qe; הַכֵּ֫ינִי‎ smite me, 1 Kings 20:3537; cf. Habakkuk 3:2, Isaiah 38:16. Even in these examples a return to the original ending ay might be assumed; but perhaps they are merely due to a less correct plene writing. In the 3rd sing. perf. fem. the older form גָּלַת‎ (see i) is always used before a suffix, e.g. כִּלַּ֫תּוּ‎ (for כִּלַּתְהוּ‎) Zechariah 5:4; in pause עָשָׂ֑תְנִי‎ Job 33:4; רָאָֽתְךָ‎ Job 42:5.

VI. The Relation between Verbs ל״ה‎ and ל״א

20. The close relation existing between verbs ל״א‎ and ל״ה‎ is shown in Hebrew by the fact that the verbs of one class often borrow forms from the other, especially in the later writers and the poets.

21. Thus there are forms of verbs ל״א‎

(a) Which have adopted the vowels of verbs ל״ה‎, e.g. perfect Qal כָּלִ֫אתִי‎ I have refrained, Psalms 119:101; participle חוֹטֶא‎ (חֹטֶא‎) sinning, Ecclesiastes 2:26, Ecclesiastes 8:12, Ecclesiastes 9:218; cf. Isaiah 65:20; מוֹצֶא‎ Ecclesiastes 7:26; נשֶׁא‎ lending, 1 Samuel 22:2; Piʿēl perfect מִלָּא‎ he has filled, Jeremiah 51:34; cf. 1 Kings 9:11, Amos 4:2 (where, however, the perfect Niph. is perhaps intended), Psalms 89:11, Psalms 143:3; רִפִּ֫אתִו‎ I heal, 2 Kings 2:21; cf. Jeremiah 51:9; imperfect יְגַמֶּא‎ Job 39:24; Niphʿal perfect נִפְלְאַ֫תָה‎ (like נִגְלְתֶה‎) it was wonderful, 2 Samuel 1:26; Hiphʿîl perfect הִפְלָא‎ Deuteronomy 28:59; תֶחְבְּאַ֫תָה‎ (not ־אָ֫תָה‎, cf. above, 2 Samuel 1:26) she hid, Joshua 6:17. On the other hand, forms like חֹטִאים‎ 1 Samuel 14:33, קֹרִאים‎ Psalms 99:6, נִרְפּאוּ‎ Ezekiel 47:8, תְּדַכּאוּנַ֫נִי‎, according to the correct reading, Job 19:2 (cf. Genesis 31:39 אֲחַטֶּ֫נָה‎), and יְראוּ‎ imperative plur. masc. from יָרֵא‎ Joshua 24:14, 1 Samuel 12:24, Psalms 34:10, are due to the elision of the א‎, see §74i. On יִנָּשׂוּא‎ Jeremiah 10:5 and נָשׂוּא‎ Psalms 139:20, see §23i.

(b) Forms in ה‎, but keeping their ל״א‎ vowels, e.g. imperfect Qal אֶרְפָּה‎ Jeremiah 3:22; imperative רְפָה‎ heal thou, Psalms 60:4; Niphʿal; נֶחְבָּה‎ Jeremiah 49:10 (which must evidently be a perfect; read with Ewald the infinitive absolute נֶחְבֹּה‎ as in verse 23), and הֵחָבֵה‎ to hide oneself, 1 Kings 22:25, cf. Jeremiah 19:11; Piʿēl imperfect יְמַלֵּה‎ he will fill, Job 8:21.

(c) Forms entirely of a ל״ה‎ character, e.g. perfect Qal וְצֶמִת‎ and when thou art athirst, Ruth 2:9, cf. 2 Samuel 3:8; כָּלוּ‎ they shut up, 1 Samuel 6:10; cf. 1 Samuel 25:33; מָלוּ‎ they are full, Ezekiel 28:16, cf. Ezekiel 39:26; infinitive חֲטוֹ‎ (see above, n) to sin, Genesis 20:6 (on מְלֹאת‎ see above, §74h); imperative sing. fem. חֲבִי‎ Isaiah 26:20; imperfect יִכְלֶה‎ (for יִכְלָא‎) he will keep back, Genesis 23:6; תִּרְפֶּ֫ינָה‎ they heal, Job 5:18; participle בּוֹוטֶה‎ Proverbs 12:18; fem. יׄצָא‎ Ecclesiastes 10:5; plur. צֹבֶ֫יהָ‎ Isaiah 29:7; participle passive נָשׂוּי‎ Psalms 32:1; Niphʿal נִרְפָּ֫תָה‎ Jeremiah 51:9; נִבֵּ֫יתָ‎ thou hast prophesied, Jeremiah 26:9 (cf. Psalms 139:14, Job 18:3); imperfect וַיֵּרָֽפוּ‎ 2 Kings 2:22 (infinitive Jeremiah 19:11); Piʿēl imperfect וַיְרַפּוּ‎ Jeremiah 8:11, cf. Genesis 31:39; Hiphʿîl participle מַקְנֶה‎ Ezekiel 8:3; Hithpa‛el הִתְנַבִּ֫יתָ‎ 1 Samuel 10:6; infinitive הִתְנַבּוֹת‎ 1 Samuel 10:13. For the Kethîbh להשות‎ 2 Kings 19:25, Jablonski and others require as Qe the form לְהַשְׁאוֹת‎ (so Isaiah 37:26); the Kethîbh would have to be read לַהְשׁוֹת‎, with elision of the א‎ and retraction of the vowel.

22. On the other hand, there are forms of verbs ל״ה‎, which wholly or in part follow the analogy of verbs ל״א‎, e.g. in their consonants אָתָא‎ he comes, Isaiah 21:12; בָּרָא‎ 2 Samuel 12:17 (textus receptus בָּרָה‎); וְרָצִ֫אתִי‎ Ezekiel 43:27; יִשְׂגֶּא‎ Job 8:11; יִשְׁנֶא‎ Lamentations 4:1; וַיֶּֽחֶלֶא‎ 2 Chronicles 16:12; תִּקְרֶ֫אנָה‎ Exodus 1:10, Leviticus 10:19; תְּלֻאִים‎ Deuteronomy 28:66 (cf. Hosea 11:7); נִקְרֹא‎ (infin. absol. Niphʿal beside נִקְרֵ֫יתִי‎) 2 Samuel 1:6; שִׁנָּא‎ 2 Kings 25:29; מְרַפֵּא‎ Jeremiah 38:4; יְשֻׁנֶּא‎ Ecclesiastes 8:1: in their vowels, אָתָ֫נוּ‎ Jeremiah 3:22; יִקְרָה‎ Daniel 10:14; תִּכְלָה‎ 1 Kings 17:14: in both, יִקְרָא‎ Genesis 49:1; cf. Genesis 42:4, Isaiah 51:19; תְּלָאוּם‎ 2 Samuel 21:12 Qe; לִירוֹא‎ 2 Chronicles 26:15 (cf. ויראו המוראים‎ 2 Samuel 11:24 Kethîbh); מֹֽרְאָה‎ (participle fem. Qal) Zephaniah 3:1; יַפְרִיא‎ Hosea 13:15; מְסֻלָּאִים‎ Lamentations 4:2.—For פֹּרֹאות‎ (so Baer, Ezekiel 17:6, cf. Ezekiel 31:8), which can only be intended for פֹּֽרְאוֹת‎ participle fem. plur. from פָּרָא‎=פָּרָה‎, read פֹּארוֹת‎ branches, according to Ezekiel 31:5, &c.

  1. According to Wellheusen, ‘Ueber einige Arten schwacher Verbs‘ in his Skizzen, vi. p. 255 ff., the ל״ה‎ verbs, apart from some true ל״ו‎ and some probable ל״י‎, are to be regarded as originally biliteral. To compensate for their arrested development they lengthened the vowel after the 2nd radical, as the ע״ו‎ verbs did after the 1st radical. But although there is much to be said for this view, it fails to explain pausal forms like חָסָ֫יָה‎ (see u). It seems impossible that these should all be late formations.
  2. In the Mêšaʿ inscription, line 5, ויענו‎ and he oppressed occurs as 3rd sing. masc. imperfect Piʿēl, and in line 6, אענו‎ I will oppress as 1st sing.
  3. In the Siloam inscription also (see above, §2d), line 3, הית‎ may be read הָיָת‎ quite as well as [ה‎]הָֽיְתָ‎.
  4. All these infinitives construct in ô, in the Pentateuch, belong to the document called E; cf. §69m, second note.
  5. In Numbers 34:7 f., according to verse 10, תִּתְאַוֻּ‎ (=תִּתְאַוּוּ‎) is intended to be read for תְּתָאוּ‎ (imperfect Piʿēl from תָּאָה‎).
  6. Possibly these examples (like the eases of Seghôl in pause, see n) represent the view of a particular Masoretic school, which was intended to be consistently carried out.
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