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Bible Lexicons

Gesenius Hebrew Grammer

Part 76

§76. Verbs Doubly Weak.

1. In a tolerably large number of verbs two radicals are weak letters, and are consequently affected by one or other of the anomalies already described. In cases where two anomalies might occur, usage must teach whether one, or both, or neither of them, takes effect.

Thus e.g. from נָדַד‎ to flee, the imperfect is יִדּוֹד‎ in Nahum 3:7 and יִדַּד‎ in Genesis 31:40 (on the analogy of verbs פ״ן‎); Hiphʿîl הֵנֵד‎ (like a verb ע״ע‎), but the imperfect Hophʿal again יֻדַּד‎ (as פ״ן‎).

2. The following are examples of difficult forms, which are derived from doubly weak verbs:

(a) Verbs פ״ן‎ and ל״א‎ (cf. § 66 and § 74), e.g. נָשָׂא‎ to bear, imperative שָׂא‎ (Psalms 10:12 נְשָׂא‎, of which נְסָה‎ Psalms 4:7 is probably only an orthographic variation); infinitive construct שְׂאֵת‎ (for שָׂ֫אֶת‎; see the analogous noun-formations in §93t), also נְשׂא‎ Isaiah 1:14, Isaiah 18:3; Genesis 4:13 נְשׂוֹא‎; Psalms 89:10 שׂוֹא‎ (perhaps only a scribal error); after the prefix ל‎ always לָשֵׂאת‎ (otherwise the contracted form only occurs in מִשֵּׂתוֹ‎ Job 41:17, with rejection of the א‎); imperfect תִּשֶּׂ֫נָה‎ for תִּשֶּׂ֫אנָה‎ Ruth 1:14; wholly irregular are תִּשְּׂאֶ֫ינָה‎ Ezekiel 23:49 (so Baer after Qimḥi; textus receptus, and also the Mantua ed., and Ginsburg, תִּשֶּׂ֫אינָה‎) and נִשֵּׂאת‎ 2 Samuel 19:43 as infinitive absolute Niphʿal (on the analogy of the infinitive construct Qal?); but most probably נִשּׂא‎ is to be read, with Driver.

(b) Verbs פ״ן‎ and ל״ה‎ (cf. § 66 and § 75), as נָטָה‎ to bow, to incline, נָכָה‎ to smite. Hence imperfect Qal יִטֶּה‎, apocopated וַיֵּט‎ (Genesis 26:25 וַיֶּט־‎) and he bowed; וַיִּז‎ (so, probably, also Isaiah 63:3 for וְיֵּז‎) 2 Kings 9:33 and he sprinkled (from נָזָה‎); perfect Hiphʿîl הִכָּה‎ he smote, imperfect יַכֶּה‎, apocopated יַךְ‎, וַיַּךְ‎ (even with Athnaḥ 2 Kings 15:16; but also ten times וַיַּכֶּה‎), וַנַּךְ‎ Deuteronomy 2:33; so also וַיַּז‎ Leviticus 8:1130; אַל־תַּט‎ Psalms 141:4 (cf. Job 23:11); imperative הַכֵּה‎, apocopated הַךְ‎ smite thou (like הַט‎ incline, with הַטֵּה‎), infinitive הַכּוֹת‎, participle מַכֶּה‎; Hophʿal הֻכֶּה‎, participle מֻכֶּה‎.

(c) Verbs פ״א‎ and ל״ה‎ (cf.§ 68 and § 75), as אָבָה‎ to be willing, אָפָה‎ to bake, אָתָה‎ to come. E.g. imperfect Qal יֹאבֶה‎, יֹאפֶה‎, plur. יֹאפוּ‎; וַיֵּתֵא‎ (cf. §68h) Deuteronomy 33:21 for וַיֵּאתֶה‎ (=וַיּאֱֽתֶה‎); imperfect apocopated וַיַּאת‎ Isaiah 41:25 for וַיַּאְתְּ‎; imperative אֵתָ֫יוּ‎ Isaiah 21:12, Isaiah 56:912 (cf. אֵפוּ‎ bake ye, Exodus 16:23) for אֱתוּ‎, אֱתָ֫יוּ‎ (§23h; §75u); Hiphʿîl perfect הֵתָ֫יוּ‎ for הֵאתָ֫יוּ‎ (הֶֽאֱתָ֫יוּ‎) Isaiah 21:14; imperfect apocopated וַיֹּ֫אֶל‎ and he adjured, 1 Samuel 14:24, properly יַֽאֲלֶה‎ (יַאְלֶה‎) from אָלָה‎, whence יָאלֶה‎, and, with the obscuring to ô, יֹאלָה‎; instead of the simple apocope (וַיּאֹל‎) the א‎ which had already become quiescent, is made audible again by the helping Seghôl (unless perhaps there is a confusion with the imperfect consecutive Hiphʿîl of יאל‎).

(d) Verbs פ״י‎ and ל״א‎ (cf. § 69, § 70, and § 74), as יָצָא‎ to go forth, imperative צֵא‎ go forth, with ־ָה‎ paragogic צֵ֫אָה‎ Judges 9:29 in principal pause for צְאָה‎; 2nd fem. plur. צְאֶ֫נָה‎ Song of Solomon 3:11; infinitive צֵאת‎; Hiphʿîl הוֹצִיא‎ to bring forth.—יָרֵא‎ to fear, imperfect יִירָא‎ and וַיִּירָא‎ (or וַיּרָא‎), imperative יְרָא‎; imperfect Niphʿal יִוָּרֵא‎ Psalms 130:4, participle נוֹרָא‎.

(e) Verbs פ״י‎ and ל״ה‎ (cf. § 69, § 70, and § 75), e.g. יָדָה‎ to throw, Hiphʿîl to confess, to praise, and יָרָה‎ to throw (both properly verbs פ״ו‎), and יָפָה‎ to be beautiful. Infinitive יָרֹה‎, יְרוֹת‎; imperative יְרֵה‎; imperfect consecutive וַיִּיף‎ Ezekiel 31:7 (cf. also וַתִּ֫יפִי‎ Ezekiel 16:13); with suffixes וַנִּירָם‎ we have shot at them (from יָרָה‎) Numbers 21:30; perhaps, however, it should be read with the LXX וְנִינָם‎ and their race (also in the very corrupt passage Psalms 74:8 נִינָם‎ is probably a substantive, and not the imperfect Qal with suffix from יָנָה‎); Piʿēl; וַיַּדּוּ‎ for וַיְיַדּוּ‎, (§69u). Hiphʿîl הוֹדָה‎, הוֹרָה‎; infinitive הוֹדֹת‎ (as infinitive absolute 2 Chronicles 7:3); imperfect יוֹרֶה‎, cf. אַל־תֹּנוּ‎ Jeremiah 22:3; apocopated וַיּוֹר‎ 2 Kings 13:17.

(f) Verbs ע״וּ‎ and ל״א‎, particularly בּוֹא‎ to come. Perfect בָּא‎, בָּ֫אתָ‎, בָּ֫את‎ or בָּאתְ‎ (Genesis 16:8, 2 Samuel 14:3, Micah 4:10; cf. §75m), once בָּ֫נוּ‎ for בָּ֫אנוּ‎ 1 Samuel 25:8; for בֹּאוּ‎ Jeremiah 27:18, which is apparently the perfect, read יָבֹ֫אוּ‎. In the imperfect Qal the separating vowel occurs (תְּבֹאָ֫ינָה‎ instead of the more common תָּבֹ֫אנָה‎, cf. also תָּבֹ֫אןָ‎ Genesis 30:38) only in Jeremiah 9:16, Psalms 45:16, and 1 Samuel 10:7 Kethîbh.

For וַתָּבֹאת‎ 1 Samuel 25:34 Qe (the Kethîbh ותבאתי‎ evidently combines the two readings וּבָאתְ‎ and וַתָּבֹאִי‎; cf. Nestle, ZAW. xiv. 319), read וַתָּבֹ֫אִי‎; on the impossible forms Deuteronomy 33:16 and Job 22:21 cf. §48d.—In the perfect Hiphʿîl הֵבִיא‎, הֵבֵ֫אתָ‎ and (only before a suffix) הֲבִיאֹתָ‎; the latter form is also certainly intended in Numbers 14:31, where the Masora requires וְהֵֽבֵיאתִ֫י‎, cf. 2 Kings 9:2, 2 Kings 19:25, Isaiah 43:23) Jeremiah 25:13, Song of Solomon 3:4. Before suffixes the ē of the first syllable in the 3rd sing. always becomes Ḥaṭeph-Seghôl, e.g. הֱבִֽיאֲךָ‎, הֱבִיאַ֫נִי‎; elsewhere invariably Ḥaṭeph-Pathaḥ, e.g. הֲבֵאתָ֫נוּ‎ or הֲבִֽיאֹתָ֫נוּ‎. On the other hand, ē is retained in the secondary tone in the perfect consecutive when without suffixes, e.g. וְהֵֽבֵאתָ֫‎. Cf. moreover, וַֽהֲקֵאֹתוֹ‎ (וַֽהֲקֵאֹתוֹ‎ in Opitius and Hahn is altogether incorrect), Proverbs 25:16, from קִיא‎; but קְיוּ‎ spue ye, Jeremiah 25:27 (perhaps only a mistake for קִיאוּ‎), is not to be referred to קִיא‎ but to a secondary stem קָיָה‎. In the imperfect וַתָּקִא‎ is found once, Leviticus 18:25, besides וַיָּקֵא‎ (analogous to וַיָּבֵא‎).—On אָבִי‎ (for אָבִיא‎), מֵבִי‎, יָנִי‎, see §74k.

(g) The form חָיַי‎ to live, in the perfect Qal, besides the ordinary development to חָיָה‎ (fem. חָֽיְתָה‎), is also treated as a verb ע״ע‎, and then becomes חַי‎ in the 3rd pers. perfect, in pause חָי‎, and with wāw consecutive וָחַי‎ Genesis 3:22, and frequently. In Leviticus 25:36 the contracted form וְחֵי‎ is perhaps st. constr. of חַי‎ life, but in any case read וָחַי‎ perfect consecutive as in verse 35. The form וָחָ֫יָה‎ occurs in Exodus 1:16 in pause for וָחַ֫יָּה‎ (3rd fem.) with Dageš omitted in the י‎ on account of the pausal lengthening of ă to ā.

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